nature observed

Beginner Witchcraft - UPDATE

A common post request.

How to begin:

  • Begin by reading everything you possibly can about witchcraft, plants, other religions, etc.
  • Take notes on everything you can.
  • Be creative and use your imagination, look for symbols in your day-to-day lives.  
  • Re-read your notes and important information,
  • Do your research.
  • Make sure you research all paths and philosophies.
  • Start a consistent meditation and visualization regime.
  • Find a path you love.
  • Learn about yourself and your path and beliefs.
  • Work with your energy and practice harnessing it.
  • Start practicing your spells after enough research.
  • Write your own spells and start a grimoire.
  • Continue reading and learning.                                                                                                                                                                                      

Topics to research:    

  • Herbalism
  • Different witchcraft paths
  • Witchcraft history and its origins.
  • Different deities in different cultures
  • Folklore, superstitions,  and wives tales
  • Mythology from different cultures
  • The elements Air, Earth, Water, Fire
  • Basic tools and supplies for the craft
  • Sabbats and esabats
  • Witchcraft misconceptions
  • Nature cycles and lunar phases
  • Divination
  • Alchemy
  • Chakras
  • Auras
  • Working with spirits and angels
  • Tarot
  • Crystals
  • Runes                                                                                                       Magickal theory
  • Spells
  • Curses - the dangers and how to cast them properly
  • Sigils
  • Familiars
  • Incense
  • Ways to stay safe when practising
  • Types of Witches
  • Cheap witchcraft supplies
  • Dangers of witchcraft
  • Solitary v.s Coven witchcraft
  • Ritual structure
  • How to set up an altar
  • Study Nature
  • Negative energy and how to rid of it.
  • Candle magick
  • Astrology
  • Psychic Practises
  • Faeries
  • Protection against harm


Things to practice:

  • Grounding and centering
  • Meditation
  • Casting and closing a circle
  • Raising, releasing, and visualizing energy.
  • Record any magick practices, visions, or dreams you receive.   
  • Spend as much time as possible in nature.        
  • Listen and observe.               
  • Practice invoking Gods, Goddesses, and elements.  
  • Cleansing
  • Charging
  • Warding
  • Keep your grimoire up-to-date
  • Find a mentor - Someone to help you find your path
  • Practise staying concentrated
  • Intent

Remember:

  • All paths are good paths, do not insult anyone’s path.
  • You do not need any fancy equipment to practise
  • You don’t need to practise everyday
  • Follow your path don’t  let others tell you what to do or force their beliefs on you.
  • Believe in yourself!
  • Take care of yourself
  • Be respectful of others paths and beliefs
  • Never stop learning
  • Ask questions
  • Make lots of friends in the community
  • Stay safe
  • Make sure you do not steal from closed religions!
  • Have fun!

May the moon light your path!

==Moonlight Academy==

The Rising Signs

What is it?

Your Rising, also known as Ascendant, is one of the most personal to you. This is the sign that changes the most, as it will go through all twelve signs within the 24 hours of a day. 

Where is it? What does it control?

It marks the beginning of your 1st house, the house of self, and also dictates your chart’s ruling planet. This is different from your dominant planet, as your ruling planet is the one lying behind every aspect of your chart, whereas your dominant planet is the one taking charge of it all. For example, someone with Virgo Rising will have Mercury as their chart ruler as this is the planet which rules Virgo. Mercury signifies communication, work ethic, and speech. Someone with Mercury as their chart ruler may find it easier to explain themselves, or push themselves in work based situations. Obviously, this is not always strictly true as other areas of the chart may affect this. In this example, having Pluto - a planet of renewal and rebirth - in the 10th house - the house of work - may sway the Mercury ruler to be less able to push and stay driven in work based situations.

What does it show within me?

The Rising sign is like a public front. It can be regarded as the more personal version of your Sun sign, but it is in itself unique and important. It is what your friends see in you, it is what you put across within a group. It underpins you at parties, you chatting to your friend, or you answering a question in class.

How does it work with other placements?

It can often work alongside your Sun, or show how you may act in different situations. For example, you usually appear as your Rising, but then will appear like your Venus around your crush. For example, Leo Rising and Capricorn Venus. Leo Rising will usually appear loud, bold, magnetic, but with Capricorn Venus would switch to quiet, polite and a little bit mysterious around your crush. So, the Rising sign can often show your basic set aura or way of being (like the Sun sign).

Can it say something about what I look like?

It can! However, what you look like and your fashion sense also relies on other parts of your chart, namely: planets in the 1st house, venus, house of your venus, dominant sign and dominant planet. Your Rising can, however, depict what type of colours you like to wear, or maybe what kind of look or facial expression you seem to give off. 


