Ivan Aivazovsky

Battle of Sinop

Battle of Chios

Battle of Navarino

“One of the most prominent Russian artists of his time, Aivazovsky was also popular outside Russia. He held numerous solo exhibitions in Europe and the United States. During his almost sixty-year career, he created around 6,000 paintings, making him one of the most prolific artists of his time. The vast majority of his works are seascapes, but he often depicted battle scenes, Armenian themes, and portraiture. Most of Aivazovsky’s works are kept in Russian, Ukrainian and Armenian museums as well as private collections.”

Sign Language

Farine Five Roses sign, Montreal. Image: Christopher Policarpio.

by Rebecca West

In the lead up to our HERITAGE talk next week with Viviana de Loera, we’re looking into creative Montreal projects that celebrate our cultural heritage. The Montreal Signs Project was a perfect fit, celebrating Montreal’s colourful history of hand-made signs.

The Montreal Signs Project is an ongoing research project dedicated to the exploration of signage in the city of Montréal, through memories, archives, and rescued or donated signs. It was conceived by Matt Soar - Associate Professor of Communication Studies, Concordia University, in collaboration with Nancy Marrelli - Archivist Emerita, Concordia University Archives. The idea for the project came about during the 2007 Logo Cities conference that Matt organized, featuring an exhibit of works focusing on signage and lettering, alongside examples of old and new signs from around the city. Once the conference was over, Matt realized that these beautiful old signs could be be given a new life in Concordia’s recently built Communications & Journalism building, rather than being stuffed away in storage or lost altogether.

We spoke with Matt about his passion for signage, how the Montreal Signs Project is evolving, and the cultural significance of public lettering more broadly.

Is there a favourite sign that marked your childhood?

Growing up in the Midlands in the UK, I always had an interest in graphic design and advertising. There was a particular Perrier commercial that I remember, by the illustrator Gray Joliffe with the tagline “Once you discover Perrier, nothing else will do” (check out a fuzzy version of the animated ad here at 0:57). I really liked the billboard version, and wrote the ad agency asking if I could have a copy. To my surprise, the agency agreed and showed up at the door one day with a massive “48-sheet” billboard poster, that came in 12 parts - each one big enough to cover my bedroom wall. I’ve kept them ever since. My high school stairwells were also decorated with old enamel London Underground signs. When we started the Montreal Signs Project I got in touch trying to find out what happened to them. Unfortunately they seem to have disappeared, which is not so surprising when you consider the market value of some of these objects. They’re often just as likely to end up on eBay as they are in the trash.

External image

The old Warshaw store on St-Laurent blvd. circa 1999 - now a Pharmaprix. Image: Alex Margineanu from “Warshaw on the Main”

External image

The Warshaw sign’s new home at Concordia. Image: Montreal Signs Project.

You have lived in several cities and countries over the years… London, Vancouver, rural Massachusetts and now Montreal, what would you say is a distinguishing feature of Montreal’s signage, either historically or today?

Public signage can be really jarring, there’s just so much of it. So the first thing I noticed in Montreal is how much of it there is, moving here from a rural setting. I’m not a huge proponent of billboards everywhere, the Logo Cities conference actually aimed in part, to take a critical look at the politics of signs and public space. But discovering Montreal’s signage was also a portal for me, as a new Canadian, to discover and learn about the city’s culture, and what it values - it’s like a fingerprint of the city. You can tell from Montreal’s signs that it was a city of enterprise and diversity, a city of many immigrants. The famous Warshaw grocery sign for example, has an interesting story.

Helen Levy, daughter of the founders Leah and Louis Florkevitz, immigrants from Poland, recounted the story to Canadian Jewish News. In 1935, recently after opening, “… a painter came by and offered to paint a sign on the glass front for $5. He asked what the name was. When my father said Florkevitz, he said how do you spell that? My father said, ‘I can’t read or write, I don’t know. We just came over from ‘Varshaw’ [using the Polish pronunciation], so put that.’” Helen pointed out that wasn’t the correct spelling, but her parents kept it that way because they couldn’t afford to have it changed.  When you look into it, every sign has a unique story, that’s part of the fascination.


External image

Bens De Luxe Delicatessen & Restaurant, circa 2007. Image: Sandra Cohen-Rose and Colin Rose - Art Deco Montreal

External image

Bens Restaurant sign being picked up from the demolition site and pieced it together temporarily for cataloging by the Montreal Signs Project. Image: Montreal Signs Project.

The Montreal Signs Project is still relatively young, how has it evolved since its launch in 2010?

Well, although it’s a fun project, I feel that we’re 20-30 years too late, so much of Montreal’s iconic hand-made and neon signs have already disappeared. That being said, there is value in displaying these beautiful signs for faculty students and visitors at Concordia. Nancy (Marrelli) was key in deciding that this wasn’t going to be a preservation project, it’s more about giving the signs a final resting place. Although we could expand geographically, we’ve decided that the collection will be limited to Montreal, there is a coherence to the collection that we want to maintain.

Do you see the project evolving in the digital sphere, getting the public involved more broadly?

