n1

Some sentence patterns that use the negative form ず

~ずじまい regrettably have not completed action ~
見たい映画だったのに、忙しくてとうとう見ずじまいだった。
朝から忙しくて、今日はお昼ご飯を食べずじまいだった。

~ずにいる being in the state of not having done ~ (=ないでいる)
図書館の本を返さずにいたら、図書館から電話がかかってきた。
友人に相談できずにいます。

~ずに済ませる to “finish”/”complete” without doing ~
この授業にはたくさんの本が必要らしいが、できるだけ買わずに済ませたい。
この冬は洋服を買わずに済ませます。

~ずに済む to end without ~ happening
電車では間に合いそうになかったので、タクシーに乗ったら、何とか遅れずに済んだ。
これをやっとけば別れずに済んだのに ...

~ずにはいられない can’t help but do ~
寂しくて、誰かに電話せずにはいられない。
言わずにはいられなかった。

~ずにはおかない ~ is bound to occur
この映画は、見る者に感動を与えずにはおかない作品です。
身内の一人が殺されたら、恨みを晴らさずにはおかない。

2

1152/2000

JLPT: N1

School Grade: Junior high school

This character is a combination of 辶 movement and 秀 excel. Here 秀 is working phonetically to express “lead,” while lending its own similar associated connotations. Originally 透 referred to a “person leading another” in a physical sense. While some scholars feel that its current meanings are borrowed, other believe that “lead the way” came by association to mean “clear the way” and eventually “clear” in a broader sense. “Transparent” is an associated meaning.

2

1162/2000

JLPT: N1

School Grade: 4th (9 years old)

This character is a combination of 木 tree and 毎 every/each. One explanation is that here 毎 is simply a phonetic element expressing “big,” giving “big tree.” In this case, the meaning of “plum/plum tree” came about as a borrowing. Another explanation claims that 毎 is being used in its early sense of “fertile growth,” and that the plum was a favorite fruit of pregnant women and therefore associated with pregnancy and procreation/fertility. This would mean that 梅 literally means “tree of fertility,” or a “plum tree.”

なおさら

still more; even more; all the more

それが事実ならなおさらよい[悪い]
それ が じじつ なら なおさら よい  [わるい]
If that is true, so much the better [worse]

今やらなければ、なおさら難しくなるだろう。
いま やらなければ、 なおさら むずかしく なる だろう。
It will be all the more difficult if we don’t act now.

2


1160/2000

JLPT: N1

School Grade: Junior high school

This character was formerly written 圈, and is a combination of 囗 enclosure, and 卷/巻 roll (up). Here 卷/巻 is a phonetic element working to express “block” while also lending its own idea of “containment.” Together with 囗 this gives “that contained by a blocking enclosure,” or a “zone/range.”