“But there’s one killer move that stars have that makes carbon a loser in the cosmic equation: when a star is massive enough to initiate carbon fusion – a requirement for generating a type II supernova – the process that turns carbon into oxygen goes almost to full completion, creating significantly more oxygen than carbon by time the star is ready to explode.”
When the Universe was first born, all we had was hydrogen and helium, with a trace amount of lithium and absolutely nothing else. 13.8 billion years later, hydrogen is still #1 in the Universe and helium is still #2, but lithium isn’t close to #3 anymore: more than two dozen elements have passed it. The key? Stars! Over billions of years, nuclear fusion in the cores of stars have built up all the naturally occurring elements we know of in the periodic table. You might think that since three heliums can fuse together to make carbon, that would be the third most common element in the Universe. And it’s close: carbon comes in at #4. But another element has it beat.
1. it’s not a mutation, the majority of the time it’s naturally occurring conditions that usually develop within the womb
2. it’s not Always known at birth, sometimes it’s not clear until puberty or adulthood
3. we can have external genitalia that looks “normal” for dfab or dmab
4. external changes in genitalia aren’t always noticeable, it could be something like two urinary tracks or in some cases clitomergy, etc
5. “ambiguous genitalia” is a bit of a nasty term. the majority of infants do have ambiguous genitalia, but the medical community has this scale where the phallus has to be between w and x to be girl, x to y is ambiguous, and y to z is a boy
6. that’s right, ur assigned gender is determined on ur phallus (also known as a clit or a dick, just depends on how developed and big it is), not your chromosomes or if you have a vagina or balls or ur internal infrastructure
7. intersex is a naturally occurring condition, meaning unless you’re born intersex you can’t be intersex. you can’t medically or surgically transition to “become intersex”
8. surgery actually isn’t needed in the majority of cases. there is no reason for corrective surgery or surgery in the future to remove genitalia or “fix it”. it’s pretty uncommon any of the genitalia actually poses any harm and if surgery is needed it’s usually for other reasons like a webbed neck
9. it’s a myth that intersex conditions make up 1%. first of all, intersex conditions aren’t always diagnosed and some medical communities don’t consider pcos an intersex condition even though it can be. so using that, there is at least a minimum of 3% if not up to 5% of individuals
second of all, that’s a us centric statistic. it doesn’t include other countries, other populations they may not be able to get a dx, countries where they won’t dx it or it’s harmful to dx it, etc. so in likelihood there is a minimum of 10 - 15% of the worlds population being intersex, at least estimated. i wouldn’t be surprised if it was higher than that (a quarter or more of the worlds pop)
Adder Stones (sometimes
also called hag stones, witch stones, serpent’s eggs, snake’s eggs, Glain
Neidr, Milpreve, adderstanes, Gloine nan Druid, aggry, or aggri) are stones,
usually smooth or glassy, with a naturally occurring hole bored straight through
it, typically from water erosion or natural damage.
That said, there are no shortage of stories claiming these
stones have a more unnatural origin. One claims that they are formed from the
hardened saliva of a great number of serpents, massed together, and the holes
are from their tongues. Another claims the stones are actually the heads of
Adder stones feature prominently in Welsh mythology and
Druidic culture. They were believed to have magical powers and thought to
protect people from a gamut of problems, ranging from eye diseases, evil
charms, nightmares, whooping cough, and snake bites. It was also believed that
if you looked through the hole in an adder stone, you could see through the
disguise of a fairy or witch.
Singing sand avalanche, Great Sand Dunes National Park, Colorado.
Have you ever heard sand sing? Listen to 15 seconds of this bizarre phenomenon! Just as our own voices are made by air moving through vibrating vocal chords, a humming sound is made at Great Sand Dunes as air is pushed through millions of tumbling sand grains during an avalanche. Avalanches occur naturally during storms, but can also be created by people pushing sand down a dune face. In the 1940s, one of Bing Crosby’s musical hits was “The Singing Sands of Alamosa” - a love song based on the sounds of Great Sand Dunes. This humming sound continues to inspire people today!
This is a peek at how I create my illustrations from photo reference. I have been getting a lot of comparisons to Charley Harper, which is incredibly flattering as he is a personal hero of mine up there with Kubrick, Sasek, Bass, Mead, Berkey, Oreb, etc. But the real source of the designs and ideas is nature. The thing I learned from studying Charley Harper’s work is how to spot naturally occurring graphic design. There are beautiful shapes everywhere in nature when you know how to look for them, and my favorite thing to do as an artist is observe, appreciate, and interpret those beautiful shapes into illustrations. None of it is original - nature has already created all of these designs for us. The goal of our film was to highlight this natural beauty, as well as mankind’s incredible scientific achievements in understanding the complex beauty of our world.
Hi Pear! Bee here! Ever since our conversation on sunday I've had one question going round and round in my head, and I just had to share: *how* do centaurs sleep? The way their spine is constructed makes picturing it rather difficult, but I want my new precious baby to be comfortable when she sleeps without having to use my MC as a pillow.(not that that wouldn't be cute as hell) (the idea of foetal position for a centaur leads to how the hell are they born? so nothing there either^^) Halp? *-*
Okay, Bee, but picture this:
Giraffes sleep using themselves as their own pillows (or standing up). Picture your centaur with a nice saddle-bag-esque rice bag or pillow across their hind quarters to use as a pillow for their upper body. Picture also using that rice bag pillow as a heat pack for achy muscles that must naturally occur from a centaur’s body composition.
