this day in 1890, the Native American Lakota Sioux chief,
Sitting Bull, was killed at the Standing Rock Indian Reservation. Formal peaceful relations between the Sioux and
the United States
government began in 1868 upon the signing of the Fort Laramie
Treaty. However, the discovery of gold in the Black Hills - which were in Sioux territory - in the
1870s led to a torrent of white prospectors invading the Sioux lands.
The numerous Sioux tribes united
under Sitting Bull’s leadership, and initially secured some
victories over American forces. The most famous battle of the Great Sioux War of 1876 was the Battle of Little
Bighorn, where Sioux and Cheyenne warriors defeated the famed General
Custer. Sitting Bull then led his people to Canada, only to come back to America in
It was around this time that he joined Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West
Show, but he soon returned to
his people to protect the rights of indigenous Americans. Sitting Bull
was killed on the Standing Rock Indian
Reservation in 1890 by U.S. troops, who were trying to arrest him under fears
would join the Ghost Dance movement.
“I would rather die an Indian than live a white man”
Me: *Internally* Its 2015, you should know the difference between Native American and Indian. And if you don’t, then you should know that there is a better way to ask this question rather than demeaning both races down to two objects. Two objects that you happen to love to appropriate. “Feather and Dot” mean more to each respective culture, and are not a means of classification for our individual ethnicity.
On this day in 1890, hundreds of Native Americans were killed by United States government forces at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Tensions between the federal government and the indigenous peoples of America had led to frequent bouts of warfare ever since the country was first colonised by Europeans. These wars became particularly intense during the latter half of the nineteenth century, and despite several key victories for Native Americans - most famously at the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876 - the federal government increasingly pushed native peoples onto reservations. The government were particularly alarmed by the growing Ghost Dance movement, which was a spiritual movement which prophesised the imminent defeat of the white man and the resumption of the traditional Indian way of life. The movement factored into mounting tensions at Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, which were exacerbated by the murder of Sioux chief Sitting Bull on December 15th 1890. The situation came to a head fourteen days later, when the U.S. Army’s 7th Cavalry surrounded a group of Ghost Dancers, under the leadership of Lakota Sioux chief Big Foot, near Wounded Knee Creek in the reservation. During this confrontation, a shot was fired, and the fighting descended into a massacre of Native Americans by the well-equipped army. It is estimated that around 200 people died - nearly half of whom were women and children - though some historians place the number much higher. Only 25 U.S. soldiers were killed, and 20 of the survivors were awarded the Medal of Honor. The Wounded Knee massacre was a pivotal moment in the history of indigenous relations in North America, as it marks the last major confrontation of the Indian wars. The incident also provides a poignant symbol around which Native American activist groups have rallied, providing the title for Dee Brown’s famous history Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (1970), and becoming the focal point of the occupation of Wounded Knee in 1973.
can you do a post on how each of the founding fathers felt about native americans?
I couldn’t find enough information to make a formal presentation- which I initially tried at first (which it took me to long to answer this- I apologize!) But I typed it up instead.
Benjamin Franklin, felt sympathy for the Native Americans. He had acquired this first by publishing treaty accounts, then by taking part in treaty councils. On December 14, 1763, fifty-seven vigilantes from Paxton and Donegal, two frontier towns, rode into Conestoga Manor, an Indian settlement, and killed six of twenty Indians living there. Two weeks later, more than 200 “Paxton Men” (as they were now called) invaded Lancaster, where the remaining fourteen Conestoga Indians had been placed in a workhouse for their own protection. Smashing in the workhouse door as the outnumbered local militia looked on, the Paxton Men killed the rest of the Conestoga band, leaving the bodies in a heap within sight of the places where the Anglo-Iroquois alliance had been cemented less than two decades before. Franklin responded to the massacres with the an enraged piece of writing- A Narrative of the Late Massacres in Lancaster County of a Number of Indians, Friends of this Province, by Persons Unknown. It displayed a degree of entirely humorless anger that Franklin rarely used in his writings.
“But the Wickedness cannot be Covered, the Guilt will lie on the Whole Land, till Justice is done on the Murderers. THE BLOOD OF THE INNOCENT WILL CRY TO HEAVEN FOR VENGEANCE!”
