Józef Haller von Hallenburg (August 13, 1873 – June 4, 1960) was a Lieutenant General of the Polish Army, a legionary in the Polish Legions, harcmistrz (the highest Scouting instructor rank in Poland), the President of the Polish Scouting and Guiding Association (ZHP), and a political and social activist. He was the cousin of Stanisław Haller de Hallenburg. (Colorized by Marina Amaral from Brazil)



This is one of the short films made as part of the Legendy Polskie cycle (”Polish Legends”). Directed and designed by a CGI artist acclaimed worldwide, Tomasz Bagiński, the cycle aims to present Polish folklore in a new manner, and to prove that fantasy films can be done well (or better!) outside of Hollywood.

The goal is to combine modern, world-class filmmaking with… some of the more typical aspects of Polish-ness, not only where legends are concerned.

This installment in the series does not require knowing any particular legend, the English subs are passable (though it’s less funny, some of this stuff is not very translate-able), so it’s pretty accessible to general public.

Also, really cool.

For explanations of some things that may perplex foreigners, see below.

Keep reading

Terms of Endearment in Polish

Originally posted by uncountablehope

Here is a list of cute things you can call your bae or friends in Polish!

It’s a common thing to use my before the following terms:
mój (m) moja (f) moje (n):

  • aniołku - angel
  • cukierku - sweetie
  • cukiereczku - sweetie
  • dziubku - little beak
  • dziubuś - little beak
  • drogi (m) droga (f) - dear
  • gwiazdko - star
  • gwiazdeczko - star
  • kochany (m) kochana (f) - love
  • kochanie - dear, love
  • kotek - kitten
  • kocie - kitten
  • koteczku - kitten
  • króliczku - bunny
  • księżniczko - princess
  • kwiatku - flower
  • kwiatuszku - flower
  • misiu - teddy bear
  • misiaku - teddy bear
  • misio - teddy bear
  • motylku - butterfly
  • myszko - mouse
  • perełko - pearl
  • robaczku - little bug
  • rodzynku - raisin
  • różyczko - rose
  • rybko - little fish
  • rybeńko - little fish
  • serce - heart
  • serduszko - sweetheart
  • skarbie - honey
  • skarbeńku - honey
  • słodyczko - sweetness
  • słonko - sunshine
  • słoneczko - sunshine
  • stokrotko - daisy
  • truskaweczko - strawberry
  • tygrysku - tiger
  • ukochany (m) ukochana (f) - darling
  • złotko - gold
  • żabko - froggie

Kocham Cię - I love you 
Lubię Cię or Podabasz mi się - I like you
Jesteś piękny/piękna - You are beautiful
Myślę o Tobie - I am thinking about you
Pocałuj mnie - Kiss me
Daj mi buzi - Give me a kiss
Przytul mnie - Hug me

This a detail of the Silesian Museum in Katowice, completed in 2013 by architects Riegler Riewe. The spatial program is placed entirely below ground, with glass cubes emerging at the surface and letting the natural light flow in. It’s a beautiful space in situ of the old coal mine. As a bonus, this image is also a representation of the flag of Poland :)

Photo: Wojciech Barczuk / metaluna. instagram: wojciechbarczuk
Styling: Jan Kryszczak / metaluna. instagram: janekkryszczak
Make-Up: Magdalena Kanabis. instagram: mkanabis
Hair Styling: Sylwia Habdas / metaluna. instagram: sylwia.habdas
Model: Nadia Wójcik / Rebel Models instagram: nadiawojcik
Retusz: Kuba Sapija / metaluna
kurtka: New Look, spódnica: LiuJo
top: Adidas, spódnica: Kenzo
kurtka: Levi’s, spódnica: BCBG Max Azria, buty: New Look
bluza: Puma, spódnica, buty: New Look
top, bluzka, spodnie: Adidas, buty: New Look
t-shirt – Dolce&Gabbana sukienka: SiMi
kombinezon, bluza: Adidas


  • This post is about singular noun cases only, I will make a separate post for plural.
  • Some nouns undergo a changing or softening of vowels to accommodate a case ending.
  • Nouns that are of a particular gender and have the ending of another gender take the same rules as if they were of the other gender, example: Mężczyzna (man) acts as Feminine.

Dopełniacz / Genitive

Animate Masculine and Neuter Nouns
These nouns always take the ending -a

Kot > Kota
Pies > Psa
Chłopiec > Chłopca
Dziecko > Dziecka
Krzesło > Krzesła

Inanimate Masculine Nouns
Most of the these nouns take the ending -u

Dom > Domu
Stół > Stołu
Plac > Placu

However, there are some of these nouns that take the -a ending as well.

