napoleon in egypt

Fun Fact 141

With an estimated 93 million people, Egypt is the most populated country in the Middle East, and the third most populous in Africa. When Napoleon invaded the country in 1798, it’s estimated that the population was only 3 million.

The Rosetta Stone

A valuable key to deciphering ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the inscription on the Rosetta Stone is a decree passed by a council of priests. It is one of a series that affirm the royal cult of the 13-year-old Ptolemy V on the first anniversary of his coronation (in 196 BC).

In previous years the family of the Ptolemies had lost control of certain parts of the country. It had taken their armies some time to put down opposition in the Delta, and parts of southern Upper Egypt, particularly Thebes, were not yet back under the government’s control. Before the Ptolemaic era (before about 332 BC), decrees in hieroglyphs such as this were usually set up by the king. It shows how much things had changed from earlier times that the priests, the only people who had kept the knowledge of writing hieroglyphs, were now issuing such decrees. The list of good deeds done by the king for the temples hints at the way in which the support of the priests was ensured.

The decree is inscribed on the stone three times, in hieroglyphic (suitable for a priestly decree), demotic (the native script used for daily purposes), and Greek (the language of the administration). The importance of this to Egyptology is immense.

Soon after the end of the 4th century AD, when hieroglyphs had gone out of use, the knowledge of how to read and write them disappeared. In the early years of the 19th century, scholars were able to use the Greek inscription on this stone as the key to decipher them. Thomas Young (1773–1829), an English physicist, was the first to show that some of the hieroglyphs on the Rosetta Stone wrote the sounds of a royal name, that of Ptolemy.

The French scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790–1832) then realised that hieroglyphs recorded the sound of the Egyptian language and laid the foundations of our knowledge of ancient Egyptian language and culture. Champollion made a crucial step in understanding ancient Egyptian writing when he pieced together the alphabet of hieroglyphs that was used to write the names of non-Egyptian rulers. He announced his discovery, which had been based on analysis of the Rosetta Stone and other texts, in a paper at the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres at Paris on Friday 27 September 1822. The audience included his English rival Thomas Young, who was also trying to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs. Champollion inscribed this copy of the published paper with alphabetic hieroglyphs meaning ‘à mon ami Dubois’ ('to my friend Dubois’). Champollion made a second crucial breakthrough in 1824, realising that the alphabetic signs were used not only for foreign names, but also for the Egyptian language and names. Together with his knowledge of the Coptic language, which derived from ancient Egyptian, this allowed him to begin reading hieroglyphic inscriptions fully.

Soldiers in Napoleon’s army discovered the Rosetta Stone in 1799 while digging the foundations of an addition to a fort near the town of el-Rashid (Rosetta). On Napoleon’s defeat, the stone became the property of the British under the terms of the Treaty of Alexandria (1801) along with other antiquities that the French had found.

The Rosetta Stone has been exhibited in the British Museum since 1802, with only one break. Towards the end of the First World War, in 1917, when the Museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London, they moved it to safety along with other, portable, 'important’ objects. The Rosetta Stone spent the next two years in a station on the Postal Tube Railway 50 feet below the ground at Holborn.

Find out more in this BBC podcast about the Rosetta Stone.

Grenadier sergeant and grenadier of the 9th Line infantry Demi-Brigade, Egypt, 1799 - plate 16 & 17 from H. Knotel’s “Napoleonic uniforms”

Grenadier sergeant ( on the left)

This sergeant’s portable awning is one of the oddest souvenirs of the Egyptian campaign. Napoleon ordered that all grenadiers and carabiniers have red pouffes, as shown on the next plate. However, since all the 9th Ligne had red crests, its grenadiers were later issued chapeaus with scarlet “weeping willow” plumes (like those of the 9th band) to better distinguish them from the rest of their regiment. This plate provides a good example of the epaulets worn by the 9th’s grenadiers. For some reason Knotel always pictured them with pointed cuffs in comparison to the round ones shown for the rest of the regiment. Note the sergeant’s golden earrings.

Grenadier (on the right)

All grenadiers and carabiniers were ordered to wear red pouffes regardless of their regiment and two flaming-grenade insignias on their helmets. ( Apparently one was to be worn in front and the other behind.)  As the campaign went on, there seems to have been some scarcely recorded variations, such as giving grenadiers’ helmet fur covers, but no positive evidence has been presented.