Aries Rising is bold, impulsive, and a fun lover. The young nature of Aries is seen, and this person always seems to be looking to be positive and exciting. They appear to lead an adventurous life, always laughing with their friends and saying what they think. This person is loud, and somewhat flamboyant. Aries Rising prefers rouges, and dark nature colours, and seem to reflect wanderlust and questioning in their eyes. Famous Aries Risings: Rihanna, Shakira, Heath Ledger, James Dean

Taurus Rising is stubborn, well spoken and fashionable. They seem to like what’s good in life, whether it be food or a fancy new watch. They aren’t particularly extroverted, but will say what they think. Taurus Rising appear very composed, and true to their Earthy nature, somewhat business like. They may come across as being work or career oriented, and as rather intellectual. These people love to love things, true to their Venusian Rising, and will definitely have something in life they are proud of, often of a materialistic value. Famous Taurus Risings: Martin Luther King, Lana Del Rey, Salam Khan, Halle Berry

Gemini Rising is laid-back, sociable, fun. The airy nature of Gemini makes them appear detached and care-free, and whilst they are, they are also children of Mercury and thus house a more calculating side. These people are very chatty and extroverted, and seemingly get along with everyone. They seem very good at holding interesting conversations and including anyone in them. They often wish to talk about unique things, rather than the usual small talk, but are more than willing to do that too. They often have an array of hobbies, all of which they seem very good at, as Gemini Rising can be avid learners. Famous Gemini Risings: Amy Winehouse, Kristen Stewart, Mick Jagger, JK Rowling

Cancer Rising is nurturing, empathetic, and well mannered. They can often seem to put emotions and emotional ties at the forefront of their manner and beliefs. They seem to play a parental role in their friend groups, and always take others under their wing. They are the children in the playground who invite you to play with them if you look alone, or show you around the classroom on your first day. Their understanding of emotions and feelings can often make them well mannered. They try to remain polite and loving, as this is how they want others to be, but aren’t afraid to slide their Rising to one side and unleash their inner Mars side if you upset their friends and family. Famous Cancer Risings: Angelina Jolie, Albert Einstein, the 14th Dalai Lama, Tyra Banks

Leo Rising is bold, extravagant, popular. These are the people you think have it all. They come across as very confident and sure of themselves, and their energy can often rub off on you when you’re around them. They appear as a glowing light in a room, and often like to remain in a happy state. Although, due to their nature, drama can follow them anywhere and try to wreck their positive ambition. Leo Risings may seem to exaggerate a lot, as it is true they are rather dramatic, but this just makes them excellent story tellers. Their attitude and bold ways can often feel magnetic, and cause many to gravitate towards them as they appear to individual and unique. Famous Leo Risings: Marilyn Monroe, Justin Timberlake, Selena Gomez, Freddie Mercury

Virgo Rising is quiet, analytical, observant. Whilst they are not afraid to share an opinion or add to a conversation, they do sometimes prefer to just watch and listen. They seem overly composed and a little mysterious to others, as well as intellectual and calculating. They make it seem as though every moment and word has been planned and practised. Virgo Risings, however, are more ambiverted than their fellow feminine signs as they are Mercury ruled. This makes them good conversationalists, and with their observant nature, they often have interesting and thoughtful comments to make on things. Whilst they don’t feel the need to be the centre of attention, or lead a group discussion, around their friends they are more than happy to let their quiet nature take a step back, and get involved in debates or conversations. Famous Virgo Risings: Madonna, Kurt Cobain, Emma Watson, Jay Z

Libra Rising is charming, flirtatious and a people pleaser. They like to keep a peaceful exterior, and be on good terms with people. Being a Venusian Rising, it can appear to people that they are flirting, or being incredibly charming, when they may not be doing so deliberately. It’s common for people with this placement to enjoy being friendly with many people, and avoid hateful people as this doesn’t keep in with their need for positive surroundings. Libra Risings may be less likely to share an opinion they have that they deem controversial as they like to avoid conflicts, or they are more likely to pad it out with words and phrases that will avoid hurting others. However, these people are likely to talk about making differences and changes in the world, as they are very concerned with peace and well being. Famous Libra Risings: Leonardo DiCaprio, Beyonce, Britney Spears, Harry Styles

Scorpio Rising is mysterious, calculating and deep. They are the people who seem to have a lot on their mind and in their hearts. They care deeply for those in their circles, and whilst they may not let you in fast, once you are in, they become quite protective. Like Cancer Rising, they can often want to bring people under their wing, but the difference being they only do this once they believe they can trust you. They often have profound things to add to conversations, and notice the little things in anything, due to their investigative ways. Scorpio is a sign that may find it harder to trust people, so this Rising may often choose to remain a little distant in groups they are not 100% familiar with. Famous Scorpio Risings: Hillary Clinton, Justin Bieber, Katy Perry, Robin Williams

Sagittarius Rising is comedic, expansive and bold. They don’t ever seem to have a care in the world, and don’t seem to know restrictions. The chart ruler of these people is Jupiter and it shows in their happy-go-lucky and ambitious ways. They are often the class clown or joker of their friends, but also the one willing to argue and debate. They often have hobbies they know a lot about, and are knowledgeable about worldly and political issues. This can often be a surprise to others, as the comedic positive face turns sharp-tongued and domineering when faced with an argument or debate. Sagittarius Risings are also fine with making fools of themselves and facing embarrassment, as to them these are just more life experiences. These people are bold and adventurous, and this can often draw many to them as their nature is so unique and sometimes hard to understand due to this. Famous Sagittarius Risings: Brad Pitt, Scarlett Johansson, Oprah Winfrey, Bruce Lee

Capricorn Rising is reserved, calculating and orderly. In their Earthy nature, they appear calm and collected, as well as quite businesslike. These people may not always be the leaders of a conversation, as they are not overly extroverted, but they are still present and often add value food for thought to a discussion. They seem to process things very logically, and give advice from an objective place. Again, like their Earthy counterparts, they can see work oriented, but this is due to their ambitious and high-flying nature. This, to some, can make them seem competitive and superior, but Capricorn Risings don’t necessarily feel that themselves. They don’t answer questions in class, or tell you if you’re wrong to spite you, it’s just that they’re honest and objective. Why would they let you live a lie? Famous Capricorn Risings: Taylor Swift, Megan Fox, Ariana Grande, Lorde

