muscle paralysis

Molecule of the Day: VX

VX (C11H26NO2PS) is a colourless, odourless, oily liquid under room temperatures. It is a member of the V-series of nerve agents, and is an extremely potent poison - only 0.01 grams of it is needed to kill a person by skin contact. VX was recently implicated in the assassination of Kim Jong-nam, the half-brother of the North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, in Malaysia.

VX is a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, which breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into acetic acid and choline. The normal function of the enzyme is to regulate the concentration of acetylcholine within the synaptic cleft, so as to control the frequency of binding of acetylcholine to cholinergic receptors on the postsynaptic cell membrane and hence the transmission of impulses across the synapse.

Consequently, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase results in a rapid increase in the synaptic concentration of acetylcholine, as the presynaptic knob continues to synthesise it and secrete it into the synaptic cleft. As a result, the cholinergic receptors on the postsynaptic cell membrane are continually stimulated, and a rapid series of action potentials are triggered. This results in muscle spasms and eventual paralysis, leading to death by asphyxiation due to paralysis of the diaphragm.

VX exposure is usually treated using an injection of atropine and pralidoxime. Atropine inhibits certain cholinergic receptors, reducing the binding of acetylcholine to receptors and thus the triggering of action potentials. On the other hand, one end of pralidoxime binds to acetylcholinesterase and the other binds to the phosphate group of VX, which causes the VX molecule to detach from the enzyme together with the pralidoxime molecule (see below). This restores the ability of acetylcholinesterase to hydrolyse acetylcholine, hence reducing its synaptic levels.

VX is synthesised from phosphorus trichloride over multiple steps; first, it is methylated, reacted with ethanol, then transesterified with N,N-diisopropylaminoethanol to produce QL. This is then oxidised with sulfur, and isomerised via heating to produce VX.

100 symptoms of Fibromyalgia

My Symptoms are in bold,share and bold your symptoms.


