national convention

9 Thermidor (Françoise Brunel)

More than any other memorable date of the revolutionary decade, 9 Thermidor remains prisoner of its historiographical legend. In the « speech of the Revolution on itself », the event is immediately presented under the dual appearance of a last rupture and of a founding episode. Thus, the declaration then made by Collot d'Herbois, president of the Convention, affirms: « it was not an insurrection in their manner [the one of the counter-revolutionaries] which was necessary, it was an insurrection against tyranny, and it is you who have made it. It will have its place in history, this insurrection which has saved the patrie ». The tone is set, formalised by the Proclamation to the French people which was presented, in the morning of 10 Thermidor, by Barère in the name of the Committees of Public Safety and of General Security: « on 31 May, the people made its revolution ; on 9 Thermidor, the National Convention made its [own] ; liberty has applauded both equally ». Thus, its actors themselves erected 9 Thermidor as an event while, in their desire for an immediate legitimisation, they used 31 May 1793 as a historical and revolutionary referent. Obscured by this interpretation « in the heat of the moment », understanding 9 Thermidor is even less easier as the very proceedings of the action are not as clear as they may seem at first. It is not a matter of beginning a detailed study of it again here, but let us attempt to determine whether these journées of July 1794, beyond their immediate consequences – more than 100 persons were executed –, constitute a watershed in the history of the Revolution or not.

Historiography has retained three categories of actors: the Parisian popular movement, the Convention (or, more precisely, the ratio of power between the Plain and a Montagnard group in a state of « disintegration ») and, finally, the two Committees of Public Safety and of General Security. Limiting oneself to Paris may seem restricted and distorting, but let us recall that 9 Thermidor was a Parisian and parliamentary « journée » and that the provinces initially only took part as echoes (the addresses to the Convention).

Since the « drama of Germinal », the sans-culottes, as Albert Soboul has shown, had lost their political initiative and autonomy. Three indicators illustrate the ambiguities of the popular movement in the late spring of Year II. The attempts to revive the cult of Marat brought about the ban of fêtes sectionnaires on 27 Prairial. Filed on 1 Messidor, the petition of the Section de la Montagne, repeating its adhesion to the Constitution of 1793, constituted an implicit remise en cause of the revolutionary government. Finally, the campaign of fraternal banquets is, above all, testament to a vigorous moderate offensive. At the outset of Thermidor Year II, Paris was a city in turmoil, politically stirred up by the arrests of the militant sans-culotte Legray and the former minister Bouchotte, as well as socially weakened by the hungry gap and the publication of the maximum of salaries (5 Thermidor). What about the Convention? One has often emphasised the « conspiracy » that was incited by the deputies of the Plain, hostile towards the social policy was carried out since Ventôse Year II, and certain representatives on mission who had been recalled for their excesses (Fouché, Fréron, Tallien, etc). In fact, the opinion of the deputies of the Convention is difficult to grasp (many of them were on mission), and it is wise not to give credit to posterior Mémoires. The Plain hardly manifested before Fructidor Year II, and the Convention does not seem to have experienced stormy debates between the sessions of 22-24 Prairial and 8 Thermidor.

Concerning the two Committees, one has spoken of internal rivalries and divisions, but,  here again, it is necessary to force oneself to forget the declarations of their former members, firstly denounced without effect by Le Cointre in Fructidor, later successfully in Frimaire Year III. According to the classical analysis of Albert Mathiez, the Committee was composed of « déchristianisateurs » who were struck by the Cult of the Supreme Being: this is possible, but not determining. More decisive in the hostility of a part of its members towards the Committee of Public Safety was undoubtedly the law of 27 Germinal Year II, which entrusted the latter with the supervision of the constituted authorities, created the General Police Bureau and decided, in accordance with the Ventôse Decrees, the creation of six popular commissions charged with the « sorting » of suspects: dependent only on the Committee of Public Safety, they escaped the authority of the Committee of General Security, which possibly delayed their formation (only two of them sat in the Muséum). But, all things considered, was it a matter of serious political antagonisms or a conflict of jurisdiction? The divisions of the Committee of Public Safety have also provoked numerous commentaries. According to the tradition, Robespierre was absent, as he said himself on 8 Thermidor, for « more than six weeks ». Now, it seems that his absence was shorter, from 13 Messidor to 4 Thermidor. As to the argument of the supposed divisions between a « right wing » (Carnot and Lindet), a « centre » (the « Robespierrists ») and a « left wing » (Billaud and Collot), it seems hardly convincing. Even if Carnot indeed showed himself to be in favour of wars of conquest and hostile towards social policy, this is not the case for either Billaud or Collot, who were both essential actors of 9 Thermidor.