Aquarius Rising is eccentric, individual, and characteristic. They are bored by normal, average things and are drawn to people or hobbies with something special about them. They’re good at keeping interesting conversation, and make people question what they thought they knew. Aquarius Rising doesn’t want to blend into the crowd and let others opinions wash over them, so they always speak their mind, or play devil’s advocate. They’ll be the one to question things or other another view if they feel things are very one-sided. Speaking out for themselves and others, they aren’t afraid to stand up. They may ask questions on the behalf of others, or call people out for behaviour they don’t agree with. Famous Aquarius Risings: Barack Obama, David Bowie, Nicki Minaj, Audrey Hepburn

Pisces Rising is sweet, sympathetic, and naive. These people like to put emotions into everything, rather than look at them logically. They often try to see how others feel or look at things, but may not ever truly understand, although this is something they try desperately to do. Like Libra Risings, they do enjoy keeping peace and thus try their best to be polite, but like Leo Risings, drama can often follow them due to their ethereal sweetness. Pisces Rising, whilst usually preferring to remain like an agony aunt or a helpful servant, can also be quite chaotic itself. These people can let the emotions they put into a situation get the best of them, and this can cause them to be petty or more gossipy than their usual positive selves. Famous Pisces Risings: Michael Jackson, George Clooney, Demi Moore, Whitney Houston

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#marantamonday - there are those of us who would like a day to show off their Marantas. Here’s my Maranta leuconeura doing her thing (13 hours in 8 seconds)
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#timelapse #houseplants #houseplantjournal #observe #plants #boredpanda #video #cool #science #botany #horticulture #urbanjunglebloggers #houseplantclub #plantas #växter #gardentherapy #pflanzen #gardening #buzzfeed #buzzfeedvideo #植物 #식물 #botanical #greenthumb #nature #naturegram #scientific

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instagram

Green oxalis fluttering about during the day. Snake plants…like stones
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#timelapse #houseplants #houseplantjournal #observe #plants #video #cool #science #botany #horticulture #gardening #植物 #식물 #tanamanhias #botanical #greenthumb #nature #naturegram #sciencenerd #scientific #nothingisordinary #chasinglight #plantlove

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Laurel’s Easy Sabbat Planning Guide

For all of the witches who struggle with Sabbats sneaking up on them, here is a guide to help whip up an easy celebration so you never have to miss out on Sabbats again!

A Sabbat is a seasonal festival mostly celebrated by Pagans and Witches. Sabbats are like any other holiday, except these are normally celebrations of the changing of the seasons, or the “turning of the wheel.” Each person will celebrate each Sabbat differently, as each season is completely personal to you.

⛤ The First Step

The first step I recommend to planning a Sabbat celebration is to figure out exactly what the Sabbat is to you. Figure out how you feel about the sabbat and what you naturally associate each one with. This can take some time to work through, especially if you are new to sabbats or if you tend to avoid nature at all costs.

⛤ What to ask yourself:

- What does this Sabbat mean to you?
- What is the Earth doing right now? What does it look like outside your window?
- What is in season (this includes foods, herbs, flowers and decor)?
- How do you feel this time of year? How does this particular Sabbat make you feel? Is this normal?
- What sort of things make you feel “witchy” or connected to this Sabbat?
- Why is this day special to you?

⛤ Things to Do:

- Perform a ritual. Rituals can be as elaborate or as simple as you want them to be. Sometimes all you have to work with is a tealight candle and a week old pack of cookies.

- Cook. Some of us feel connected to the world around us when there is food involved. After all, it’s not a party unless there is food. Try out a new recipe with in-season foods, or make your favorite comfort food dish.

- Go outside. The easiest way to celebrate the changing of the seasons is to go outside and experience them. Even if it’s a short walk (because not many people want to go for long strolls in the dead of winter), take a moment to step outside and experience nature and observe what it’s currently doing. If you are able, plan a day trip to somewhere special or new to explore.

- Decorate. Nothing gets me in the holiday (or Sabbat) spirit like decorating. As a child decorating for Christmas was the best because that was the only time we put up decorations. Now, as an adult, I use whatever I have handy to decorate for every Sabbat I can to make me feel more festive.

- Offerings. If you work with spirits of deities, you may wish to put together some sort of offering for them when you celebrate. This can be food, special rocks or flowers from outside, or something you’ve made yourself.

- Spells. Sabbats are prime times to do spells for me. The spells I cast are reflections of the coming season and what I want from them.

- Crafts. There are a ton of different little projects for Sabbats floating around on the internet. Get creative and make something! If you are on a budget, make something with what you have, or modify a craft to include what you have. I like to make something new each year for the Sabbats (it’s an easy way to get “decorations” too!)

- Divination. Nothing says celebration like a good old fashion look into the future. Choose any form of divination that you’d like and do a reading for yourself. 

- Journaling. Sometimes the easiest way to celebrate and connect is to get into your own head. Let the Earth inspire you. Stare out a window (or sit outside if you can) and just watch what happens around you. Let it inspire you to create. Journal about your own feelings, write a freestyle poem or sketch and paint what you see.

⛤ Creating a Ritual

Not all rituals have to be long and elaborate. Some of my favorite rituals are just sitting around in sweatpants with a hot cup of cocoa and my journal, reflecting on the season and my life. Ask yourself these questions to help piece together how a ritual would be best done for you.