Franklin went on to defend the Native Americans who were massacred. Franklin continued to develop his philosophy with abundant references to the Indian societies he had observed so closely during his days as envoy to the Six Nations. Franklin’s writings on Native Americans were remarkably free of ethnocentricism, although he often used words such as “savages,” . Franklin’s cultural relativism was perhaps one of the purest expressions of Enlightenment assumptions that stressed racial equality and the universality of moral sense among peoples. His writing seemed like he admired the simple life that the Native Americans lived.
George Washington’s presidency established much of the basis for the federal Native American policies we have today. Like others who were not Native Americans of this era, he viewed them as a vanishing people, or at least a people who at some time in the near future would cease to exist in the United States. Native Americans were to either die out, migrate, or become totally assimilated. Near the beginning of his first term as President, George Washington declared that a just Indian policy was one of his highest priorities, explaining that,
"The Government of the United States are determined that their Administration of Indian Affairs shall be directed entirely by the great principles of Justice and humanity.“
Congress proceeded to approve a treaty with seven northern tribes (the Shawnee, Miami, Ottawa, Chippewa, Iroquois, Sauk, and Fox).
This agreement, however, lacked meaningful protection of tribal land. Members of the northern tribes believed it was necessary to use force to prevent further incursions. Washington’s sent American military response. In 1790 and 1791, Washington dispatched armies to confront native forces, and in both instances the Americans were defeated. Washington sought to provide safe havens for native tribes while also assimilating them into American society.
Washington believed that if they failed to at least make an effort to secure Native American land, their chances of convincing Native Americans to transform their hunting culture to one of farming and herding would be undermined. As the two reluctantly came to recognize, however, it was the settlers pouring into the western frontier that controlled the national agenda regarding Native Americans and their land.
During John Adams’s presidency, in his first annual message to Congress, Adams referred to relationships with the Indians as, “this unpleasant state of things on our western frontier.” Foreign agents, he said, were trying to “alienate the affections of the Indian nations and to excite them to actual hostilities against the United States.”
The same year, the newly formed Tennessee legislature informed Adams that the Cherokee Indians were occupying their territories as “tenants at will,” or at the forbearance of whites. In response, Adams sent a letter to “his beloved chiefs, warriors and children of the Cherokee Nation,” explaining that squatters had gone beyond the boundary established in a 1791 treaty and had protested when the federal government tried to remove them.
In the letter, Adams asked the Cherokee to acknowledge the “sincere friendship of the United States,” but said his “stronger obligations” were to “hear the complaints, and relieve, as far as in my power, the distresses of my white children, citizens of the United States.” The result was the 1798 Treaty of Tellico, in which the Cherokee ceded more of their homelands in eastern Tennessee.
The treaty was the last of four enacted during Adams’ four years in office, from 1797 to 1801. He also oversaw treaties with the Mohawk, Seneca and Oneida, who relinquished all their lands in the state of New York. His first encounter with Native Americans occurred when he was a boy and leaders of the Punkapaug and Neponset tribes called on his father. In a letter penned to a friend, Adams called Natives “blood hounds” who, let loose, could scalp men and butcher women and children. Much like the other founding fathers, Adams held conflicted beliefs about Natives and their role in the nation’s future.
In his inauguration speech, Adams pledged himself to a spirit of “equity and humanity” toward the Indians. He promised to “meliorate their condition by inclining them to be more friendly to us, and our citizens to be more friendly to them.” But Adams also ignored existing treaties and established the Indiana Territory in 1800.
Thomas Jefferson viewed American Indians or Native Americans as subjects of intellectual curiosity or saw them in political terms as enemies in war or partners in peace. Jefferson’s long public career during a time period allowed him to shape the relations between the United States and the various Native American nations.
“I beleive the Indian then to be in body and mind equal to the whiteman,“
Only their environment needed to be changed to make them fully American in Jefferson’s mind. Even though many American Indians lived in villages and many engaged in agriculture, hunting was often still necessary for subsistence. Jefferson believed that if American Indians were made to adopt European-style agriculture and live in European-style towns and villages, then they would quickly "progress” from “savagery” to “civilization” and eventually be equal, in his mind, to white men.