Obscured by the post-Thermidorian writings, the prodromes of the journée thus raise more questions than providing explanations, and the account of the facts is suspect of analogous distortions: written in accordance with the decree of Brumaire Year IV, the Procès-verbal of the session did not escape criticism more than the journals, the testimonies or the Mémoires. « 9 Thermidor » is only the beginning of a permanent session of the Convention, which was closed on 14 Thermidor at four o'clock in the evening, when one proclaimed: « Paris is quiet ». Furthermore, the parliamentary crisis built up on 5 Thermidor, when Barère gave a report on the « reconciliation » of the Committees of Public Safety and of General Security: some accepted following Carnot and depriving Paris of four gunner companies, the others declared wanting to accelerate the formation of the popular commissions and to entrust Saint-Just with the report on the institutions, which had been announced three months earlier. Two days later, in a new report « intended to enlighten the good citizens on the current circumstances, by presenting to the French people a comparative record of our situation at the time of 31 May 1793 and of our situation on 7 Thermidor », Barère spoke of the rebirth of the factions and emphasised, in this regard, the unity of the committees. What happened then? Here, one enters the realm of hypotheses. According to A. Mathiez, Robespierre did not believe in the sincerity of the reconciliation and, deciding to explain himself to the Convention, was thus heading towards suicide: this was the long speech of 8 Thermidor (repeated, in the evening, at the Jacobins) wherein he denounced and accused without naming, and castigated certain deputies, e.g. Cambon and Mallarmé. Cambon replied: « It is time to tell the whole truth … » 9 Thermidor already began on the 8th. On the next day, the session was opened at eleven o'clock in the morning by the reading of the correspondence. Saint-Just took the floor at noon but, being interrupted by Tallien, could not continue his speech. Then, everything happened very fast: Billaud denounced Dumas, Sijas, Hanriot and the general staff of the Parisian National Guard, whose arrest he obtained. A décret d'arrestation was passed against Maximilien Robespierre, the presumed leader of the conspiracy, upon Louchet’s request, the deputy of Aveyron (and a Montagnard) ; Saint-Just, Lebas and Couthon, who were declared accomplices, were put under arrest afterwards, then Augustin Robespierre. The « normal » procedure was a décret d'accusation and the transfer before the Revolutionary Tribunal. The session was closed at five o'clock in the evening.

The second stage unfolded at the Maison-Commune, where the mayor, Fleuriot-Lescot, the national agent Payan and the vice president of the Revolutionary Tribunal, Coffinhal, invited the members of the General Council to return to their sections in order to call to arms and sound the alarm. What follows is the history of a failed insurrection. Around six o'clock in the evening, all sections were alerted, but only sixteen sent men to the Place de Grève (among them the Section Marat, in spite of having been deeply affected by the « drama of Germinal ». At that moment, however, as the Jacobins had declared themselves en insurrection, the Commune was numerically superior. At seven o'clock, the Convention resumed its session and outlawed the five deputies, as well as the Commune of Paris and Hanriot. The Commune liberated the Robespierrists, who arrived at the Hôtel de Ville at one o'clock in the morning of 10 Thermidor, while the gunners and sectionary militants, having remained without instructions, gradually dispersed. The Convention organised  the reaction. The Jacobin Club was closed, and the sections successively came to swear allegiance. Léonard Bourdon entered the Maison-Commune with gendarmes (among them the famous Méda, the hero who was « produced » in order to give more dramatic intensity to the scene): all deputies, except for Saint-Just, seem to have attempted suicide. The Convention resumed its session at ten o'clock in the morning of 10 Thermidor. The two Committees ordered the Revolutionary Tribunal, stripped of its judiciary function as the accused had been outlawed, to « do justice » during the day. The guillotine was erected on the Place de la Révolution. At half past five, the twenty-two convicted persons left the Conciergerie, and two hours later, everything was over ; 71 accomplices were executed on 11 Thermidor, and 12 more on the following day. Counting Lebas, who was dead before being executed, and Coffinhal, who was guillotined on 18 Thermidor, the « batch » counted 107 victims.