Llamas (top) and alpacas (bottom) sleep laying down with their necks stretched out. Picture your centaur doing the same, laying flat out on their human stomach like laying on a desk.
Maybe there’s a special hammock or sling they suspend from trees to lean their human body into to sleep, while letting the horse half stay upright. Maybe they find a good rock or hummock to lay draped over, or maybe they just mostly end up sleeping with their horse legs folded under them or on their side so the human part can lay down. While horses can lock their hips and legs in a way that allows them to stand while relaxing enough to sleep, humans have no similar trait, so it’s less finding a way for the horse bits to relax as finding a way to get the human into a position where they can rest against something. That’s mostly the consensus across the boards I looked at, too. Good luck! -Pear
If you claim that male/female socialization don’t exist because admitting to having recieved male/female socialization would invalidate transgender people’s identities, then the conclusion to that belief must be that men and women are inherently feminine/masculine and that the differences between men and women in our society are naturally occuring - and that is one of the least progressive, most anti-feminist statements that I can think of.
Eucalyptol (C10H18O) is a colourless liquid with a piercing, minty, camphor-like scent under room conditions. It is a naturally occurring compound, and can be found in eucalyptus leaves and essential oils.
Eucalyptol has many uses in various industries. For example, it is used as a flavouring agent in mouthwashes, and is also used as an additive to fragrances and cigarettes. It is also used as an environmentally-friendly insect repellent, insecticide, and fungicide.
It has also been shown to relieve inflammation in many chronic diseases, such as respiratory and cardiovascular conditions, and also acts as an antioxidant. Consequently, it is also found in some inhalation-type medications for sinusitis.
In nature, eucalyptol is biosynthesised from geranyl diphosphate:
Note: As you can see, the name “eucalyptol” is somewhat of a misnomer, as there is no alcohol functional group within the molecule!
sherlock’s tech genius older brother mycroft goes missing when he’s a child, until one day years later stamford, an exec at mycroft’s company, receives a cryptic message from him and sends sherlock to investigate, leading sherlock onto the grid and landing him in the middle of a deadly game
john, a seemingly ordinary (though beautiful) program, smashes his way into the arena to rescue sherlock from the games and takes him to see mycroft. being a program, john has never been outside the grid, but having read all of mycroft’s books, he dreams of what it’s like.
mycroft explains that he had long ago created a computer program called moriarty, and along with a security program called lestrade, they were supposed to build a perfect computer system. but one day moriarty turned on mycroft, destroying all the naturally occurring ISOs they had discovered (programs which could have basically cured every ill in the world), killing lestrade, and trapping mycroft on the grid.
sherlock sneaks off to meet irene at her club in order to get her to help them get to the portal and escape the grid, but she betrays him to moriarty’s guards. john and mycroft show up to join the fight, and even though they manage to escape, john is shot in the shoulder. mycroft reveals that john isn’t just any ordinary program–he’s the last surviving ISO, and he must be protected.
john, however, in order to let sherlock and mycroft escape, allows himself to be captured by one of moriarty’s guards, who sherlock recognizes as lestrade–not dead after all. sherlock comes back to rescue him with mycroft in tow. lestrade sees mycroft and remembers who he really is, and he helps find them a transport so that they can escape the grid. (lestrade/tron gets to live in this version, damn it.)
mycroft, sherlock, and john make it to the portal, but moriarty catches up to them before they can enter it. mycroft distracts him, sacrificing himself so that sherlock and john can escape. i beat you, moriarty tells him, you knew i would and still you did all this? for him? why? mycroft smiles as sherlock and john enter the portal. he’s my brother. moriarty tries to follow them into the portal, but it closes as he enters it and he’s destroyed. mycroft and lestrade, now trapped for good, rebuild the grid together. (again, mycroft/flynn gets to live in this version because i say so.)
back in the outside world, john and sherlock ride off on sherlock’s motorcycle, john hugging him tight as he sees his first ever sunrise.
Osmium is a hard, brittle, blue-gray or blue-black transition metal in the platinum family and is the densest naturally occurring element, with a density of 22.59 g/cm3 (slightly greater than that of iridium and twice that of lead).
Photo by fluor_doublet
Caffeine (C8H10N4O2) is a white solid that is sparingly soluble in water. It is a naturally occurring alkaloid and is the most commonly consumed drug worldwide. It is consumed for its ability to promote wakefulness and reduce lethargy.
It does so by acting as an antagonist to adenosine receptors in the central nervous system. Since the binding of adenosine to the receptors leads to drowsiness, this inhibition temporarily promotes alertness. Furthermore, it promotes the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, resulting in its stimulant effects.