Nos > Nosa
Koniec > Końca

Feminine Nouns

Most feminine nouns take the ending -y
Nouns ending in -ka, -ga, take the ending -ki, -gi respectively
Nouns ending in -y, take the ending -i
Nouns ending in -ć or -ź, become -ci and -zi
Nouns of foreign origin often get the ending -ii

Kobieta > Kobiety
Szlanka > Szlanki
Droga > Drogi
Miłość > Miłości
Kategoria > Kategorii

Celownik / Dative

Masculine Nouns
Most masculine nouns take the ending -owi. Like other cases, there will be times where variations of vowel change (ą to ę) or vowel dropping (ę) are possible.

Lekarz > Lekarzowi
Mąż > Mężowi
Koń > Koniowi

Neuter nouns and a small number of Masculine nouns take the ending -u

Brat > Bratu
Kot > Kotu
Dziecko > Dziecku
Słowo > Słowu

Feminine Nouns
Most feminine nouns end in -(i)e.
Very often, consonant change or softening occurs:

  • -ka > ce
  • -ga/da > dze
  • -ta > cie
  • -ł > l
  • -p > pi
  • -m > mi
  • -n > ni

Koleżanka > Koleżance
Mama > Mamie
Szkoła > Szkole
Gazeta > Gazecie

Birenik / Accusative

Animate Masculine Nouns
These nouns act like in the Genitive Case and take the ending -a

Kot > Kota
Chłopiec > Chłopca

There are a few exceptions:

Pomidor > Pomidora (tomato)

Neuter Nouns and Inanimate Masculine Nouns
These nouns take no ending and stay the same as in the Nominative.

Feminine Nouns:
Remove the -a and replace it with (or sometimes add) -ę

Mama > Mamę
Szkoła > Szkołę
Kobieta > Kobietę

Narzednik / Instrumental

Masculine Nouns
All masculine nouns take the ending -em
If the nouns contain -ie, it is removed and replaced with -em
If the nouns contain -ó, it is replaced by -o and the -em is attached
-ś, -ć, -ń, -ź are replaced by -si, -ci, -ni, -zi before the -em
Nouns ending in -g, or -k get an additional -i before the -em

Koń > Koniem
Gość > Gościem
Pociąg > Pociągiem

Neuter Nouns
Nouns ending in -e get an extra -m
nouns ending in -o are replaced by the ending -em
-k, -g get an additional -i

Piwo > Piwem
Dziecko > Dzieckiem

Feminine Nouns
The ending -a is replaced by -ą
-ś, -ć, -ń, -ź are replaced by -si, -ci, -ni, -zi before the -ą

Mama > Mamą
Książka > Książką
Kość > Kością

Miejscownik / Locative

Masculine Nouns
There are two groups for this case (these nouns get softening as well like feminine nouns in the Dative case), one group takes -(i)e and the others take -u

  • -ie after: b, f, m, n, p, s, w, z, d, t
  • -e after: r, ł

Chleb > Chlebie
Instytut > Instytucie
Stół > Stole

Nouns ending in one of the following get -u:

  • k, g, c, j, l, ch, dz, sz, rz, cz, ż, dź, dż, ć, ś, ń, ź

Dach > Dachu
Lekarz > Lekarzu
Ptak > Ptaku

Neuter Nouns
Nouns ending in -o get the ending -e
Nouns ending in -e, -cho, -go, -ko get the ending -u

Kino > Kinie
Mieszkanie > Mieszkaniu
Morze > Morzu

Feminine Nouns
These nouns are mostly the same as the feminine nouns in the dative case.
Although some nouns take -i after: l, k, ś, ć, ź, dź, ń
and some take -y after: cz, rz, ż, sz, dz

Lekcja > Lekcji
Twarz > Twarzy

Wołacz / Vocative

Masculine Nouns
The same rules as the Masculine Locative nouns applies to these too.
Exceptions: nouns ending in -iec get the ending -cze

Ojciec > Ojcze
Chłopiec > Chłopcze

Neuter Nouns
These nouns take no ending and stay the same as in the Nominative.

Feminine Nouns
Replace -a with the ending -o
Some Female nouns in the diminutive or pet names get the ending -u

Koleżanka > Koleżanko
Mama > Mamo
Tata > Tato
Ciocia > Ciociu
Babcia > Baciu