To conclude, it seems useful to reflect on the often suggested « historical necessity » of 9 Thermidor. The study of the post-Thermidorian period shows that the « déjacobinisation » of France was less easy and considerably slower than one has suggested, that it required original political techniques and that, in the end, it was necessary to resort to both brutal repression and a « coup d'État » (the writing of a new Constitution) in order to shatter the hope for this « democratic Republic », whose traits were outlined in the spring of Year II. In this sense, 1795 broke with 1793 as much as with 1789. Strictly in terms of events, it is appropriate to pose the question: who « made » 9 Thermidor? In the parliamentary journée, thirty-five deputies intervened against the « Robespierrists »: only two sat in the Plain (Féraud and Lozeau), thirty-three in the Montagne. In Year III, sixteen of them would be « Montagnards réacteurs » and fifteen would become « last Montagnards » – while most of them were condemned to prison or deportation as « accomplices of Robespierre », two « butted out ». Barras, contrary to the legend, did not play any role before being appointed – in his capacity of general – to command the troops of the Convention. This shows the ambiguity of 9 Thermidor, which only reveals the extraordinary heterogeneity of the Montagne. If it wasn’t for the personality of those who were its victims, Thermidor would at worst appear like a « non-event » that occurred between two major turning points, the elimination of the factions in Germinal Year II and the « reactionary » offensive which began in Frimaire Year III.

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I’m donating this drawing to the Anime Boston charity auction for the National MS Society. The convention is March 31-April 2, and the auction is on April 2. Mike and I also signed some cool stuff you can bid on too: a chibi Aang figure; a Korra poster book; and a plush Appa. I’ll post about it again when it’s closer to the event.


Attorney General Jeff Sessions reportedly used campaign funds to meet with Russian envoy

  • The Trump administration claims that Sessions was solely acting in the capacity of a U.S. senator when he met with a Russian ambassador during the Republican National Convention in Cleveland.
  • But campaign finance records show Sessions paid for travel expenses using political funds, the Wall Street Journal reported.
  • According to the Journal, a person who attended a Heritage Foundation event during the RNC said that Sessions spoke about Trump’s presidential campaign at the event, effectively acting as a surrogate for Trump during the trip. 
  • Sessions also spoke at the convention on its first night, praising Trump and speaking largely about trade and immigration. Read more (3/3/17 11:56 AM)

anonymous asked:

You said the Republican party fought against slavery.. That is true, but the Republican party around that time period have more modern Democrat beliefs. They were northerners who believed in equal rights. And the Democratic party in the 1800s had view more similar to modern Republican beliefs. The party's beliefs flip flopped around late 1800s-early 1900s.. The conservative states were always advocating for slavery and oppression. They were also the last states to give women the right to vote.

Originally posted by onemorechapter11

Let’s discuss some history then.

1791 - The Democratic-Republican Party is formed by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson against Alexander Hamilton’s Federalist Party. The Democratic-Republicans strongly opposed government overreach and expansion, the creation of a national bank, and corruption.

1804 - Andrew Jackson purchases the plantation that will become his primary source of wealth.

1824 - The Democratic-Republican Party split. The new Democrats were supported by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, and the National Republicans were supported by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay.

1828 - Andrew Jackson is elected President of the United States.

1830 - Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, whereby the Cherokee and other native tribes were to be forcibly removed from their lands.

1831 - Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, whereby the Supreme Court ruled that Cherokee Nation was sovereign and the U.S. had no jurisdiction over Cherokee lands. Andrew Jackson had already started to enforce the removal of the Choctaw.

1832-33 - The Whig Party is formed in opposition to Jackson’s government expansion and overreach in the Nullification Crisis and the establishment of a Second National Bank. The Whig Party successfully absorbs the National Republican Party.

1838 -  Many Indian tribes had been forcibly removed. Under Jackson, General Winfield Scott and 7,000 soldiers forced the Cherokee from their land at bayonet point while their homes were pillaged. They marched the Cherokee more than 1,200 miles to the allocated Indian territory. About 5,000 Cherokee died on the journey due to starvation and disease.

