Catalase, the antioxidant heme enzyme one of three subgroups related to catalase deficiency in humans modulating the normal catalase reaction dependent on NADPH-binding catalases for function.

Catalase (CAT) is converted by decomposition and intracellular localization relationships of the main cellular antioxidant enzyme system like superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxiredoxins (Prdx), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) are peroxisomal matrix enzymes in the cytoplasm, translocated to the peroxisomes to catalyze hydrogen peroxide H2O2 which is decomposed to oxygen and water, locus: 11p13 (§

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Oxidative Stress in the Metabolic Syndrome – Mechanisms Linking Hypertension and Dyslipidaemia

1 Mechanisms Linliing Hypertension and Oxidative Stress It remains unclear whether elevated levels of free radicals initiate the develop-ment of hypertension, are a consequence of the disease process itself or both (Grossman 2008). Oxidative stress may add to the generation and/or maintenance…
Oxidative Stress in the Metabolic Syndrome – Mechanisms Linking Hypertension and Dyslipidaemia

So today was my Bio final, and since I’m doing extravagantly terrible in it, I was going to do the extra credit in drawing a photosynthesizing cell. I didn’t realize that it was due today, so I bolted to the library to quickly draw something up, only to realize: I had no colored pencils.

I was cursing myself before looking down into my makeup bag and thinking, THIS GIVES ME AN IDEA…

The cytoplasm is made with Pale coverup, the cell wall is made of Royal Gem lipgloss, the NADPH molecules are colored with Hotflash Lipstick.
Also, I signed my name in Eyeliner, for good measure.

The emerging role of Nrf2 in mitochondrial function.

PubMed: The emerging role of Nrf2 in mitochondrial function.

Free Radic Biol Med. 2015 May 11;

Authors: Dinkova-Kostova AT, Abramov AY

The transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2, gene name NFE2L2) allows adaptation and survival under conditions of stress by regulating the gene expression of diverse networks of cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, detoxification enzymes as well as proteins which assist in repair or removal of damaged macromolecules. Nrf2 has a crucial role in the maintenance of the cellular redox homeostasis by regulating the biosynthesis, utilization and regeneration of glutathione, thioredoxin and NADPH, and by controlling production of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria and NADPH oxidase. Under homeostatic conditions, Nrf2 affects the mitochondrial membrane potential, fatty acid oxidation, availability of substrates (NADH and FADH2/succinate) for respiration, and ATP synthesis. Under conditions of stress or growth factor stimulation, activation of Nrf2 counteracts the increased ROS production in mitochondria by transcriptional upregulation of uncoupling protein 3 and influences mitochondrial biogenesis by maintaining the levels of nuclear respiratory factor 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, as well as by promoting purine nucleotide biosynthesis. Pharmacological Nrf2 activators, such as the naturally occurring isothiocyanate sulforaphane, inhibit oxidant-mediated opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and mitochondrial swelling. Curiously, a synthetic 1,4-diphenyl-1,2,3-triazole compound, originally designed as an Nrf2 activator, was found to promote mitophagy, thereby contributing to the overall mitochondrial homeostasis. Thus, Nrf2 is a prominent player in supporting the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondria, and this role is particularly crucial under conditions of stress.

PMID: 25975984 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]