France // Turkey

In 1536, the Franco-Ottoman Alliance was established by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and King Francis I. The cross-religious alliance caused a scandal in the Christian world, and became known as the Impious Alliance. In later centuries, Carl Jacob Burckhardt called it “the sacrilegious union of the lily and the crescent”. Nevertheless, it endured, as it served the interest in both parties, for two and a half centuries, until the Napoleonic campaign of Ottoman Egypt in 1798.

“I fell in love like the sun fell in love with the moon, still knowing that they could never be together.” — Amairani M. García

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anonymous asked:

Thoughts on the SJW belief that Hatshepsut was trans?

Do they believe that? lol.

Well, she decided to wear the Pharaohs clothing, so they have that to ponder… however, there was political and propaganda reasoning behind it rather than any desire of her own to be male.

Firstly we have to remember that although there were Queens in Egypt at this period of time, they always had the Pharaoh (living embodiment of the Gods/connection to Gods) to abide by or to rule along side, the Queens weren’t actually called Queens back then either they were simply called the “Great Wife” (sorry feminism, lmao). The male was always the heir to the throne, not the daughter and female rulers on their own didn’t occur much.

Hatshepsut, being a daughter of the King was naturally a royal heir, but due to her being female she was not in line to the throne as Pharaoh, and Egypt needed a King (male)! When her father died she married her half brother Thutmoses II, however his reign wasn’t too great, he was underwhelming as a King and uninspiring to Hatshepsut and the country. When Thutmoses II died 20 or so years after they wed, Hatshepsut was left with their daughter, however, Thutmoses II had a son Thutmoses III with a minor wife and so Thutmoses III was the true heir to the throne, but due to Thutmose III being so young Hatshepsut ruled as regent for 7 years (building monuments and being the leader her husband never was). As Thutmoses III grew older he was ready to be King and so if that were to be Hatshepsut would lose power. Should Thutmoses III become King, only his wife would become Queen (Great wife), Hatshepsut would be null and void pretty much, so Hatshepsut decided she didn’t want that and so she became King herself!

[It’s also important to note that it’s probably likely that Thutmose III was fine with this arrangement as he was happy training in the military and it worked out extremely well for him and Egypt too as, when he eventually took the throne he went onto be the Napoleon of Ancient Egypt, he was much more interested in expansion and military than building monuments and whatever else that Hatshepsut had a passion for, so it’s more likely that this was a mutual arrangement at the start. The erasure of her monuments were likely due to religious reasoning and ma’at - “order”, she broke the rules by posing as male to be King in imagery, so it’s likely the priests had to attempt at erasing her from history.]

In art Hatshepsut was presented as Pharaoh, the King, which was a male role, the living embodiment of the Gods. She would wear the Pharaoh attire during ceremony and obviously portrayals of her in art too, but she didn’t hide that she was a woman at all. Her name means “Foremost of the noble women”.

So, no, I don’t believe she was a transgender, no signs point to it. The only reason people would assume it is because of her depictions in art showing her as male, but that was not a choice, that was her way of keeping power as Thutmoses III was meant to be King. Hatshepsut was a marvel and a smart woman, she wasn’t trying to be a male, she was simply filling the role of King.

What do you think?

anonymous asked:

hi I wanted your opinion on this since you love history and youre studying anthropology?i was watching a video on ancient Egyptian there is agreat debate about therace of this civilization(SO FOGGY)one was arguing that they wereBeing whitwashed(LITERRALLY)being repainted on using lighter shade than what depicted themselves as it gotme ANGRYwhy would theyAllow this to happen do pple know this is happening WHY not stop this what ur opinion on this matter. Please reply pple need to know abt this.

It’s pretty well established that Ancient Egypt was whitewashed by racist scholars. And quite successfully. To this day some people still don’t know Egypt is in Africa. And the motivation for the whitewashing was that the civilization was one of the greatest to ever exist, so they didn’t wanna give black people credit for it. It was all about pushing the narrative of white supremacy and the myth of the white savior while basically portraying every non-white as “savages” whom noble whites “saved”.

In reality, it was black Africans who traversed the earth well before whites and taught them to settle into self governing communities as opposed to being nomadic hunter/gatherers. It was black Africans who taught whites about agriculture, irrigation, basic sanitation and medical care. Herodotus wrote about this and it’s usually not covered in history books even though he’s been named “the father of history”. 