1854 - The Whig Party dissolves over the question of the expansion of slavery. Anti-slavery Whigs and anti-slavery democrats form the Republican Party with their sole goal being to end slavery.

1861 -The election of President Lincoln spurs the beginning of the Civil War.

1862 - Lincoln writes a letter where he declares he wishes to preserve the union regardless of the morals on slavery. He issues the Emancipation Proclamation, whereby all slaves in Union territories had to be freed. As states came under Union control, those slaves too had to be freed.

1863 - Frederick Douglass, former slave and famous Republican abolitionist, meets with Lincoln on the suffrage of emancipated slaves.

1864 - Lincoln revised his position on slavery in a letter to Albert G. Hodges stating “If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong.”

1865 - Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrenders at the Appomattox Courthouse to Union victory. After Lincoln’s Assassination, Democrat President Johnson issues amnesty to rebels and pardons the slave owners of their crimes.

1865 - The 13th Amendment which ended slavery passed with 100% Republican support and 63% Democrat support in congress.

1866 - The Klu Klux Klan is formed by Confederate veterans to intimidate black and Republicans through violence, lynching, and public floggings. They gave open support to the Democrat Party.

1866 - The Civil Rights Act of 1866 is vetoed by Democratic President Andrew Johnson. Every single Republican voted and overturned the veto.

1868 - The 14th Amendment which gave citizenship to freed slaves passed with 94% Republican support and 0% Democrat support in congress. The first grand wizard of the KKK, Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest is honored at the 1968 Democratic National Convention.

1868 - Representative James Hinds who taught newly freedmen of their rights is murdered by the KKK.

1870 - The 15th Amendment which gave freed slaves the right to vote passed with 100% Republican support and 0% Democrat support in congress.

1871 - The violence of the KKK grew so savage that congress passed the Enforcement Acts to repress their influence.

1875 - Democrat Senator William Saulsbury speaks out against the Civil RIghts Act of 1875, claiming it will allow “colored men shall sit at the same table beside the white guest; that he shall enter the same parlor and take his seat beside the wife and daughter of the white man, whether the white man is willing or not, because you prohibit discrimination against him.“

1884 - A train conductor orders Ida B. Wells, a black Republican woman, to give up her seat and move to the smoking car. Wells was an investigative journalist who worked for a Republican journal to expose the horror of lynching. She advocated for the 2nd amendment rights for blacks so that they could protect themselves, and she denounced the Democratic Party for treating blacks as property unequal to whites.

1892 - Democrat Benjamin Tillman is re-elected to the Senate. He was a white supremacist who boasted his participation in lynchings. He is quoted saying that “as long as the Negroes continue to ravish white women we will continue to lynch them.”

1915 - Democrat President Woodrow Wilson screens KKK promotion film Birth of a Nation. The film pictured blacks as ignorant and violent savages, and the Klu Klux Klan as rescuers and protectors of the civilized world. The popularity of the movie revived the Klu Klux Klan which had previously gone extinct. Reportedly Wilson said about the film that “[it] is like writing history with lightning, and my only regret is that it is all so terribly true.”

1919 - The 19th Amendment which officially gave women the right to vote passed with 82% Republican support and 54% Democrat support in congress.

1924 - Thousands of Klansmen attend the 1924 Democratic National Convention.

1933 -  The chief Nazi newspaper, Volkischer Beobachter, praised “Roosevelt’s adoption of National Socialist strains of thought in his economic and social policies” and “the development toward an authoritarian state.”

1933 - Democrat President Franklin Delano Roosevelt passes the Agricultural Adjustment Act with the well-meaning goal to help farmers and sharecroppers. Instead, though it aided white farmers, it resulted in increased unemployment and displacement of black farmers.

1933 -  FDR established the National Recovery Administration to stimulate business recovery by forcing employers to pay higher wages for less work. This relief program was enforced on a local level and allowed Jim Crow racism to flourish, resulting in many blacks being fired to be replaced by whites. 

1934 -  The Federal Housing Administration is introduced under FDR. The FHA made homeownership accessible for whites, but explicitly refused to back loans to black people or even other people who lived near black people.