- What am I celebrating? How can I celebrate this?
- Who am I worshiping?
- How much space do I have?
- How much time do I have?
- Why am I celebrating this Sabbat?
- What do I/can I buy for my celebrations?

The important thing for Sabbats isn’t how grand your ritual is, it’s all about gaining something from it, whether that be a nice warm fuzzy feeling or a great insight into your life. 

⛤ Reflection and Meditation

After each Sabbat day, I find it helpful if I reflect upon what I did that day and how my celebration went. This is when I do most of my journaling, but you don’t have to write anything. You can simply sit and rest and meditate on the day if you wish. Use this time to unwind.

- What did I do today? How do I feel about it?
- What ideas do I have for next year?
- What did this year’s Sabbat teach me?
- What was my favorite part of today’s celebration?
- What was my least favorite?

Happy Celebrating!
~L <):)

instagram

"Just water it" - this statement leaves out so many details about exactly needs to be done and what the plant actually wants. When the Ctenanthe burle-marxii ‘Amagris’s leaves curl up on both sides, it indicates that its soil is compacted and dry. Pouring in a lot of water may help but with compacted soil, much of the water will simply drain away, leaving pockets of dry soil where the roots are dying. Aerating the soil gently with a chopstick creates channels where water and air can more easily penetrate compacte soil. A thorough soaking in combination with soil aeration is what needs to be done to restore good soil structure - the time lapse covers 3 days. Remember, you don’t have worms and insects in your house plants so you have to do the job of soil aerating!
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#timelapse #best_timelapse #plantcare #houseplants #houseplantjournal #observe #plants #boredpanda #video #cool #science #botany #horticulture #gardening #buzzfeed #buzzfeedvideo #植物 #식물 #tanamanhias #botanical #greenthumb #nature #naturegram #sciencenerd #scientific #nothingisordinary

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Ways to Celebrate Pretty Much Every Pagan Holiday

(And most of these work no matter how discreet you have to be!)

  • Food- No holiday is complete without a feast! Have a potluck, try a new recipe in the kitchen, or just contemplate your usual dinner and be thankful that you have food. Lots of sabbats have popular recipes or ingredients that you could try making, or incorporate those types of foods into your meals.
  • Spend Time Outdoors- Have a picnic, go on a walk, or just sit on a chair and observe nature for a little while. Feel the air and observe how the seasons have changed.
  • Pay it Forward- Celebrate family, do something nice for your friends, or volunteer in your community.  Go out and help people. ‘Tis the season!
  • Clean and Cleanse- A lot of holidays focus on some type of new beginnings. Clean your space and cleanse yourself of any residual energies you may be holding onto. Getting everything tidy and organized is a great way to give yourself a foundation for the coming year, no matter when that year begins!
  • Self Reflect- Think about where you were 365 days ago. How much you’ve grown, what you’ve gained and lost, what lessons you have been taught. What are your goals for the future? What is your next step?
  • Regular Worship- If you have any deities that you regularly interact with, consider giving them an offering and thanking them for just being a part of your life.
Try This: Sit in Public & Don’t Judge Anything You See

This is something I like to do when I am out or even when I am at home but it’s definitely more challenging when being in public. Here it is.. you sit and observe everything around you. The environment you are in, the people, the sounds, the smells, everything! While you are doing it try to just observe it. Don’t classify, categorize or judge any of it. Even go beyond the name of something you are looking at. ex. a tree. Don’t see the tree and say “OK there is a tree and it has leaves on it. It’s brown and green and tilts slightly to the side. Oh there’s a squirrel on the tree! He just jumped from one branch to the other! Oh geez the squirrel almost just fell, crazy squirrel.” Instead, just look at the tree and see it as simply something that is there.