If they couldn’t whitewash it, they ignored it. So people aren’t taught about the kingdoms of Mali, or Songhai, or Wolof or Ghana or the Bantu or Zulu nations. It goes on and on. They aren’t taught black women were warriors and ran kingdoms as well. The reason Timbuktu is still synonymous with “far away” is because people came from all over the world to study there (that’s the aforementioned Mali). They also came to Egypt to study and took that knowledge back home. Many Africa educated whites were later persecuted back home as practicing “witchcraft” because they knew how to consistently grow healthy crops and treat illnesses based on what they learned there. They also brought back African spirituality and mysticism, which was definitely not understood by the uneducated whites. But it persisted and is still incorporated into the rituals of the most elite secret societies including Freemasonry, Bohemian Grove, The Boule, Skull and Bones and they mysterious Illuminati.  But I digress…

The first dynasty of Ancient Egypt was established by a black man, Narmer aka Menes:

And the Egyptian people didn’t have a concept of “race” per se. But they certainly understood the difference (or similarity) between themselves and other outside cultures they encountered.

And obviously because Egypt became a great civilization, many people migrated there. So the people of Egypt became more mixed and diverse over time. But until the later dynasties, Egypt was primarily populated, ruled and governed by black Africans. It’s fascinating and in 2015 we should be embracing our common history. There’s so much even the average college educated person doesn’t know about world history and it’s a shame. Because it still informs the myth of white supremacy. And I can vouch for the fact that it’s a thing, even in this very fandom. Knowledge is power and the truth will set us all free.


Horatio Nelson and the Battle of the Nile,

In 1798 the French General Napoleon Bonaparte set sail with a large fleet and 40,000 men with the goal of conquering Egypt, thus cutting off British trade routes to India.  While Napoleon was successful in conquering Egypt, adding the Battle of the Pyramids to his list of glorious victories, little did he know that an equally intelligent strategic genius was about to swoop in and sour his success.  Upon Napoleon’s departure, then Rear Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson shadowed the large force with a fleet of his own.  

Short on supplies and unprepared for battle, the French fleet consisting of 13 ships of the line and 4 frigates anchored in a defensive line formation close to the shoreline in Aboukir Bay near the outlet of the Nile River.  Along the shore was a series of unmapped sandbars and shoals, which could easily ground a large ship.  The French believed that by parking close to the shore, they would prevent the British from being able to attack from the landward side.  However, that was Nelson’s plan all along, and ignoring the risks, he ordered his fleet to divide into two forces.  The first would sail parallel of the French fleet on the seaside, the other force would enter the bay, risking the shoals to attack from the landward side.  Thus the British would have the French fleet surrounded from both sides.

On August 1st, 1798 Nelson’s forces of 13 ships of the line, 1 fourth rate, and one sloop engaged the French with the winds at their backs.   Nelson’s gamble paid off greatly, as none of his ships were grounded on the shoals, and the British fleet caught the French in a deadly double envelopment.  

The result was a hopeless situation for the French as the British fleet pounded the French fleet with broadsides from both sides.  Foolishly the French had also spaced some of their ships too far apart, allowing British warships to “cross the T” in between, thus directing full broadsides against the lightly defended sterns and bows of the French ships.  Eventually the British had the French fleet completely surrounded.  The highlight of the battle when the French flagship L’Orient, a massive 120 gun warship was destroyed in a large explosion, taking 1,000 of her crew down with her into the salty brine.

After being pounded by the British fleet for two days, the French had no choice but to surrender or be completely annihilated.  It was a grand victory for Nelson and the Royal Navy, which lost no ships during the battle.  The French, however, suffered terrible losses.  Only one ship of the line and two frigates escaped the battle.  Two ships of the line were destroyed as well as two frigates.  9 ships of the line were captured.  Around 3,000 - 5,000 French sailors were killed during the fighting, with another 4,000 captured and taken prisoner.  The British however, suffered some losses as well, with 218 killed and 677 wounded.  Nelson himself was lightly wounded by a piece of grapeshot which struck him in the head and left him temporarily blinded.  