1936 - The Roosevelt Administration finally begins vying for the black vote. Though the relief programs neglected blacks, their communities were bombarded with advertisements. FDR began to garner black support though the vast majority remained economically unchanged and locked into poverty.

1942 - FDR orders American citizens of Japanese ancestry from their homes into interment camps without due process after the bombings at Pearl Harbor.

1953 - Senator Robert Byrd is elected into congress and remains a staunch Democrat until his death in 2010. He was a prominent member in the KKK and praised by Bill Clinton, Barack Obama, and Hillary Clinton.

1955 - Democrat Richard Daley is elected mayor of Chicago. He resisted residential desegregation, defended public school segregation, and used urban renewal funds to build massive public housing projects that kept blacks within existing ghettos.

1957 - The Civil Rights Act of 1957 is passes with 93% Republican support and 59% Democrat support.

1963 - After the assassination of JFK, Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn into office. LBJ was a Democrat remembered by a famous quote: “I’ll have them niggers voting Democrat for the next 200 years.”

1965 - The Voting Rights Act of 1965 passes with 94% Republican support and 73% Democrat support.

1968 - Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated. MLK voted Republican.

1960-70s - A total of 24 Democratic members of congress switched to become Republican over a 20 year period. The majority of democrats in that time period remained democrats.

1995 - Dreams from My Father by Barack Obama is published. Obama discusses how the urban cities would become the new plantation for blacks under Democrat political bosses: “The plantation, the blacks have the worst jobs, the worst housing, police brutality rampant; but when the so-called black committee man come around election time, we’d all line up and vote the straight Democratic ticket. Sell our souls for a Christmas turkey. White folks spit in our faces, and we reward them with the vote.“

2009 - Hillary Clinton lauds Margaret Sanger, KKK advocate, white supremacist, and eugenicist at the 2009 Planned Parenthood Honors Gala: “I admire Margaret Sanger enormously, her courage, her tenacity, her vision. I am really in awe of her, there are a lot of lessons we can learn from her life.”

Me: 1
History revisionism: 0

Originally posted by whiteangelxoxo


White nationalist and alt-right speaker Richard Spencer just got booted out of CPAC by security

  • White nationalist and alt-right mouthpiece Richard Spencer was kicked out of the Conservative Political Action Conference on Thursday.
  • He was booted reportedly on the grounds that his views don’t align with those of the conference.
  • According to tweets by New York magazine reporter Olivia Nuzzi, Spencer was mid-interview when security walked up and ejected him from the Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center in Maryland.
  • Spencer recently made headlines when he was punched in the face on the day of Trump’s inauguration. Read more (2/23/17 12:04 PM)

Golden Galaxy AA Barbie Doll - Exclusive from the 2017 National Barbie Convention “Blast Off with Barbie” - Platinum Label

From a golden galaxy far away, Barbie appears, a futuristic vision in head-to-toe gold. A sleek metallic bodysuit wraps around her, reflecting light,while an edgy armored bodice and golden cape add drama. Glittered ankle boots and faux leather gauntlets heighten her cosmic look, as fierce spiked earrings and a glistening ponytail add even more shimmer. She is simply out of this world.

Tallahassee Mayor Andrew Gillum wants to be Florida’s first black governor

  • On a recent evening in New York City, Tallahassee Mayor Andrew Gillum reached across the table at Mic’s office to show me a map of the United States that displayed the faces of the country’s governors superimposed on their home states.
  • “See anything missing?” asked the 37-year-old. “There are no black governors.” Gillum has made it his mission to change that.
  • On Wednesday, the Florida native declared his candidacy for governor, throwing his hat into the ring for the top post in a state Democrats see as key to fighting Trump’s agenda. 
  • If elected, Gillum would also make history as the state’s first black governor.
  • But his chances are a long shot, which Gillum is the first to admit. “I suffer no illusions about how hard this is going to be,” he said.
  • Florida is a deeply divided swing state that went for Trump in 2016. The governor’s seat has long been held by Republicans — the last five democratic challengers for governor were all defeated, although the 2014 election was very close.
  • But Gillum has the kind of story which could position him for an upset. 
  • The Congressional Black Caucus Foundation named Gillum as an an emerging leader in 2003; he was included on a list of rising stars who could be “the next Obama." 
  • His national profile grew substantially in 2016, when Gillum delivered a heartfelt speech at the Democratic National Convention
  • He’s also a progressive young politician of color in a state where an estimated 24.5 percent of the population is Hispanic and 16.8 percent is African-American. Read more (3/1/17 10:54 AM)

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John Oliver: Trump’s Russia scandal has the intrigue of Watergate, except everyone is incompetent

John Oliver has a new shorthand for President Donald Trump’s ongoing, multilayered Russia scandal: “Stupid Watergate.”