Keep reading

List of medieval European scientists
  • Anthemius of Tralles (ca. 474 – ca. 534): a professor of geometry and architecture, authored many influential works on mathematics and was one of the architects of the famed Hagia Sophia, the largest building in the world at its time. His works were among the most important source texts in the Arab world and Western Europe for centuries after.
  • John Philoponus (ca. 490–ca. 570): also known as John the Grammarian, a Christian Byzantine philosopher, launched a revolution in the understanding of physics by critiquing and correcting the earlier works of Aristotle. In the process he proposed important concepts such as a rudimentary notion of inertia and the invariant acceleration of falling objects. Although his works were repressed at various times in the Byzantine Empire, because of religious controversy, they would nevertheless become important to the understanding of physics throughout Europe and the Arab world.
  • Paul of Aegina (ca. 625–ca. 690): considered by some to be the greatest Christian Byzantine surgeon, developed many novel surgical techniques and authored the medical encyclopedia Medical Compendium in Seven Books. The book on surgery in particular was the definitive treatise in Europe and the Islamic world for hundreds of years.
  • The Venerable Bede (ca. 672–735): a Christian monk of the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow who wrote a work On the Nature of Things, several books on the mathematical / astronomical subject of computus, the most influential entitled On the Reckoning of Time. He made original discoveries concerning the nature of the tides and his works on computus became required elements of the training of clergy, and thus greatly influenced early medieval knowledge of the natural world.
  • Rabanus Maurus (c. 780 – 856): a Christian monk and teacher, later archbishop of Mainz, who wrote a treatise on Computus and the encyclopedic work De universo. His teaching earned him the accolade of "Praeceptor Germaniae," or "the teacher of Germany."
  • Abbas Ibn Firnas (810 – 887): a polymath and inventor in Muslim Spain, made contributions in a variety of fields and is most known for his contributions to glass-making and aviation. He developed novel ways of manufacturing and using glass. He broke his back at an unsuccessful attempt at flying a primitive hang glider in 875.
  • Pope Sylvester II (c. 946–1003): a Christian scholar, teacher, mathematician, and later pope, reintroduced the abacus and armillary sphere to Western Europe after they had been lost for centuries following the Greco-Roman era. He was also responsible in part for the spread of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in Western Europe.
  • Maslamah al-Majriti (died 1008): a mathematician, astronomer, and chemist in Muslim Spain, made contributions in many areas, from new techniques for surveying to updating and improving the astronomical tables of al-Khwarizmi and inventing a process for producing mercury oxide.[citation needed] He is most famous, though, for having helped transmit knowledge of mathematics and astronomy to Muslim Spain and Christian Western Europe.
  • Abulcasis (936-1013): a physician and scientist in Muslim Spain, is considered to be the father of modern surgery. He wrote numerous medical texts, developed many innovative surgical instruments, and developed a variety of new surgical techniques and practices. His texts were considered the definitive works on surgery in Europe until the Renaissance.
  • Constantine the African (c. 1020&–1087): a Christian native of Carthage, is best known for his translating of ancient Greek and Roman medical texts from Arabic into Latin while working at the Schola Medica Salernitana in Salerno, Italy. Among the works he translated were those of Hippocrates and Galen.
  • Arzachel (1028–1087): the foremost astronomer of the early second millennium, lived in Muslim Spain and greatly expanded the understanding and accuracy of planetary models and terrestrial measurements used for navigation. He developed key technologies including the equatorium and universal latitude-independent astrolabe.
  • Avempace (died 1138): a famous physicist from Muslim Spain who had an important influence on later physicists such as Galileo. He was the first to theorize the concept of a reaction force for every force exerted.
  • Adelard of Bath (c. 1080 – c. 1152): was a 12th-century English scholar, known for his work in astronomy, astrology, philosophy and mathematics.
  • Avenzoar (1091–1161): from Muslim Spain, introduced an experimental method in surgery, employing animal testing in order to experiment with surgical procedures before applying them to human patients.[4] He also performed the earliest dissections and postmortem autopsies on both humans as well as animals.
  • Robert Grosseteste (1168–1253): Bishop of Lincoln, was the central character of the English intellectual movement in the first half of the 13th century and is considered the founder of scientific thought in Oxford. He had a great interest in the natural world and wrote texts on the mathematical sciences of optics, astronomy and geometry. In his commentaries on Aristotle's scientific works, he affirmed that experiments should be used in order to verify a theory, testing its consequences. Roger Bacon was influenced by his work on optics and astronomy.
  • Albert the Great (1193–1280): Doctor Universalis, was one of the most prominent representatives of the philosophical tradition emerging from the Dominican Order. He is one of the thirty-three Saints of the Roman Catholic Church honored with the title of Doctor of the Church. He became famous for his vast knowledge and for his defence of the pacific coexistence between science and religion. Albert was an essential figure in introducing Greek and Islamic science into the medieval universities, although not without hesitation with regard to particular Aristotelian theses. In one of his most famous sayings he asserted: "Science does not consist in ratifying what others say, but of searching for the causes of phenomena." Thomas Aquinas was his most famous pupil.
  • John of Sacrobosco (c. 1195 – c. 1256): was a scholar, monk, and astronomer (probably English, but possibly Irish or Scottish) who taught at the University of Paris and wrote an authoritative and influential mediaeval astronomy text, the Tractatus de Sphaera; the Algorismus, which introduced calculations with Hindu-Arabic numerals into the European university curriculum; the Compotus ecclesiasticis on Easter reckoning; and the Tractatus de quadrante on the construction and use of the astronomical quadrant.