Thomas Jefferson believed Native American peoples to be a noble race. Nevertheless, Jefferson developed plans for Indian removal to lands West of the Mississippi. Before and during his presidency, Jefferson discussed the need for respect, brotherhood, and trade with the Native Americans. Yet beginning in 1803, Jefferson’s private letters show increasing support for a policy of removal.
Jefferson was fascinated with the Indian culture and language. His home at Monticello was filled with Indian artifacts obtained from the Lewis and Clark expedition. He had compiled a dictionary and assorted grammars of the Indian language. Jefferson refuted these notions in his book, Notes on the State of Virginia, where he defended American Indian and their culture. Andrew Jackson is often credited with initiating Indian Removal. But Jackson was merely legalizing and implementing a plan laid out by Jefferson in a series of letters that began in 1803, although Jefferson did not implement the plan during his own presidency. Jefferson advocated for the militarization of the Western border, along the Mississippi River. He felt that the best way to accomplish this was to flood the area with a large population of white settlements.
In his first Inaugural Address upon assuming office, James Madison stated that the federal government’s duty was to convert the American Indians by the, “participation of the improvements of which the human mind and manners are susceptible in a civilized state.” Like most American leaders at the time, Madison had a paternalistic and discriminatory attitude toward American Natives. He encouraged American Native men to give up hunting and become farmers and supported the conversion of American Natives to a European way of life.
Yet for a president who “pushed hard” for expansion, Madison rarely spoke about Indians. Privately, however, Madison was skeptical of the beliefs behind federal Indian policy, which at that time focused on civilization, or transitioning Indians from their “savage” state to agricultural societies. Madison believed that Indians would resist civilization.
The Hamilton-Oneida Academy in Clinton, New York was created with the idea of educating Indian and white children side by side to build cultural understanding. The charter for the academy was granted in 1793. Hamilton was incorporated as a trustee and a namesake of the school soon after. Hamilton had an equally enlightened opinion of Indians even after some of them, in the pay of the British, threatened to attack the home of his father-in-law, Philip Schuyler, in Albany in 1781 while Hamilton’s pregnant wife was living there. The Native Americans and their fellow British raiders were scared off when one of the Schuyler women bluffed that a group of rebel soldiers was on its way (by the way- it was Margarita “Peggy”).
In spite of their presence in the raiding party, Philip Schuyler negotiated with neighboring tribes to keep them neutral during the war. After the war, when speculators wanted to push Indians out of western New York, Hamilton warned that only friendly relations with the natives would guarantee peace. He also became a trustee of what was later named Hamilton College, a school that accepted Indian students as well as whites.
James Monroe during his presidency recommended that Indians who wanted to own land as individuals should be allowed to do so and should be given a fee simple title to their land. This would, of course, break up the communal land holdings of the tribes and allow lands to be acquired and developed by non-Indians.
In 1824, President James Monroe presented Congress with a plan for “civilizing” Indians by sending them voluntarily west of the Mississippi River.
On this day in 1885, Métis leader Louis Riel was executed. Riel, born at the Red River Settlement in 1844, was an accomplished student who was given a scholarship to study at a seminary in Montreal. However, he later left the seminary and returned to Red River, and became active in the natives’ defiance of attempts by Canada to buy their land. As leader of the Métis National Committee, Riel led efforts to hault Canadian land surveys and coordinate with native groups to defend their land and consider entering confederation with Canada. The process hit a roadblock when a group of Métis, alarmed by the presence of armed Canadians in their land, executed a young Protestant called Thomas Scott by firing squad. However, ultimately an agreement was reached, and in 1870 the Province of Manitoba was created, which including 1.4 million acres reserved for Métis residents. Riel remained a controversial figure for his role in Scott’s death, and he soon fled to the United States, fearing for his safety from the Canadian military. In 1873, Riel left hiding to run for federal election, and became a member of the House of Commons. However, he was never able to take his seat and was soon expelled from the Commons. In 1884 he returned from America to assist Métis people in Saskatchewan to articulate their grievances against Canada, but this confrontation soon broke out into warfare. After the Métis were defeated, Riel was arrested and charged with treason and hanged on November 16th 1885. Riel’s execution made him a martyr for the Métis people, and repeated calls have been made for a retroactive pardon.