“It is not clear what is really going on here yet, although one possibility is that this all amounts to what I’m going to call ‘Stupid Watergate,’” Oliver said on Sunday’s Last Week Tonight. “A potential scandal with all the intrigue of Watergate, except everyone involved is really bad at everything. And the relevant question isn’t so much, ‘What did the president know and when did he know it?’ as it is, ‘Is the president physically capable of knowing things at all?’”

By Oliver’s telling, every single phase of the Trump-Russia scandal has been brought on by a dumb mistake. He walked through some of the key players of the scandal, all of whom have been the target of questions about whether Trump’s team worked with — — and covered up working with — Russian officials to support Russian interests and manipulate the 2016 election with hacked Democratic emails.

Take Attorney General Jeff Sessions. Most recently, he was brought into the Russia scandal when it was revealed that he misled Congress under oath, telling senators he had no communications with Russian officials when he had in fact talked with Russia’s ambassador twice last year.

But here’s the thing: Sessions wasn’t even asked during the confirmation hearing if he had spoken with Russians. During his hearing, Sen. Al Franken (D-MN) asked, “If there is any evidence that anyone affiliated with the Trump campaign communicated with the Russian government in the course of this campaign, what will you do?” Sessions replied, “I’m not aware of any of those activities. I have been called a surrogate at a time or two in that campaign, and I did not have communications with the Russians.”

“That was an unforced error,” Oliver said. “He wasn’t even asked whether he’d met with the Russians. He just implicated himself out of the blue, which should have been immediately suspicious. If you ask someone how their weekend was, and they say, ‘Well, I definitely wasn’t masturbating into the Slurpee machine at the 7-Eleven,’ you check the fucking security cameras at the 7-Eleven, and you don’t act surprised.”

Other Trump surrogates have also come under fire, including former Trump campaign operative Carter Page. When asked whether he had met with the Russian ambassador in Cleveland during the Republican National Convention, Page responded, “I’m not going to deny that I talked with him. I will say that I never met him anywhere outside of Cleveland. … I may have met him. Possibly. And it might have been in Cleveland.”

Or consider former Trump campaign manager Paul Manafort. When asked if Trump had financial relationships with Russian oligarchs, Manafort said, “That’s … that’s what he said. I … that’s … what I said. That’s … obviously what our position is.”

“Holy shit,” Oliver said. “That was so unconvincing it probably set off an unplugged polygraph machine just hidden in a closet somewhere.”

To top it all off, Trump’s apparent tactic to distract everyone over the weekend was to claimwith absolutely zero evidence that President Barack Obama ordered a wiretap of Trump Tower during the 2016 campaign — an idea that may have come from an article published by the conspiracy-laden website Breitbart News.

“I think we can now officially declare that Trump has a worse media diet than the Son of Sam killer,” Oliver said. “And he got all his news from a talking dog who told him to murder.”

What all of this amounts to, Oliver argued, is one of the most incompetent cover-ups — if there is really a cover-up — in the history of presidential scandals. It is, in other words, “Stupid Watergate.”

Let's give a round of applause to our representatives-en-mission!

(From Political Divisions in the French National Convention, 1792~93 by Alison Patrick)

To go en mission under the Terror was usually arduous and might be exceedingly dangerous. It is illuminating to consider just what some of the dangers were.