  • Jordanus de Nemore (late 12th, early 13th century): was one of the major pure mathematicians of the Middle Ages. He wrote treatises on mechanics ("the science of weights"), on basic and advanced arithmetic, on algebra, on geometry, and on the mathematics of stereographic projection.
  • Villard de Honnecourt (fl. 13th century): a French engineer and architect who made sketches of mechanical devices such as automatons and perhaps drew a picture of an early escapement mechanism for clockworks.
  • Roger Bacon (1214–94): Doctor Admirabilis, joined the Franciscan Order around 1240 where, influenced by Grosseteste, Alhacen and others, he dedicated himself to studies where he implemented the observation of nature and experimentation as the foundation of natural knowledge. Bacon wrote in such areas as mechanics, astronomy, geography and, most of all, optics. The optical research of Grosseteste and Bacon established optics as an area of study at the medieval university and formed the basis for a continuous tradition of research into optics that went all the way up to the beginning of the 17th century and the foundation of modern optics by Kepler.[8]
  • Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248): a botanist and pharmacist in Muslim Spain, researched over 1400 types of plants, foods, and drugs and compiled pharmaceutical and medical encyclopedias documenting his research. These were used in the Islamic world and Europe until the 19th century.
  • Theodoric Borgognoni (1205-1296): was an Italian Dominican friar and Bishop of Cervia who promoted the uses of both antiseptics and anaesthetics in surgery. His written work had a deep impact on Henri de Mondeville, who studied under him while living in Italy and later became the court physician for King Philip IV of France.
  • William of Saliceto (1210-1277): was an Italian surgeon of Lombardy who advanced medical knowledge and even challenged the work of the renowned Greco-Roman surgeon Galen (129-216 AD) by arguing that allowing pus to form in wounds was detrimental to the health of he patient.
  • Thomas Aquinas (1227–74): Doctor Angelicus, was an Italian theologian and friar in the Dominican Order. As his mentor Albert the Great, he is a Catholic Saint and Doctor of the Church. In addition to his extensive commentaries on Aristotle's scientific treatises, he was also said to have written an important alchemical treatise titled Aurora Consurgens. However, his most lasting contribution to the scientific development of the period was his role in the incorporation of Aristotelianism into the Scholastic tradition.
  • Arnaldus de Villa Nova (1235-1313): was an alchemist, astrologer, and physician from the Crown of Aragon who translated various Arabic medical texts, including those of Avicenna, and performed optical experiments with camera obscura.
  • John Duns Scotus (1266–1308): Doctor Subtilis, was a member of the Franciscan Order, philosopher and theologian. Emerging from the academic environment of the University of Oxford. where the presence of Grosseteste and Bacon was still palpable, he had a different view on the relationship between reason and faith as that of Thomas Aquinas. For Duns Scotus, the truths of faith could not be comprehended through the use of reason. Philosophy, hence, should not be a servant to theology, but act independently. He was the mentor of one of the greatest names of philosophy in the Middle Ages: William of Ockham.
  • Mondino de Liuzzi (c. 1270-1326): was an Italian physician, surgeon, and anatomist from Bologna who was one of the first in Medieval Europe to advocate for the public dissection of cadavers for advancing the field of anatomy. This followed a long-held Christian ban on dissections performed by the Alexandrian school in the late Roman Empire.
  • William of Ockham (1285–1350): Doctor Invincibilis, was an English Franciscan friar, philosopher, logician and theologian. Ockham defended the principle of parsimony, which could already be seen in the works of his mentor Duns Scotus. His principle later became known as Occam's Razor and states that if there are various equally valid explanations for a fact, then the simplest one should be chosen. This became a foundation of what would come to be known as the scientific method and one of the pillars of reductionism in science. Ockham probably died of the Black Plague. Jean Buridan and Nicole Oresme were his followers.
  • Jacopo Dondi dell'Orologio (1290-1359): was an Italian doctor, clockmaker, and astronomer from Padua who wrote on a number of scientific subjects such as pharmacology, surgery, astrology, and natural sciences. He also designed an astronomical clock.
  • Richard of Wallingford (1292-1336): an English abbot, mathematician, astronomer, and horologist who designed an astronomical clock as well as an equatorium to calculate the lunar, solar and planetary longitudes, as well as predict eclipses.
  • Jean Buridan (1300–58): was a French philosopher and priest. Although he was one of the most famous and influent philosophers of the late Middle Ages, his work today is not renowned by people other than philosophers and historians. One of his most significant contributions to science was the development of the theory of impetus, that explained the movement of projectiles and objects in free-fall. This theory gave way to the dynamics of Galileo Galilei and for Isaac Newton's famous principle of Inertia.
  • Guy de Chauliac (1300-1368): was a French physician and surgeon who wrote the Chirurgia magna, a widely read publication throughout medieval Europe that became one of the standard textbooks for medical knowledge for the next three centuries. During the Black Death he clearly distinguished Bubonic Plague and Pneumonic Plague as separate diseases, that they were contagious from person to person, and offered advice such as quarantine to avoid their spread in the population. He also served as the personal physician for three successive popes of the Avignon Papacy.
  • John Arderne (1307-1392): was an English physician and surgeon who invented his own anesthetic that combined hemlock, henbane, and opium. In his writings, he also described how to properly excise and remove the abscess caused by anal fistula.
  • Nicole Oresme (c. 1323–82): was one of the most original thinkers of the 14th century. A theologian and bishop of Lisieux, he wrote influential treatises in both Latin and French on mathematics, physics, astronomy, and economics. In addition to these contributions, Oresme strongly opposed astrology and speculated about the possibility of a plurality of worlds.
  • Giovanni Dondi dell'Orologio (c. 1330-1388): was a clockmaker from Padua, Italy who designed the astarium, an astronomical clock and planetarium that utilized the escapement mechanism that had been recently invented in Europe. He also attempted to describe the mechanics of the solar system with mathematical precision.

