His name was Alan Turing. Most people still don’t know who he was. That must change. Turing was a prodigiously gifted British mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist. In fact, Turing is considered the father of computer science and artificial intelligence. He designed the programming of the world’s first commercial computer. He was also the inventor of the Turing Machine in 1935, a device which even to this day all digital computers are modeled on. Crucially, he was central to the building of The Bombe, an electro-mechanical machine which greatly helped in the breaking of the Enigma code used by the Nazi’s during World War Two. By 1942 his team was decoding up to 39,000 Enigma messages a month. This rose to 84,000, or about two messages decoded every minute.
Winston Churchill said that Turing’s work shortened the Second World War by at least two years, saving millions of lives. Turing also helped decode the Fish cipher used by the German High Command to transmit messages between Hitler and senior officers in the field. So Turing was an architect, many would say the architect, of the modern world - and he was living in it decades before the rest of us.
Alan Turing was homosexual. He was quite fearlessly homosexual in an era when it was still a crime. When it became known he lost his security clearance. In 1952 he was convicted of acts of ‘gross indecency.’ They gave him a choice between prison or a process they called 'chemical castration.’ The barbaric and pointless process of being injected with female hormones - it gave him female breasts, it rendered him impotent - proved so traumatic it eventually led to his suicide in 1954. He was 41.
Punching Nazis is okay because they are bad people and Nazis committed war crimes!!
Okay, understandable, but since it's okay to punch Nazis because they're bad people, does that mean I can punch Communists as well, because they committed just as many crimes against humanity as the Nazis, and most of them are bad people?
On my way home from a weekend in the Alps, we passed through Munich and I was able to visit Dachau Concentration Camp. I’ve wanted to see one in person since I was very young and began to learn about the Holocaust.
All these decades later and there’s still a heaviness in the air. The day I went was also very cold and rainy, which only served to underline the misery of the place.
Gate at the entrance to the camp. It means “Work makes you free” or “Work sets you free” (depending on the translation you find, I personally don’t speak fluent German).
The bunk beds, stacked 3 high, slept several people on each bed. The windows were single-paned and the walls were without insulation. Even in my heavy coat, boots, gloves, and scarf, it was freezing.
this day in 1945, the Nuremberg Trials of twenty-three Nazi war criminals
started at the Palace of Justice in Nuremberg. The trials were convened by
the victorious Allied forces of World War Two to settle the question of reparations, and, most importantly, to punish the leading figures of the Nazi regime responsible for atrocities during the conflict, including the systematic murder of six million Jews in the Holocaust. The set of trials which began on November 20th lasted
until October 1st 1946 and dealt with the surviving major war criminals including Reichsmarschall and Commander of the Luftwaffe Hermann Göring, Deputy
Führer Rudolf Hess, and Minister of Armaments Albert Speer. Twelve were
sentenced to death, seven imprisoned (three for life), and three acquitted. Several of the defendants, including Göring, committed suicide before their execution, emulating other leading Nazis like Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Joseph Goebbels, who committed suicide at the
end of the war.
“Opening the first trial in history against the peace of
the world imposes a grave responsibility. The wrongs which we seek to
condemn and punish have been so calculated, so malignant and so
devastating that civilisation cannot tolerate their being ignored because it cannot survive their being repeated” - The opening words of the Chief Prosecutor, US Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson’s, indictment
Greek Shepherds & their families from the region of Epirus Northwestern Greece.
Photos taken by the famous greek photographer Kostas Mpalafas (Pictured below, he was from Epirus himself and is one of the modern Epirotans who have fought through their work for Greek nation and has supported Independency of North Epirus) who died a few years ago. Mpalafas during WW2 was a partisan and he exchanged a gun he owned with a Canon camera from a dead german soldier. During WW2 he fought for Greece and the Greek Resistance and took photos of the atrocities and killings that took place in Epirus.Most of the photo sessions where very dangerous. After the end of war he travelled all around Greece in order to capture the majesty and diversity of the greek - hellenic people and their traditions. Even though his photos mostly from Epirus and also Karpathos island grew very famous he never got money from publishing the photos as he gave them to the publication company for free, because as he said he considered his photos part of the Greek history and culture and wants Greek children and Greek people to know the truth about their history,past and also about their legacy. He died at 92 after surviving a war, atrocities and hardships but also a beautiful lifetime with his big family. Kostas Mpalafas was known for his humbleness,creativity, courage and unending hope.
A war crimes investigation photo of the disfigured leg of a survivor from Ravensbrueck, Polish political prisoner Helena Hegier (Rafalska), who was subjected to medical experiments in 1942. This photograph was entered as evidence for the prosecution at the Medical Trial in Nuremberg. The disfiguring scars resulted from incisions made by medical personnel that were purposely infected with bacteria, dirt, and slivers of glass.
Pictured above is the Norwegian prime minister during world war 2, Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling. In 1940, after the German invasion he wished to be the prime minister, and hence he is the first in history to have tried a coupe d’etat over radio. This didn’t go very well, as the Germans didn’t support him at the time. He came back in 1942, supported by the Germans and got the title of minister-president, a title he shared with the german administrator of the occupied Norway.
After the war, in 1945, Quisling, along with two other Nazi-sympathizers that were vital to the german regime were sentenced to death by firing squad. He was found guilty of treason.
The documents pictured above are the documents from his trial, these include witness-statements, the state prosecutor’s lecture etc. These were only printed in a small circulation of 30-40 prints.
Physician Eugene Lazowski was practicing in the Polish town of Rozwadów. He would inject his healthy patients with dead bacteria which would then cause them to test positive for epidemic typhus without experiencing any symptoms or risks to their health.
With the help of a friend, Dr. Lazowski began injecting this dead bacteria into thousands of patients in the surrounding villages, creating the appearance of an epidemic.
Fearful of the contagion, the Nazis quarantined these villages rather than sending their residents to concentration camps.
Lazowski’s efforts saved an estimated 8,000 men, women, and children who would otherwise have been sent to the Nazi concentration camps.
Academics have rallied to the defence of one of the world’s leading Holocaust historians after reports that Poland intends to strip him of a national honour because he claimed that Poles were complicit in Nazi war crimes.