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MBTI’s Unique Themes

ISTP 

  • Actively solving problems. 
  • Observing how things work. 
  • Talent for using tools for the best approach.
  • Need to be independent. 
  • Act on their hunches or intuitions.
  •  Understanding a situation. 
  • Taking things apart. 
  • Making discoveries.
  •  Sharing those discoveries. 
  • Unsettled by powerful emotional experiences.

ESTP

  • Taking charge of situations. 
  • Tactical prioritizing. 
  • Talent for negotiating. 
  • Want a measure of their success. 
  • Keep their options open. 
  • Enjoy acting as a consultant.
  • Winning people over. 
  • Caring for family and friends. 
  • Enjoy exhilaration at the edge.
  • Disappointed when others don’t show respect.

ISFP

  • Taking advantage of opportunities. 
  • Stick with what’s important. 
  • Talent for pulling together what is just right. 
  • Creative problem solving. 
  • Building relationships. 
  • Attracting the loyalties of others. 
  • Being their own true self. 
  • Have their own personal style. 
  • Play against expectations. 
  • Struggle with nurturing their own self-esteem.

ESFP

  • Stimulating action. 
  • Have a sense of style. 
  • Talent for presenting things in a useful way. 
  • Natural actors—engaging others. 
  • Opening up people to possibilities. 
  • Respect for freedom. 
  • Taking risks. 
  • A love of learning, especially about people. 
  • Genuine caring. 
  • Sometimes misperceive others’ intentions.

ISTJ

  • Drawing up plans and being prepared. 
  • Take responsibility. 
  • Getting work done first. 
  • Being active in the community. 
  • Loyalty to their roles. 
  • Cultivating good qualities.
  • Doing the right thing. 
  • Bear life’s burdens and overcome adversity. 
  • Talented at planning, sequencing, and noticing what’s missing. 
  • Having to learn so much in hindsight is painful at times

ESTJ

  • Talent for bringing order to chaotic situations. 
  • Educating themselves. 
  • Industrious, work-hard attitude. 
  • Balance work with play. 
  • Having a philosophy of life. 
  • Having the steps to success. 
  • Keeping up traditions. 
  • Being well-balanced. 
  • Connecting their wealth of life experiences. 
  • Often disappointed when perfectionistic standards for economy and quality are not met.

ISFJ 

  • Noticing what’s needed and what’s valuable. 
  • Talent for careful and supportive organization. 
  • Know the ins and outs. 
  • Enjoy traditions. 
  • Work to protect the future.
  •  Listening and remembering. 
  • Being nice and agreeable. 
  • Unselfish willingness to volunteer. 
  • Feeling a sense of accomplishment. 
  • Exasperated when people ignore rules and don’t get along.

ESFJ

  • Accepting and helping others. 
  • Managing people. 
  • Hearing people out. 
  • Voicing concerns and accommodating needs. 
  • Admire the success of others. Remember what’s important. 
  • Talented at providing others with what they need. 
  • Keep things pleasant. 
  • Maintaining a sense of continuity. 
  • Accounting for the costs. 
  • Often disappointed by entrepreneurial projects.

INTJ

  • Maximizing achievements. 
  • Drive for self mastery. 
  • Build a vision. 
  • Very long-range strategizing. 
  • Realizing progress toward goals. 
  • Systems thinking. 
  • Talent for seeing the reasons behind things. 
  • Being on the leading edge.
  •  Maintaining independence. 
  • Find it difficult to let go in interacting with others.

ENTJ

  • Being a leader. 
  • Maximize talents. 
  • Marshal resources toward progress. 
  • Intuitive explorations.
  • Forging partnerships. 
  • Mentoring and empowering. 
  • Talent for coordinating multiple projects. 
  • Balance peace and conflict. 
  • Demonstrates predictive creativity. 
  • Often overwhelmed by managing all the details of time and resources.

INTP

  • Becoming an expert. 
  • Seeing new patterns and elegant connections. 
  • Talent for design and re-design. 
  • Crossing the artificial bound- aries of thought. 
  • Activate the imagination. 
  • Clarifying and defining. 
  • Making discoveries. 
  • Reflect on the process of thinking itself. 
  • Detach to analyze. 
  • Struggle with attending to the physical world.

ENTP

  • Being inventive.
  • Talented at building prototypes and getting projects launched. 
  • Enjoys lifelong learning. 
  • Enjoy the creative process. 
  • Share their insights about life’s possibilities. 
  • Strategically formulate success. 
  • An inviting host. 
  • Like the drama of the give and take. 
  • Trying to be diplomatic. 
  • Surprised when their strategizing of relationships becomes problematic.