There will be clear scans of these later, but for now, please enjoy this potato quality photo of the art I’ve made that I hope to get to the Rifftrax folks at the show Thursday night. (Iffy chance, but my intentions are good.) I still have a couple more to do! But this… This is good progress.

Side note: I am very tired. XD

I love you (MATURE)

I know this isn’t Marvel imagine, but i wrote this long time ago and thought maybe i should post it. 

The bed was so comfortable. She rolled around in her sleep and she felt like she was floating on the clouds. She starched her arm to touch her boyfriend, but all she met was more silky sheets. She slowly began to open her eyes, it took her some time before she could see properly. Her eyes needed some time to get used to the darkness.

That reminded her of the psychology class from the other day, when their teacher told them, that their eyes need thirty minutes before you could see anything.

She always found that very stupid, especially when she was walking to school in the morning. Her eyes didn’t need thirty minutes to get used to the darkness, she could see properly just after five minutes.

She looked around the room but she couldn’t find much known, and very dear silhouette to her. He was nowhere to be found, and that got her wondering, what he could be possibly doing at this time of the night. To be honest she didn’t know what time it was, and neither was she going to look, because it would be a crime to move from this holy position.

She was always laying on her stomach, she would much likely fall asleep on her back, but during the night she would always find her way back onto the stomach. It was the most comfortable pose ever. So she didn’t even bother to roll back and grab her phone form the night stand.

She was laying like that for solid ten minutes, even though it seemed to her like it was hours. She wasn’t sure how much time has passed, but she wondered how she didn’t fall asleep immediately. She is always the first one to fall asleep, she could lay anywhere, and within the minute, and she would be out.

But it was only because she was sleeping next to him, but when they were separated because of his tour and her school, she would barely get some kind of sleep. She just missed the warmth his body produced, the feeling of his strong, muscular hands wrapped around her body. His sweet little kisses all the way from her back, over her shoulder, around her neck and finally locking with hers. His low voiced “Goodnight” that was so innocence, but it would still send shivers down her spine.

She is so deeply in love with him, so over her head with him, he can make her lose her mind in less than a second. She would do anything for him, and that scares her the most. She never thought she would love anyone so much, it terrifies her sometimes. The thought that he holds her everything in his hands, her heart, her soul, her life, that one wrong word, move and she will be shuttered, broken, left in pieces.

He isn’t the type of person that would hurt her on purpose, he’s a sweet, loving and genuine guy. But lately he hasn’t been acting like himself. She understands that tour took a lot of his energy, and that all he wants now is peace and to relax, and she respects that. What hurts the most is when he says he needs to relax but he goes out with his friends, and comes home in early morning hours. She tried to confront him about it, but he would just raise his hands in the air, call her petty or just tell her that he missed them.

But so does she. She haven’t seen him in a year, all she wants now is, for him to wrap his hands around her, tell her he loves her and just cuddle for the rest of the day. She’s not asking for much, is she now? And even though he’s home now, she feels the same way she did when he was on tour. She misses him, and he’s right there, but just like he isn’t. She tried everything, she wonders if she did something wrong, is he mad at her, but anytime she would start a conversation about it, he would just push her off.

She let out a loud sigh and moved the covers from her body, and as soon as the silky sheets left her body, she felt shivers run down her spine, and only then she realised, the balcony doors were open, she was staring at them but she didn’t notice, not until now, and that’s exactly what he does to her. She wasn’t really sure why she felt the shivers because it wasn’t even cold.

And then she saw him, he was standing there, leaning onto balcony fence, looking so peaceful, maybe that’s the reason she felt them, her brain recognised him before she did. But one thing shocked her, he was smoking a cigarette. She was damn sure he stopped, at least that’s what he said. Well more correctly, that’s what he promised to do.

All she wanted to do was to go out, hug him from behind and just stay like that for hours. But she was afraid, afraid to move, because if he hears her, he will turn around and again go into his, now natural state, tensed.

She observed him for few more minutes, and then she decided to get up, she didn’t walk towards him, rather she went down to the kitchen and grab herself something to drink. She wasn’t really thirsty, but she couldn’t lay there anymore. She was so distracted that she almost fell over the pile of his clothes that was on the floor. And that little pile made her so angry, so she just wanted to turn around, go out and yell at him. Later on, she wasn’t even sure if she was mad about the pile, or about him in general.

She opened the fridge and just stared in, does she take bottle of water or apple juice. She went with just regular water, because she didn’t want anything sweet. She poured it into a glass and brought it to her lips, she was slowly drinking while looking through the kitchen window, into the dark, full of shadows, back yard. Shadows were playing around, enlighten the trees, now from this, now from that side. She calmed down a little bit, and she didn’t even hear him come.

Lately she was so distracted, it started to bother her. His low and quiet voice shook her out of her dreams. It was so quiet, but so was the house so it sounded like he was standing right behind her, but she knew he was either leaning onto kitchen door, or kitchen cabinets.

“Why are you up so late?”

She wasn’t sure how to respond to that. Does she tells him the truth, that she can’t sleep without him and that the person who sleeps with her now isn’t her boyfriend, but some stranger taking over his body? Or does she just lie to him, and tells him its school? She rather decided to say nothing but to stare through window again.

Now she could feel the smell of cigarette that he just smoked, and it bothered her so much. The smell was so unpleasant, she wanted to turn around and tell him to shower. She took a deep breath, put the glass into the sink, knowing that she’s going to wash it tomorrow. She slowly turned around, trying not to catch his gaze, slowly started walking towards their shared room.

Just as she thought she had passed him, she felt the strong grip on her hand. By then she was already pissed off, and all she could do was let out a loud groan. She tried to pull her hand out of his grip, but he only pulled her closer. Her face met his bare chest, and she appreciated the warmth and smell of his body, even though the smell of cigarette ruined it.

“I’m tired Justin, let me go, please.”

Her voice was low, she felt tired, but not physical tiredness, no the mental one was bigger problem.

“Apparently you’re not tired enough if you woke up at 2.30 a.m.” and what could she say to that. She hated it when he became cocky little shit, mostly because that wasn’t her Justin. She wanted to talk to him about everything, but she knew it would all turn into a fight, and for that, she was not ready.

“My mouth was dry, so it woke me up, can you please let me go now?”

She whispered into his chest, feeling her eyes getting wetter. No she didn’t want to cry, but sometimes we don’t cry because we’re weak, we cry because it’s the only way to let out the pain, the frustration. It’s the only way to make mental pain, physical. But she didn’t want to cry in front of him, she just didn’t.