Caffeine can be found in many different beverages:
Caffeine is usually extracted from coffee beans using supercritical carbon dioxide. While carbon dioxide normally sublimes and deposits under normal pressures, bypassing the liquid phase, under high pressures, it can exist as a supercritical liquid. Liquid carbon dioxide is a good solvent for caffeine extraction, as it is non-polar and leaves the aroma chemicals intact.
While caffeine is readily available from decaffeination processes, it can still be synthesised from dimethylurea and malonic acid:
In nature, it is biosynthesised from xanthosine instead:
Caffeine consumption results in a mild form of drug dependence; furthermore, upon regular consumption, tolerance can be built up, resulting in the need for an increasing amount of caffeine to produce the same effects. In small doses, caffeine reduces cardiovascular problems, but it increases its probability in larger doses (over 5 cups of coffee).
Stress-induced changes in maternal gut could negatively impact offspring for life
Prenatal exposure to a mother’s stress contributes to anxiety and
cognitive problems that persist into adulthood, a phenomenon that could
be explained by lasting – and potentially damaging – changes in the
microbiome, according to new research in mice.
When pregnant mice
were exposed to stress in the study, it appeared to change the makeup of
the bacteria in both their guts and placentas, as well as in the
intestinal tracts of their female offspring, researchers at The Ohio
State University found. And those microbial changes lasted into
On top of that, the mice with stressed mothers
struggled in tests aimed at gauging anxiety and cognitive health
compared with female offspring of mice that were not stressed during
pregnancy. And markers of inflammation increased in the placenta, the
fetal brain and the adult brain of the offspring while a supportive
protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreased.
“More and more, doctors and researchers are understanding that
naturally occurring bacteria are not just a silent presence in our body,
but that they contribute to our health,” said Tamar Gur,
the lead researcher and assistant professor of psychiatry &
behavioral health, neuroscience and obstetrics & gynecology at Ohio
“These mice were more anxious, they spent more time in
dark, closed spaces and they had a harder time learning cognitive tasks
even though they were never stressed after birth.” Gur presented the
study on Nov. 14 in San Diego at Neuroscience 2016, the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience.
studies have found associations between maternal stress in both animals
and people to later mental health and behavioral problems in their
offspring. This study could begin to explain what’s at play in that
“We already understand that prenatal stress can be
bad for offspring, but the mystery is how,” said Gur, a psychiatrist who
is a member of Ohio State Wexner Medical Center’s Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research.
said microbes from a mother’s gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts
are the first to colonize in a developing fetus (and in newborns). That
makes the bacteria an interesting potential explanation of why and how
stress before an animal or person is born could prompt mental illness
that can last a lifetime.
This study is pointing to alterations in
the microbes that live in the placenta and outlines changes found in
the placentas of fetal mice that had stressed mothers.
Gur and her
colleagues found significant microbial changes to the placentas of the
female offspring of stressed mice. They also found alterations in
inflammation and growth factors in the placenta, pointing to changes in
how the microbes were influencing important dynamics before birth.
in the female offspring of the stressed mice, the researchers found a
lower ability to learn and higher anxiety-like behavior compared to the
offspring of non-stressed mother mice. Gur said the team found
interesting changes in the male offspring as well, but the details of
that part of the study are still in the works.
Gur said she wants
to know more about the links between the brain and the bacteria that
live in the gut, and she and her colleagues have plans to expand their
investigation to pregnant women and their babies. Perhaps one day the
work will lead to knowledge about how probiotics could help mitigate the
effects of stress and the downstream repercussions, but it’s too soon
now to say if they would have any impact, she said.
mother mice underwent two hours per day for seven days of restraint
meant to induce stress. For comparison, the researchers left another
group of pregnant mice undisturbed during gestation. Gut bacteria were
assessed using fecal samples from the mice.
Gur stressed that the
message here is not that mothers are to blame should their children
suffer mental illness later in life. Rather, she said, this scientific
development presents an opportunity to talk more about the importance of
mental health in general and during pregnancy.
“As a psychiatrist
who treats pregnant women, if you’re stressed, anxious or depressed, I
think pregnancy is a prime time for intervention,” Gur said. “And what’s
good for mom is good for the baby.”
honestly i could not have wanted more from that conversation. Vex and Percy have really showcased why i love them together in this ep, spending time together just cause, having those genuine and difficult conversations, and having fun being physically intimate as well. i just…really appreciate how many aspects of their relationship are just naturally occurring and i love these two so much
Morphine (C17H19NO3) is a naturally-occurring opioid produced in the opium poppy plant. It exists as a white powder with a bitter taste under standard conditions, and is sparingly soluble in water.
Morphine is used a narcotic analgesic - it relieves pain by acting on the central nervous system to reduce the body’s capability to appreciate pain. When consumed, it travels to the central nervous system, where it binds to the μ-opioid receptors. This triggers pain relief, sedation, and euphoria.
However, this can also result in a depression of the respiration system, resulting in asphyxiation and hypoxia. Furthermore, morphine results in dependence and addiction, as the body reduces the number of receptors in response to the greater stimulus. Consequently, greater amounts of morphine are needed to achieve the same analgesic or euphoric effect, and when morphine is withdrawn, the lower-than-normal stimulus level results in withdrawal symptoms.
Morphine is also used as a precursor to some related opioids, such as codeine.