We are always happy to get tips from the public on signs that may be coming down, or that are in storage. But I don’t really see this evolving into a Tumblr or mobile app, there is so much of that already. There is something nice about the impressive physicality of seeing these massive objects in person. Rather than blending into the city-scape, in the Communications and Journalism building at Concordia, visitors can appreciate the craftsmanship that has gone into each letter. It’s a skill that’s being lost with more generic mass-produced signage these days. There’s Dave Arnold, a.k.a. Mr. Sign who still does beautiful hand-painted signs in Montreal, but it’s most often for a niche high-end market, not your average Mom and Pop shop. Dave is an avid supporter of the Montreal Signs Project, and was actually the one who tipped us off about our recently acquired Sheinart’s sign. [Dave also gave a Creative Mornings talk in Ottawa last year about monetizing his passion for art - check it out!]


External image

Old Navarino sign from the cafe on Parc Avenue.  Image: Montreal Signs Project.

Do you see the preservation of heritage signs as primarily the responsibility of government, businesses, academia or citizens?

Usually when an old sign is coming down, it’s because a business has folded or changed hands. So there is no financial incentive for new owners to keep it. Although in some cases, when a sign’s significance outweighs its original commercial purpose, such as in the case of the iconic Farine Five Roses sign in Montreal, the public does get involved. That sign has been on the top of a waterfront building since 1948. There was a public outcry when the sign was turned off by new owners in 2006 - so they turned it back on within a month. Then more recently, when the brand was acquired by Smucker Foods, there was some uncertainty as to the sign’s fate, and then this past winter it was quietly restored, one letter at a time. It seems it’s here to stay, for another generation at least. So the decision as to whether a sign is preserved or lost is really made on a case by case basis, it often comes down to the people directly involved.    


External image

Old Dumoulin Bicycles sign from the shop on Jean-Talon East. Image: Montreal Signs Project.

Are there any upcoming Montreal Signs projects that you’re excited about?

We’ll be installing signs from La Belle Province Meat Co., librairie Guérin, Navarino and Sheinart’s in the coming weeks, it will be great to see these out of storage and displayed for the Concordia community to enjoy.

If you know of any unique Montreal signs wasting away in storage or soon to be taken down, have an interesting sign story to share, or would like to support the Montreal Signs project, they are always happy to hear from you. Private tours of the sign collection can also be arranged, you can always get in touch with them here.



Recent Recap

This month has seen posts ranging from the very beginnings of firearms in Europe right up to the ballistic effects of the 5.56x45mm rifle round.  This month has also seen the anniversaries of two major naval battles; Navarino and Trafalgar.  There have also been posts looking at fighting in medieval armour, the cost of building a Sherman tank and numerous posts looking at the First World War as part of the ongoing #WWI100 project.

Historical Firearms also now has a Twitter page where content gets posted so if you’re not a regular tumblr user or you prefer Twitter you can take a look at the Twitter page here.

Thanks again for following and reading, if you have any questions, suggestions feel free to send me a message here.     Also don’t forget to sign up for the Historical Firearms inbox service to receive daily or regular updates on content, find out more here.



Ballistic Impact of the 5.56x45mm Rifle Round

Early European Handguns

Shaw Underhammer Pistol

RFI 2A1 Carbine

Historical Trivia:

Cost of a Sherman

Trench Maladies

Miscellaneous History:

Sons of Empire

Fighting in 15th Century Armour

The Armadillo

Daily Definition: Cook-Off

Charge of the Light Brigade

Naval History:

The Battle of Navarino

The Battle of Trafalgar in Art


Belgian Army in Action - 1914

First Battle of Ypres

Outbreak 1914: Weapons 1914-2014

Outbreak 1914: Equipment 1914 - 2014

Outbreak 1914: Uniform 1914 - 2014

Historical Firearms Book Club

Quotes of the Day:

Dwight D. Eisenhower on fighting a war

Private Thomas Dudley, of the 17th Lancers, describing the Light Brigade's charge at Balaclava

Elizabethan soldier and musket proponent Humphrey Barwick on the effectiveness of an Arquebus, circa 1591

Greek soldier and writer Xenophon expressing his disdain for cavalry

General Pierre Bosquet, on witnessing the magnificent but disastrous Charge of the Light Brigade

Historian John Keegan responding to Carl Von Clausewitz’s suggestion that ‘War is a continuation of politics by other means.’


As always If you have any requests for firearms you like to see on the page then please feel free to let me know!



The Chilean dolphin (Cephalorhynchus eutropia) is the only endemic cetacean of Chile and is found in two different coastal habitats: a northern habitat with exposed coastlines, bays and estuaries from Valparaíso to Chiloé, and a southern habitat with highly fragmented inshore coastline, channels and fjords between Chiloé and Navarino Island. 

Initially, the Chilean dolphin was classified as Data Deficient (DD) due to the insufficient information available to conduct a reliable assessment of its conservation status, in particular because of the lack of demographic information on population trends. However, recently, the classification of this species has been changed to Near Threatened, considering that human impacts may have severely reduced their distribution and abundance.  

Maria Jose Perez, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Chile and Eutropia Research Center (dedicated to studying chilean marine mammals), conducted a genetic analysis in dolphins in eight site of the Chilean coast. Their work showed that no current genetic exchange between populations. The genetic differentiation may reflect ecological adaptation to the different habitat conditions and resource uses.

According to the researcher “there are differences in morphological terms, differences were found in size of functional structures of the skulls between the north and the south populations, which means dolphins from each side are adapting to environmental conditions where they are, ” Pérez says.

It is the first study to show a comprehensive view of the Chilean dolphin, and contributes information to define conservation strategies for the species.