Based on a post I saw by Barnes and Nobles, I decided I’d do book recommendations based on your favorite Disney Princess! The post by B&N only included, like, six princesses and there are so many awesome lead females so I included a lot of Disney female leads in the princess category (17 Disney ladies, total!) Also, warning, most of these are fantasy books because most of the Disney ladies come from fantasy and fairy tales.
Snow White: Snow White was the first Disney Princess and very “traditional” in design. I looked for interesting retellings that spiced up the original story, like Stitching Snow by R.C. Lewiswhich has a Sci-Fi twist (and an excellent cover) andBoy, Snow, Bird by Helen Oyeyemi which deals with race and family in the early 1950s.
Cinderella: Did you know that the Throne of Glass series by Sarah J Maas was originally inspired by Cinderella, despite the series going in a decidedly different direction? Well it was, and I love that a simple fairy tale inspired an intense high fantasy series. Cinderella is also the inspiration forThe Lunar Chronicles by Marissa Meyer which is a sweeping and beautiful Science Fiction series that utilizes several fairy tale stories with kick-ass heroines and amazing plot lines that weave together for an epic saga.
Aurora: For the lovely Sleeping Beauty, I picked two books that have a focus on curses. First, Ella Enchanted by Gail Carson Levine. But wait, you cry, that’s a Cinderella retelling! Yes, yes it is. But Ella is cursed with obedience while Aurora was cursed with endless sleep. Both books are about young women fighting against magic restraints but Ella is able to get up and do more about it! My second recommendation is The Sevenwaters series by Juliet Marillier. It focuses on different young women shaping their own fates through curses, fae interference, and finding love. It does have triggers though, so be wary!
Belle: A Court of Thorns and Roses by Sarah J Maasis another Maas novel inspired by a fairy tale and while ACoTaR is a bit steamier and definitely different, it has all the elements of a Beauty and the Beast story but goes further. A second pick is The Winner’s Trilogy by Marie Rutkoski. A female protagonist whose strength is wit, not combat, and is dealing with a star-crossed love that has a poor outlook will be very suitable for Belle fans.
Jasmine:The Wrath and the Dawn by Renee Ahdiehwas inspired by 1001 Arabian Nights, the same series of stories where Aladdin originally appeared. It’s intoxicating love story and beautiful atmosphere is definitely on point. My other pick has to be Written in the Stars by Aisha Saeed, inspired by Jasmine’s cultural roots and the fact that Jasmine was almost forced into an arranged marriage herself.
Esmeralda: Esmeralda was a difficult lady to select books based on, but her Romani heritage and struggles are something many people should learn more about, so American Gypsy by Oksana Marafiotiis a novel to look out for, written by a Romani woman about her teenage years in America. For more fiction and fantasy Six of Crows by Leigh Bardugohas a character, Inej, from a nomadic tribe very similar to the Romani in how they are treated by others. Inej is just a kind-hearted and bad ass as Esmeralda herself!
Megara: Looking for a greek myth-inspired series with bad ass lady leads?Heroes of Olympus by Rick Riordanmay seem the obvious choice and it is, but only because of the strong, sassy, and diverse female leads in the series are absolutely amazing, just like Meg herself! Another more romantic but still kick ass greek myth inspired series is Starcrossed by Josephine Angelini.
Mulan: Asian-inspired fantasy is one of my favorite sub-genres with Eon and Eona by Alison Goodmanbeing very high up on the list for it’s great story, interesting magic, strong female lead, and its fantasy version of ancient China. Cindy Pon’s Silver Phoenixis also an engaging story with inspiration from Chinese myths and legends that really creates a wonderful atmosphere.
Rapunzel: While Seraphina’s isolation is self-imposed,Seraphina by Rachel Hartmantells the story of a young woman going outside her comfort zone and discovering herself, much in the same way Rapunzel does. For a retelling of Rapunzel’s story, try Bitter Greens by Kate Forsyth, which mixes history and romance with the well-known tale.
Merida: Okay, I have to say it:Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins. It’s about a female archer who fights for her nation while being constantly irritated by the two boys trying to court her. It just works!! There’s also Shadowfell by Juliet Marillier, a young adult fantasy series with female protagonists and inspired by Scottish myths.