One might, for example, be engaged in actual battle: Claude-Dominique Fabre was killed in action in December 1793. One might be surrounded by a howling mob threatening massacre unless one conceded total price control or some other measures equally at variance with official policy… The assumption that any public-spirited deputy should have been willing to accept death rather than the most fleeting shadow of dishonor seems a little extreme; it is nevertheless true that Tellier and Brunel did later commit suicide because they felt that, under trying circumstances, they had failed in republican firmness; and it is also true that in October 1793 the Committee of Public Safety guillotined Antiboul for “conduct unworthy of a representative of the people” in dealing with the Marseillais. Anyone going into a civil war area ran the risk of being captured by the rebels, and a number of deputies faced major moral dilemmas as a result. But no deputy en mission could be sure that he would not unexpectedly be confronted by a similar sort of emergency.

Even if all went well, and the local population was both loyal and enthusiastic, it was easy to fall foul of some section of it which might send damaging reports back to Paris; and it was all too easy to fall foul of one’s colleagues. Then there were the practical difficulties of the job itself. One might have to grapple, as Ferry did in the Bourges area, with bad roads, inadequately fed workers, lack of men and equipment, impossible requisitions, and the failure of those in Paris to answer one’s letters; or one might merely find, as Bar did at Neusaarwerden, that hardly anyone could understand French or grasp what they were supposed to be doing, so that all key officials had to be imported. (Or consider the case of Esnuë-Lavallée, in Rennes helping to organize the repression of rebellion in the west and puzzled at the nonarrival of instructions requested from Paris. He did not know that his colleague Garnier, in Alençon astride his line of communication, was intercepting his mail and managing to pilfer the credit for the arrest of one of the rebel leaders.) And there was merely physical wear and tear. Sautayra died in September 1793, after maltreatment by a group of rebels; Petitjean, Vidalin, and Anthoine all fell ill and died en mission; Gillet died at the end of 1795 as direct result, it was said, of his exertion on the Republic’s behalf. (He was only twenty-nine when he died.) Cochet had his property looted by the enemy. It is true that opportunities of another kind, for corruption, peculation, sadism, the venting of ordinary spite, were almost endless, and that persons like Fréron and Carrier did not waste them, but the number of deputies attracted by them was far smaller than is often believed, and should be set against the frustration, exhaustion, and discomfort which were often the lot of anyone trying to stimulate and direct departmental patriotism.

LAS VEGAS — Chris Pine showed off his surprising new bald look in Las Vegas on Wednesday. It’s his idea, his handiwork and his story is the best hair tale you’ll hear all day.

“Yes I did it myself, I used clippers,” Pine told USA TODAY before taking the CinemaCon stage to promote his new movie Wonder Woman during the Warner Bros. presentation at the national convention of theater owners.

Pine’s new look is not for an upcoming acting role. Star Trek’s Captain Kirk was home ill with long hair and a full beard when he decided to start cutting out of boredom. It was an elaborate process, as he explained.

“I went through phases. So I had long hair and a beard. And first I did a facial hair thing. That was fun. I did the mustache. I did a little General Sherman,” Pine said of the Civil War general with a distinctive receding hairline and beard. “Then I did a full-shaved back (of the head). That was fun for a day.”

Please take a moment and imagine Chris Pine walking around his house with a shaved back of his head.

But the work went on.

“Then I got a fade. Then I started doing designs. And then I got real bored,” said Pine, admitting to hitting a hair “nadir.”

“I went full chop,” Pine said.


Early in the course of the trial, Black Panther Party activist Bobby Seale was denied his constitutional right to counsel of his choice and was thereafter illegally denied his right to defend himself.  Seale requested that the trial be postponed so that his attorney Charles Garry could represent him (as Garry was about to undergo gallbladder surgery). The Judge denied the postponement, and refused to allow Seale to represent himself. Seale vehemently protested the Judge’s illegal and unconstitutional actions, and argued that the Judge’s actions were not only illegal, but also racist. The Judge in turn accused Seale of disrupting the court, and on October 29, Judge Hoffman ordered Bobby Seale to be bound, gagged, and chained to a chair.  For several days Seale appeared in court bound and gagged before the jury, struggling to get free and managing to make muffled sounds. 

Bobby Seale was one of the original “Chicago Eight” defendants charged with conspiracy and inciting a riot, in the wake of the 1968 Democratic National Convention, in Chicago.

I’ve been watching The West Wing while studying comparative politics all day so basically my mind is overflowing and I’m so confused about what’s happening in real life and what’s happening on the show someone help me 😭