The Battle of the Nile was Nelson’s first great major naval victory, making him a national hero and household name all over Britain.  More importantly it changed the fortunes of the British in the Mediterranean.  For Napoleon, the loss of his fleet was a disaster which turned his dreams of  Egyptian conquest into a terrible nightmare.  Cut off from supplies and reinforcements from France, Napoleon would be forced to abandon his army in Egypt a year later, the first great defeat of his military career.

Why You Shouldn't Use Mercenaries

A short list

  • The beginning of the Crusades can be found in the defeat of the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, which cost them most of Asia Minor. The Byzantines lost the battle because the Turkish Sultan, on the edge of defeat, bought Byzantine’s mercenaries, leading to a crushing Turkish victory
  • the Mamluks were brought to Egypt by the ruling Abbasid caliphate as slave-soldiers. By the 1300s they were ruling Egypt in their own right. The Mamluks held Egypt until Napoleon in 1798.
  • Roman Empire. “Barbarian” mercenaries. Enough said.
  • Janissaries in the Ottoman Empire were originally lethal slave troops from the Balkans that eventually became purely decorative. Their coup in 1807 prevented reforms that would have forced them to, well, fight better.
  • the Mamertines, a group of mercenaries, basically started the First Punic War. They got bored, took a city, became pirates and when Rome tried to stop them, the Mamertines appealed to Carthage to bail them out. It’s better explained here.

anonymous asked:

Another Arno fan here! He doesn't get enough love in the fandom, but i really enjoyed Unity and would love for more content featuring Arno.


I love all the Assassins and they each have a place in my heart … but yes, Arno and AC Unity really stood out for me :) I too hope Ubisoft gives us more content about Arno soon; I really want to know what he was up to after he got kicked out of the Brotherhood, and if he ever followed Napoleon to Egypt~ #UbisoftINeedAnswers


The Rosetta Stone is a rock stele, found in 1799, inscribed with a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt, in 196 BC on behalf of King Ptolemy V. The decree appears in 3 scripts: the upper text is Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the middle portion is Demotic script, and the lowest is Ancient Greek. Because it presents essentially the same text in all 3 scripts with only minor differences, the stone provided the key to the modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs.

It is carved in black granodiorite and is believed to have originally been displayed within a temple, possibly at nearby Sais. It was probably moved during the early Christian or medieval period, and was eventually used as building material in the construction of Fort Julien near the town of Rashid (Rosetta) in the Nile Delta. It was rediscovered there in July 1799 by a soldier named Pierre-François Bouchard of the Napoleonic expedition to Egypt. It was the first Ancient Egyptian bilingual text recovered in modern times and aroused widespread public interest with its potential to decipher this previously untranslated hieroglyphic language. Lithographic copies and plaster casts began circulating among European museums and scholars. Meanwhile, British troops defeated the French in Egypt in 1801, and the original stone came into British possession under the Capitulation of Alexandria and was transported to London. It has been on public display at the British Museum almost continuously since 1802. It is the most-visited object in the British Museum.

Study of the decree was already under way when the first full translation of the Greek text appeared in 1803. It was 20 years, however, before the transliteration of the Egyptian scripts was announced by Jean-François Champollion in Paris in 1822; it took longer still before scholars were able to read Ancient Egyptian inscriptions and literature confidently. Major advances in the decoding were recognition that the stone offered three versions of the same text (1799); that the demotic text used phonetic characters to spell foreign names (1802); that the hieroglyphic text did so as well, and had pervasive similarities to the demotic (Thomas Young, 1814); and that, in addition to being used for foreign names, phonetic characters were also used to spell native Egyptian words (Champollion, 1822–1824).

Ever since its rediscovery, the stone has been the focus of nationalist rivalries, including its transfer from French to British possession during the Napoleonic Wars, a long-running dispute over the relative value of Young and Champollion’s contributions to the decipherment, and, since 2003, demands for the stone’s return to Egypt.

Two other fragmentary copies of the same decree were discovered later, and several similar Egyptian bilingual or trilingual inscriptions are now known, including two slightly earlier Ptolemaic decrees (the Decree of Canopus in 238 BC, and the Memphis decree of Ptolemy IV, ca. 218 BC). The Rosetta Stone is, therefore, no longer unique, but it was the essential key to modern understanding of Ancient Egyptian literature and civilisation. The term Rosetta Stone is now used in other contexts as the name for the essential clue to a new field of knowledge.