Elsa: For Elsa, what could be more perfect thanSnow Like Ashes by Sara Raasch? A book about winter magic, a girl who feels out of place and unsure of her role in her kingdom, and learning to accept yourself and fight for those you care about. Spot on! Also keep a look out for Stealing Snow by Danielle Paige(out in September!),a retelling of The Snow Queen in which the character is much more than she was in the original story.
On this day in 1969, the occupation of Alcatraz in San Francisco by the Indians of All Tribes movement began. The occupation lasted for nineteen months, ending on June 11th 1971. Inspired by wider civil rights efforts in the 1960s, the Red Power movement advocated the cause of American Indians. Activists argued that Alcatraz island, site of a disused penitentiary, belonged to indigenous Americans by an 1868 treaty between the US government and Sioux. A small group first occupied the island, for only four hours, on March 8th 1964; they offered to pay the government the same as was offered the Sioux - just under $10 for the whole island. However, the long-term occupation did not begin until November 20th 1969 when fourteen activists (79 tried to get to the island but were blocked by the Coast Guard) took the island. They intended to reclaim the island and establish Native American museums and research centres. Supporters brought food and supplies to the occupiers and some joined the group, with 400 protestors at the occupation’s height. Public support for the occupation eventually dwindled and protestors began to leave, allowing the government to come in and remove the remaining fifteen protestors. While immediately unsuccessful, the occupation of Alcatraz helped draw international attention to the situation of American Indians and promoted the rise of indigenous activism. Between 1970 and 1971, the Nixon administration increased funding for Indian health care and scholarships. The occupation of Alcatraz is commemorated today with the island’s ‘Unthanksgiving Day’ which celebrates the rights of indigenous Americans.
this day in 1622, the Jamestown massacre occurred in colonial Virginia.
Jamestown was the first successful English settlement in North America, following the failure of previous attempts to colonise North
America, most notoriously with the lost colony of Roanoke. On March 22nd,
fighters of the Powhatan confederation of Native American tribes - also known as
Algonquian Indians - came into the houses of the settlers in the area,
grabbed their weapons, and attacked them. 347 people died in the
incident, which made up a quarter of the English population at
Jamestown. The massacre was in response to the colonists’ mistreatment
of Native Americans, which included burning down their homes, destroying food supplies,
and threatening expansion into their land. In retaliation, Native American fighters
launched a surprise attack on the area. However, as it was forewarned, Jamestown itself was
spared from the worst of the violence. The incident is one of many conflicts
between Native Americans and English settlers in the early days of the
colonial venture, as the settlers increasingly encroached upon indigenous
These and hundreds of similar messages have flooded Twitter since last week under
the hashtag #DearNativeYouth. Within days of its launch, the campaign,
created by University of Washington sociocultural anthropology Ph.D.
candidate Brooke Spotted Eagle, accumulated an inspiring collection of life-affirming messages directed at
young Native Americans.
I have never really liked elves in fiction until Dragon Age. I’ve really come to identify with them since, as a Native American, I see the loss of and attempts to retain our culture mirrored in game by Dalish and City Elves. To me it’s comforting to see such an important topic given a new angle, since it allows people outside of my group (who may have previously felt uncomfortable about the topic) a chance to maybe understand Native American issues today.
Say the words “Native American” and “fashion” in the same sentence, and the first images that pop into your head are likely the least accurate: headdresses, fringes and moccasins. Such items — blithely adopted by celebrities and concert-going teens, but especially the fashion industry — are wildly popular, but for all the wrong reasons.
But what does positive, non-offensive Native American fashion actually look like? We called Jessica R. Metcalfe, Ph.D. and creator Beyond Buckskin, a blog focused on Native American fashion, plus an online boutique of the same name, at her home base in North Dakota for a nuanced take on the Native American fashion landscape today.
On this day in 1924, the Indian Citizenship Act was signed into law by President Calvin Coolidge. This act, proposed by Representative Homer Snyder (R - NY), conferred citizenship on all Native Americans born in the United States. After decades of brutal Indian warfare, the 1870s had seen an attempt to establish a Peace Policy, which intended to start Native Americans on a route to citizenship. However, indigenous Americans were explicitly excluded from national citizenship in the Fourteenth Amendment of 1868. Several developments were made towards citizenship in the next few decades, including being extended to Native American World War One veterans in 1919. Despite the passage of the 1924 act, many Native Americans continued to be denied suffrage until 1948.