native australia

The devil’s finger fungus (Clathrus archeri) is Native to Australia and New Zealand. It typically appears as a white, gelatinous orb, but when it comes time for fruiting, the ‘egg’ opens, unleashing four to eight blood-red arms. The tentacles are laced with a foul smelling tissue, specially formulated to attract flies and other insects.

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Inside look into the hive of Tetragonula carbonaria or the sugarbag bee. 


T. carbonaria are a stingless species of bee, native to Australia. They have the appearance of tiny black flying ants and, like honey bees are a eusocial species of bee. Meaning that they have a queen, workers and drones. Their social structure doesn’t appear to be as complex as honey bees. However this could be due to them only having been studied for the last 25 years compared to honey bees, which have been studied for centuries. 

T. carbonaria produce resin (as you can see in the photos above) for building, repairing and also as defense; entombing invaders. These bees also produce honey, but not much as one hive will only produce about one kg of honey. 

These bees also require specialised hive boxes called OATH (Original Australian Tetragonula Hive). This is because, unlike honey bee hives, frames cannot be added to their hive boxes, due to the way they build their hives. 

T. carbonaria build spiral shaped hives, with the brood cells in the center (green circle) and, the pollen (red) and honey pots (blue) on the outer sides surrounding the spiral shaped brood cell, where the queen lies in the center. 

Australia's Shame

Aboriginal people of the Stolen Generation were given criminal records for being taken away from their families by the Australian government. Their crime was being “a child in need of care.” They could be as young as two.

It was standard practice in Australia until 1989. Many are alive today who have a criminal record, solely for being born an Aboriginal person.

Prehistoric rock art in Australia’s Kimberly is famed for its age – it was painted between 70,000 and 46,000 years ago! But the paint itself is much, much younger. Wait, what? How can the paint be younger than the painting? Well, a new study found the vibrant artworks were colonized by colorful microbes, which serve as “living pigments” in the paintings. The colors we see today are direct descendants of the first founders, who grew where the original paints provided nutrients.

anonymous asked:

what is your opinion of taking the last of the species in the wild and putting them into zoos with the goal of eventually reintroducing there future offspring back into the wild

Very interesting question, theres examples where this worked but also some where this didnt worked

Where it worked

Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus

After 1945 only two captive populations of the Prezwalki’s horse in zoos remained, in Munich and in Prague. By the end of the 1950s, only 12 individual Przewalski’s horses were left in the world. In 1977, the Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski horse was founded in Rotterda, the Foundation started a program of exchange between captive populations in zoos throughout the world to reduce inbreeding, and later began a breeding program of its own. As a result of such efforts, the extant herd has retained a far greater genetic diversity than its genetic bottleneck made likely.

In 1992, sixteen horses were released into the wild in Mongolia, followed by additional animals later on. One of the areas to which they were reintroduced became Khustain Nuruu National Park in 1998. Another reintroduction site is Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area, located at the fringes of the Gobi desert. Lastly, in 2004 and 2005, 22 horses were released by the Association Takh to a third reintroduction site in the buffer zone of the Khar Us Nuur National Park, in the northern edge of the Gobi ecoregion.

Since 2011, Prague Zoo has transported twelve horses to Mongolia in three rounds and it plans to continue to return horses to the wild in the future. The Zoo has the longest uninterrupted history of breeding of Przewalski’s horses in the world and keeps the studbook of this species.

The reintroduced horses successfully reproduced, and the status of the animal was changed from “extinct in the wild” to “endangered” in 2005. On the IUCN Red List, they were reclassified from “extinct in the wild” to “critically endangered” after a reassessment in 2008 and from “critically endangered” to “endangered” after a 2011 reassessment.

California condor (Gymnogyps californianus

Condor numbers dramatically declined in the 20th century due to poaching, lead poisoning, and habitat destruction. A conservation plan was put in place by the United States government that led to the capture of all the remaining wild condors which was completed in 1987, with a total population of 27 individuals. These surviving birds were bred at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park and the Los Angeles Zoo. Numbers rose through captive breeding and, beginning in 1991, condors were reintroduced into the wild. The California condor is one of the world’s rarest bird species: as of December 2015 there are 435 condors living wild or in captivity.

Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx

The Phoenix Zoo and the Fauna and Flora Preservation Society of London are credited with saving the Arabian oryx from extinction. In 1962, these groups started the first captive-breeding herd in any zoo, at the Phoenix Zoo, sometimes referred to as “Operation Oryx”. Starting with 9 animals, the Phoenix Zoo has had over 240 successful births. From Phoenix, oryx were sent to other zoos and parks to start new herds.

Arabian oryx were hunted to extinction in the wild by 1972. By 1980, the number of Arabian oryx in captivity had increased to the point that reintroduction to the wild was started. The first release, to Oman, was attempted with oryx from the San Diego Wild Animal Park. Although numbers in Oman have declined, there are now wild populations in Saudi Arabia and Israel, as well. One of the largest populations is found in Mahazat as-Sayd Protected Area, a large, fenced reserve in Saudi Arabia, covering more than 2000 km2.

In June 2011, the Arabian oryx was relisted as vulnerable by the IUCN Red List. The IUCN estimated more than 1,000 Arabian oryx in the wild, with 6,000–7,000 held in captivity worldwide in zoos, preserves, and private collections.

Where it didnt work

Thylacin (Thylacinus cynocephalus)

The Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times. It is commonly known as the Tasmanian tiger or the Tasmanian wolf. Native to continental Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea, it is believed to have become extinct in the 20th century

The last captive thylacine, later referred to as “Benjamin”, was trapped in the Florentine Valley by Elias Churchill in 1933, and sent to the Hobart Zoo where it lived for three years. The thylacine died on 7 September 1936. It is believed to have died as the result of neglect—locked out of its sheltered sleeping quarters, it was exposed to a rare occurrence of extreme Tasmanian weather: extreme heat during the day and freezing temperatures at night.

Quagga (Equus quagga quagga

The Quagga was an extinct subspecies of plains zebra that lived in South Africa until the 19th century.

After the Dutch settlement of South Africa began, the quagga was heavily hunted as it competed with domesticated animals for forage. While some individuals were taken to zoos in Europe, breeding programs were unsuccessful. The last wild population lived in the Orange Free State, and the quagga was extinct in the wild by 1878. The last captive specimen died in Amsterdam on 12 August 1883.

So you see this can go either way but i would say overall if it helps the species im for it because nature conservation is very important to me

deadline.com
‘Titans’: Brenton Thwaites To Play Lead Dick Grayson In DC Live-Action Series
Brenton Thwaites (Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales) has been tapped for the lead role of Dick Grayson in the new live-action series Titans, from Greg Berlanti, Akiva Goldsman, Geoff…
By Nellie Andreeva

Brenton Thwaites (Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales) has been tapped for the lead role of Dick Grayson in the new live-action series Titans, from Greg Berlanti, Akiva Goldsman, Geoff Johns, Sarah Schechter and Warner Bros TV, which is slated to premiere in 2018 as part of the inaugural slate of a new DC-branded direct-to-consumer digital service.

Written by Goldsman, DC Entertainment’s Johns and Berlanti, Titans follows a group of young soon-to-be superheroes recruited from every corner of the DC Universe. In the action-adventure series, Dick Grayson (Thwaites) emerges from the shadows to become the leader of a fearless band of new heroes that includes Starfire (Anna Diop), Raven (Teagan Croft) and others.

After breakout roles on TV series Home and Away and Slide in his native Australia, Thwaites had been focused on features, appearing in The Giver, Gods of Egypt, Maleficent and Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales. He was pursued for Titans, which would mark his first U.S. TV series gig.

“Dick Grayson is one of the most important and iconic heroes in the DC universe, and it wasn’t easy to find him but we have,” Johns said. “Brenton has the emotional depth, heart, danger and physical presence of Batman’s former protege and the Titans’ future leader. We’re extremely lucky he’s chosen to bring his talents to this project and this character.”