But his question dried her eyes in a second, she again became frustrated and angry, but at the same time confused and sad. That’s what he does to her. Confuses her, completely.

“Why are you avoiding me? In the evening, you’re already sleeping even before I enter the room. You leave in the morning without a kiss, without a goodbye. When I want to make you feel good, and you know how good I make you feel, your head hurts, or you have an exam to study for, or just something else that doesn’t make any damn sense.”

She was indeed avoiding him, but she only did it because she thought that would protect her from him. She didn’t know why she needed the protection from him, but she felt that way, if he was going to push her away, she won’t be able to try and hold him.

She was once again speechless, or so she pretended she was. She was a burning lion, observing, but always ready to attack.

She felt his hand under her chin, pulling it up, to finally meet his gaze. Every single time she would look into his eyes, he would make her feel like she’s seeing him for the first time ever, that weird feeling in her stomach made her change her weight from her right to her left leg.

He looked at her, or more properly, he observed her, he was still waiting for an answer, but he knew he wouldn’t get one, not from her and not tonight. But did he even wanted it? No, he just needed her attention, but he didn’t realise he was the reason why she stopped giving him so much attention. She wasn’t even aware of what she was doing to him. He was making him go crazy, he hated her for that.

He moved so fast she didn’t even got to catch a breath before her back met stone cold wall. His hands were on each side of her body, her legs were wrapped around him, and they fit so perfectly. His face was so close, their noses touched and she could feel his hot breath on her face. He was looking deeply into her eyes like he was asking for permission, but she knew he wasn’t.

Their lips met, and there was no sweetness in it, no patience, only roughness. But she didn’t mind, he moved his left hand down her body and gripped her ass, ass his lips did the same, concentrating on her neck. His pace was at the same time rough but perfect. All she could do was let out a small moan, that made him lean more into her, and she could feel his smirk growing against her neck. She wrapped her hand around his muscles, digging her nails into his skin. Suddenly he pulled his lips away from her neck, and he moved her from cold wall to the kitchen table. She used the chance to take her shirt off.

As soon as her nipples were exposed and hit by cold air they got hard. His eyes moved from her lips to her breast and he didn’t waste any time. He took her right nipple into his mouth, nibbling and sucking onto it, while he took other one in between his fingers and started tugging onto it. She let out a loud moan of pleasure. His mouth moved from her nipple to her mouth.

“You’re fucking gorgeous, you know that? Let me make you feel the way I only know.”

He mumbled against her lips, the only response she offered him was a small whimper. He moved his lips down her jaw again, this time making sure to leave marks all the way from her neck to her breast. He moved his left hand down her body, until he reached her inner thigh. He moved the tips of his fingers against the sensitive skin, teasing her. She groaned and tried to pull herself closer to him, she was eager to fell his touch.

“Please, Justin” she whispered. Neither of them could wait any longer, but he felt indescribable pleasure teasing her. He slid his hand into her underwear, his fingers meeting her clit, rubbing it roughly. “So fucking wet.” He slid his fingers into her without a warning. Sudden pleasure made her let out loud moan, trying to get even closer to him, just so she could feel more of him.

“You keep moving closer to me, baby girl, even though there is no more place to move. See, only I make you feel this way. You should remember that.” He moved his lips from her neck and looked deeply into her eyes.

“I was going to tease you some more, but I just want to fuck the shit out of you.” he pulled his fingers out, pulled his Calvin Klein’s down, separated her legs and without a warning slammed into her. His mouth fell open while she moaned loudly. She wrapped her hands around his naked body, scratching his back.

“Fucking hell. You’re so tight, baby girl.” he hovered over her, making her back hit the cold table board. His mouth found her nipple and started nibbling onto it. Her mouth fell open from sudden pleasure. His hips found a perfect pace.

“Tell me how good I make you feel.” He groaned against her nipple. She wanted too, but the pleasure was too much and the only way she responded was through loud moan. But he wasn’t pleased with that. He slapped her ass, twice, once from right side, other time from left side. Burn that she felt after his hands made her whimper even more. When she still wasn’t responding, he picked his pace, even though she thought he couldn’t go any faster.

Their bodies moved in sync, and she could spot sweat dripping down his forehead. Even though the kitchen was very big, it became so hot in there that she wanted to jump out of her skin.

She felt his hand around her neck, griping her tightly, and the rough feeling almost pushed her over the edge, but he suddenly pulled out. The sudden feeling of emptiness made her whimper.

“You’re not cumming, until you tell me how god I make you feel, you understand me?” she nodded and pulled her hips up, trying to get him to continue. But he just looked at her. She took a deep breath and started.

“You make me feel so-“but she wasn’t able to finish. He pushed into her with so much force, all she could do was scream. She could see a smirk playing on his lips, he was pleased with her answer.

She felt the well-known feeling and she knew she was close. She won’t be able to hold it any longer, but she could see he was just as close as she was.

“I feel you getting tighter around me. You wanna cum, baby girl?” His voice was low and husky and she only could nod.

“Yes, please.” She somehow mumbled in between the moans.

“Look at me, let’s cum together.” Their eyes met, and like it was their trigger, his movements became sloppier and he let out a loud groan, while she screamed out his name, scratching his back. She could feel him feeling her up with his jounces and it was the best feeling.

“Oh fuck.” He mumbled, they both tried to catch a breath after an amazing experience.

“I love you.” he leaned closer and locked their lips once again. “I love you” she mumbled against his lips.

He picked her into his arms and carried her to their shared room.