INFJ

  • Personal growth. 
  • Sustain the vision. 
  • Honoring the gifts of others. 
  • Taking a creative approach to life. 
  • Talent for foreseeing.
  •  Exploring issues. 
  • Bridging differences and connecting people.
  • Practical problem solving.
  • Living with a sense of purpose. 
  • Living an idealistic life often presents them with a great deal of stress and a need to withdraw.

ENFJ

  • Communicate and share values. 
  • Succeeding at relationships. 
  • Realizing dreams—their own and others. 
  • Seek opportunities to grow together. 
  • Heeding the call to a life work or mission. 
  • Enjoying the creative process. 
  • Intuitive intellect. 
  • Reconcile the past and the future. 
  • Talent for seeing potential in others. 
  • Often find living in the present difficult.

INFP

  • Going with the flow. 
  • Knowing what is behind what is said. 
  • Uncovering mysteries. 
  • Exploring moral questions. 
  • Talent for facilitative listening. 
  • Relate through stories and metaphors. 
  • Balancing opposites. 
  • Getting re-acquainted with themselves. 
  • Have a way of knowing what is believable. 
  • Struggling with structure and getting their lives in order.

ENFP

  • Inspiring and facilitating others. 
  • Exploring perceptions. 
  • Talent for seeing what’s not being said and voicing unspoken meanings. 
  • Seek to have ideal relationships. 
  • Recognize happiness. 
  • Living out stories.
  • Want to authentically live with themselves. 
  • Respond to insights in the creative process. 
  • Finding the magical situation. 
  • Restless hunger for discovering their direction.

(From the book “Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights For All Types of People” by Dario Nardi)

Facilitative Questions to Encourage Flexibility

Note: These questions build rapport, clarify the problem, and suggest that new thinking is needed. The questions that go with the person’s type won’t help solve the problem— instead, try to ask starting from their most preferred function to their least preferred. This asks them to identify leverage points, to consider something small yet impactful that they can do now rather than feel overwhelmed.


Extraverted Sensing (Se): 
“Immersing in the present context.”

• What are you seeing, hearing, and/or feeling right now?

• What do your gut instincts tell you? If unsure, consider how your body feels as you consider various options).

• What actions can you take right now? Briefly set aside any possible consequences and focus on options for action right now. 

• What are some possible rewards for taking one or more small risks?

• What can you get away with?

Introverted Sensing (Si) 
“Stabilizing with a predictable standard.”

• What have you become accustomed to? 

• Has a similar situation happened before? Let’s review in detail how the previous situations and this one compare.

• What’s typical or expected in this kind of situation? If anything, what is culturally expected?

• What has typically stabilized the situation in the past; or consider, what might stabilize it now?

• How can you invest for the future?

Extraverted Intuiting (Ne) 
“Exploring the emerging patterns.

• What if you could change just one small thing about the situation? What might that be?

• Is something like this happening now elsewhere in your life?

• Could you use a metaphor or analogy to describe what’s going on?

• How does that analogy or metaphor [from the previous question] suggest a way to shift the situation?

• What if someone new came into your life?

Introverted Intuiting (Ni)
“Transforming with a meta-perspective.”

• What do you see yourself doing in the future?

• Clear your mind; then ask yourself for an insight. What enters your mind’s eye?

• Try sleeping on the problem and let’s discuss it in the morning.

• The realization you mentioned, how has that impacted the situation?

• Who is someone who could handle this situation? Now imagine yourself as that person.

Extraverted Thinking (Te)
“Measuring and constructing for progress.”

• What factual evidence can you list or show to support what you are saying?

• How has the situation changed over time? Can you calculate what comes next? 

• Consider various casual factors.Have two or more of those factors varied together?

• Say you decide on an action; what are three things that could happen next?

 • Consider a goal. Now work backwards to figure out what steps are needed to reach that goal.

Introverted Thinking (Ti)
“Gaining leverage using a framework.”

• Could you define or classify this situation?

• The word that you just used, could you perhaps define that for me?

• What theory or principle fits this situation?

• What is something minor that you could say or do that might tip the situation in a new direction?

• If you were an impartial observer, a scientist of sorts, what would you observe?

Extraverted Feeling (Fe) 
“Nurturing trust through giving relationships.”

• What do the other people involved in this situation need and value? And in what ways are you helping to meet those needs?

• What are ways to help meet others’ needs?

• Do you feel trusted and respected?

• How much do you trust and respect others?

• What is something you can share about yourself to build trust with someone else in this situation?

Introverted Feeling (Fi)
“Staying true to who you really are.”

• What’s really important to you personally? What’s important in this situation and also in general for you?

• What do you feel is the “good” thing to do, regardless of what others think or say? 

• Do you believe you can handle the situation?

• If you were to do a certain action, what would your conscience say?

• What is a typical human reaction to this situation?


(From the book “Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights For All Types of People” by Dario Nardi)