This character is a combination of 艹 plant, and 匊 handful. Here 匊 is a phonetic element working to express “round and gathered together,” similar to its use in 鞠 ball. Together with 艹 this gives “plant with a circular head,” a reference to the “chrysanthemum.”
This character is a combination of 辶 movement and 秀 excel. Here 秀 is working phonetically to express “lead,” while lending its own similar associated connotations. Originally 透 referred to a “person leading another” in a physical sense. While some scholars feel that its current meanings are borrowed, other believe that “lead the way” came by association to mean “clear the way” and eventually “clear” in a broader sense. “Transparent” is an associated meaning.
This character is a combination of 木 tree and 毎 every/each. One explanation is that here 毎 is simply a phonetic element expressing “big,” giving “big tree.” In this case, the meaning of “plum/plum tree” came about as a borrowing. Another explanation claims that 毎 is being used in its early sense of “fertile growth,” and that the plum was a favorite fruit of pregnant women and therefore associated with pregnancy and procreation/fertility. This would mean that 梅 literally means “tree of fertility,” or a “plum tree.”
This character is a combination of 女 woman and 因 depend on. Here 因 is likely lending its assumed specific meaning of “become dependent on a person in whose house one stays.” Combined with 女 this gives “woman becoming dependent (on her new family),” a reference to “marriage.”
This character was formerly written 圈, and is a combination of 囗 enclosure, and 卷/巻 roll (up). Here 卷/巻 is a phonetic element working to express “block” while also lending its own idea of “containment.” Together with 囗 this gives “that contained by a blocking enclosure,” or a “zone/range.”