Mario Talarico is a man that knows how to keep it all in perspective. He is a world-renowned master umbrella maker from Naples, and we were proud to honor him with the Magister Artis Star last October.
Fan Favorite Art Fact File: Caravaggio and The Seven Works of Mercy
baroqueart recently reached out to us with an image of Caravaggio’s compelling composition, The Seven Works of Mercy, so we are featuring a discussion of this work in this, our first “Fan Favorite Art Fact File.” Thanks for the suggestion!
The Seven Acts of Mercy, undoubtedly one of the most ambitious and innovative of Caravaggio’s altarpieces, was commissioned in 1607 by the congregational fraternity of the Pio Monte della Misericordia in Naples. Caravaggio was tasked here to conjure a high altarpiece that reflected the congregation’s dual devotions to both the Madonna of Mercy and to charitable community acts.
Instead of including portraits of fraternity members in the act of various charities, however, Caravaggio instead sets his stage as a dimly-lit city street, over which presides the Madonna and Child encircled by angels. In the earthly realm below, Caravaggio casts a dynamic range of figures to symbolize the seven central acts of mercy. Beginning at lower left, one finds the act of “Clothing the Naked,” in a well-dressed young man, who offers his torn robe to an undressed male figure whose back is illuminated for the viewer. The young man’s sword, which is unsheathed and glistens as it extends across the lower left corner of the painting, draws one’s eye to the act of “Visiting the Sick,” as just behind this blade appears (almost imperceptibly) a crippled figure on his knees, his hands clasped in prayer.
This dapper young man also serves to draw the viewer into another cluster of gentlemen near the midline of the painting. At the center of this grouping is a pilgrim, whom one can identify by the shell attached to his hat. He is seeking lodging, and, symbolizing the act of “Sheltering the Homeless,” the inn-keeper, who stands at the left-most edge of the composition, is accommodating him (as indicated with his hand gesturing out of the painting). Next to this pilgrim one finds a rendition of the Biblical figure of Samson guzzling water, the act of “Refreshing the Thirsty.”
Across the composition, one can locate the final three merciful acts. Near the center of the painting we can see a man carrying a corpse out of the composition as a deacon, dressed in a white cassock, sings a funeral oration, an allusion to the act of “Burying the Dead.” Just in front of these figures, a busty woman is nursing an elderly gentleman between the bars of a prison cell, conflating the final two acts of “Visiting the Imprisoned” and “Feeding the Hungry.”
That Caravaggio stages this image as if it is taking place in a rugged Neapolitan street speaks to both his ongoing desire for unyielding naturalism in representation and also his aim to transcend the state of Counter Reformation art to engage more directly with a universal concept. As John Spike has commented in regard to this painting:
“The Seven Acts of Mercy is dedicated to the unmediated acts of charity that illuminate our dark existences, however fleetingly. A crowded alley in Naples serves as the agitated setting for episodes lifted from antiquity, the Old Testament, the New Testament, the Middle Ages, and the the artist’s own day. There was no better way to show the timelessness of the idea.” (Caravaggio, p. 190).
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Further Reading: Spike, John T., Caravaggio (New York: Abbeville Press, 2001).
Caravaggio, The Seven Works of Mercy (Sette opera di Misericordia), ca. 1607. Oil on canvas. 390 by 260 cm. Pio Monte della Misericordia, Naples.
PLACES IN THE ANCIENT WORLD: Paestum (Naples, Italy)
PAESTUM, also known by its original Greek name as Poseidonia, was a Greek colony founded on the west coast of Italy, some 80 km south of modern-day Naples. Prospering as a trade centre it was conquered first by the Lucanians and then, with the new Latin name of Paestum, the city became an important Roman colony in the 3rd century BCE. Today it is one of the most visited archaeological sites in the world due to its three excellently preserved large Greek temples.
In the 7th century BCE a second wave of Greek colonization occurred in Magna Graecia and, in c. 600 BCE, colonists from Sybaris in southern Italy founded the colony or city-state (polis) of Poseidonia (meaning sacred to Poseidon) at a spot chosen for its fertile plain, land access through the Lucanian hills, and sea port.
According to the ancient historian Strabo, the colonists first built fortifications on the coast before later moving inland to build their city proper. The colony prospered so that by the 6th century BCE there was an important sanctuary (Foce del Sele) and monumental temples dedicated to the Greek goddesses Hera and Athena. The city was planned out in a precise grid pattern and surrounded by walls. The town benefitted from a large agora and became wealthy enough to mint its own coinage and expand its territorial control to the wider countryside. Eventually, Poseidonia administered the plain between the river Sele in the north and the Agropoli promontory to the south.