Comic book fans know Dick Grayson as Batman’s famous sidekick, Robin. After Dick’s parents were murdered during their high-flying circus act, Bruce Wayne became Dick’s legal guardian and trained him to fight crime beside him. But after years as part of the Dynamic Duo, Dick struggled to find his place outside the Dark Knight’s shadow. Finally striking out as his own man, he emerges as a leader, mentor, and father figure to his new family, the Titans.

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10 amazing animals you’ve never heard of before - but need to hear about now as some are endangered

1. Okapi - found in Central Africa. Endangered
2. Quoll - native to Australia and New Guinea. Threatened
3. Mara - native to South America. Threatened
4. Rock hyrax - native to sub-saharan Africa and South Africa. Not threatened
5. Dhole - native to Asia. Endangered
6. Japanese dwarf flying squirrel. Not threatened
7. Ring-tailed coati - native to South america. Not threatened
8. Pink fairy armadillo - native to Argentina. Currently no conservation status
9. Marble fox - native to Canada. Endangered
10. Australian golden possum. Not threatened

The Extinct Thylacine or Tasmanian Tiger

The Thylacine was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times.  It is commonly known as the Tasmanian tiger (because of its striped lower back) or the Tasmanian wolf.  Native to continental Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea, it is believed to have become extinct in the 20th century.  It was the last extant member of its family, Thylacinidae;  specimens of other members of the family have been found in the fossil record dating back to the late Oligocene.

The Thylacine had become extremely rare or extinct on the Australian mainland before British settlement of the continent, but it survived on the island of Tasmania along with several other endemic species, including the Tasmanian Devil.  Intensive hunting encouraged by bounties is generally blamed for its extinction, but other contributing factors may have been disease, the introduction of dogs, and human encroachment into its habitat.  Despite its official classification as extinct, sightings are still reported, though none has been conclusively proven.

About the video:  Compilation of all five known Australian silent films featuring the recently extinct thylacines, shot in Hobart Zoo, Tasmania, Australia. Benjamin, the last specimen, is shown in the footage starting from 2:05.  The clips are separated by fades.

Video Source (public domain);  reference

In the late nineteenth century, government officials in both the United States and Australia devised new policies for indigenous peoples: “assimilation” in the United States and “protection” in Australia. As can be seen by Commissioner Morgan’s quote, officials often proclaimed that they were ushering in a new age of dealing fairly and kindly with the remaining indigenous inhabitants. Yet these new policies actually entailed one of the most draconian measures possible: the removal of indigenous children from their kin and communities to be raised in distant institutions. Instead of breaking with the past use of violence and force, these new approaches are best seen as part of a continuum of colonizing approaches, all aimed ultimately at extinguishing indigenous people ’s claims to their remaining land. 2 As the anthropologist Ann Laura Stoler finds, “The politics of compassion was not an oppositional assault on empire but a fundamental element of it”; the “production and harnessing of sentiment” comprised a key “technology of the colonial state.”

In both countries, government officials and reformers used a remarkably similar language to justify their policies. They routinely asserted that the removal of indigenous children from their families would “save” the children from lives of backwardness and poverty in their “camps” and “civilize” and make them “useful” in Australian and American societies. Authorities also warned that if children were not removed, indigenous people would become a “burden” or a “menace” to their emerging nations. Just underneath this articulated layer of justification lay a bedrock of concerns about defining and building the nation — as white, Christian, and modern. Policy makers regarded the surviving indigenous populations as standing in the way of national unity, modernity, and progress and envisioned child removal as a means to complete the colonization of indigenous peoples. Significantly, whereas U.S. authorities focused primarily on culturally assimilating Indian children, many Australian officials promoted the biological absorption of Aboriginal children, what they termed “breeding out the colour.” 

- from White mother to a dark race: settler colonialism, maternalism, and the removal of indigenous children in the American West and Australia, 1880-1940, by Margaret D. Jacobs (2009)