  • Fatigue, made worse by physical exertion or stress
  • Activity level decreased to less than 50% of pre-illness activity level
  • Recurrent flu-like illness
  • Sore throat
  • Hoarseness
  • Tender or swollen lymph nodes (glands), especially in neck and underarms
  • Shortness of breath (air hunger) with little or no exertion
  • Frequent sighing
  • Tremor or trembling
  • Severe nasal allergies (new allergies or worsening of previous allergies)
  • Cough
  • Night sweats
  • Low-grade fevers
  • Feeling cold often
  • Feeling hot often
  • Cold extremities (hands and feet)
  • Low body temperature (below 97.6)
  • Low blood pressure (below 110/70)
  • Heart palpitations
  • Dryness of eyes and/or mouth
  • Increased thirst
  • Symptoms worsened by temperature changes
  • Symptoms worsened by air travel
  • Symptoms worsened by stress
  • Headache
  • Tender points or trigger points
  • Muscle pain and aches
  • Muscle twitching
  • Muscle weakness
  • Paralysis or severe weakness of an arm or leg
  • Joint pain
  • TMJ syndrome
  • Chest pain
  • Lightheaded; feeling “spaced out”
  • Inability to think clearly (“brain fog”)
  • Seizures
  • Seizure-like episodes
  • Syncope (fainting) or blackouts
  • Sensation that you might faint
  • Vertigo or dizziness
  • Numbness or tingling sensations
  • Tinnitus (ringing in one or both ears)
  • Photophobia (sensitivity to light)
  • Noise intolerance
  • Feeling spatially disoriented
  • Dysequilibrium (balance difficulty)
  • Staggering gait (clumsy walking; bumping into things)
  • Dropping things frequently
  • Difficulty judging distances (e.g. when driving; placing objects on surfaces)
  • “Not quite seeing” what you are looking at
  • Hypersomnia (excessive sleeping)
  • Sleep disturbance: unrefreshing or non-restorative sleep
  • Sleep disturbance: difficulty falling asleep
  • Sleep disturbance: difficulty staying asleep (frequent awakenings)
  • Sleep disturbance: vivid or disturbing dreams or nightmares
  • Altered sleep/wake schedule (alertness/energy best late at night)
  • Depressed mood
  • Suicidal thoughts
  • Suicide attempts
  • Feeling worthless
  • Frequent crying
  • Feeling helpless and/or hopeless
  • Inability to enjoy previously enjoyed activities
  • Increased appetite
  • Decreased appetite
  • Anxiety or fear when there is no obvious cause
  • Panic attacks
  • Irritability; overreaction
  • Rage attacks: anger outbursts with little or no cause
  • Abrupt, unpredictable mood swings
  • Phobias (irrational fears)
  • Personality changes
  • Eye pain
  • Changes in visual acuity (frequent changes in ability to see well)
  • Difficulty with accommodation (switching focus from one thing to another)
  • Blind spots in vision
  • Sensitivities to medications (unable to tolerate “normal” dosage)
  • Sensitivities to odors (e.g., cleaning products, exhaust fumes, colognes, hair sprays)
  • Sensitivities to foods
  • Painful urination or bladder pain
  • Alcohol intolerance
  • Frequent urination
  • Alteration of taste, smell, and/or hearing
  • Prostate pain
  • Impotence
  • Endometriosis
  • Worsening of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
  • Decreased libido (sex drive)
  • Hair loss
  • Mitral valve prolapse
  • Cancer
  • Dental problems
  • Periodontal (gum) disease
  • Aphthous ulcers (canker sores)
  • Stomach ache; abdominal cramps
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Esophageal reflux (heartburn)
  • Frequent diarrhea
  • Frequent constipation
  • Bloating; intestinal gas
  • Decreased appetite
  • Increased appetite
  • Food cravings
  • Weight gain
  • Weight loss
  • Difficulty with simple calculations (e.g., balancing checkbook)
  • Word-finding difficulty
  • Using the wrong word
  • Difficulty expressing ideas in words
  • Difficulty moving your mouth to speak
  • Slowed speech
  • Stuttering; stammering
  • Impaired ability to concentrate
  • Easily distracted during a task
  • Difficulty paying attention
  • Difficulty following a conversation when background noise is present
  • Losing your train of thought in the middle of a sentence
  • Difficulty putting tasks or things in proper sequence
  • Losing track in the middle of a task (remembering what to do next)
  • Difficulty with short-term memory
  • Difficulty with long-term memory
  • Forgetting how to do routine things
  • Difficulty understanding what you read
  • Switching left and right
  • Transposition (reversal) of numbers, words and/or letters when you speak
  • Transposition (reversal) of numbers, words and/or letters when you write
  • Difficulty remembering names of objects
  • Difficulty remembering names of people
  • Difficulty recognizing faces
  • Difficulty following simple written instructions
  • Difficulty following complicated written instructions
  • Difficulty following simple oral (spoken) instructions
  • Difficulty following complicated oral (spoken) instructions
  • Poor judgment
  • Difficulty making decisions
  • Difficulty integrating information (putting ideas together to form a complete picture or concept)
  • Difficulty following directions while driving
  • Becoming lost in familiar locations when driving
  • Feeling too disoriented to drive
D&D Homebrew Poisons

So, im working on a mini series for badassdanddpics and was wondering if you guys had any ideas. im calling the mini series “Bewildering Botany and Perilous Poisons” that will basically showcase magical plant homebrew that will aid adventures and villains alike. for the poison section of it, i put together some basic information from D&D about the rules as well as how they are applied and used against others as well as common symptoms from plants in the real world.

different poisons are applied to victims by

  • contact
  • ingested
  • inhaled
  • injury
  • smoke from being burned

common rules (for 5th edition D&D regarding poison)

  • A weapon coated with poison will dry out in one minute.
  • When you are poisoned, you will usually suffer from the poisoned condition.
  • Poison can be bought or crafted using the downtime rules and a poisoner’s kit.
  • Cures for poison include low level spells or anti-toxin.
  • Truth Serum is listed under poisons, and is something I think could be useful in your campaign in many different ways.
  • Poisoned: A poisoned creature has disadvantage on attack rolls and ability checks.
  • each round until you make a saving throw.

Common symptoms of poisoning include nausea, vomiting, convulsions, liver failure, disables nerves, lowers blood pressure, and can stop the heart, muscle twitches, and sometimes paralysis, irritation of skin throat and mouth, swelling, burning pain, breathing difficulties and stomach upset. dilated pupils, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, tachycardia, loss of balance, staggering, headache, rash, flushing, dry mouth and throat, slurred speech, urinary retention, constipation, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, convulsions and photo-toxicity

underneath the “keep reading” i have included some actual plants that could help with creating realistic homebrew.

Keep reading

The signs as poisons or toxins

Aries: VX, a nerve agent developed for no reason other than to be a bio-weapon. It causes violent muscle contractions followed by paralysis, asphyxiation, and death. 

Taurus: Deadly nightshade, a plant that can be used as a hallucinogen at low doses. An overdose causes abnormally fast heart rate, loss of balance, and convulsions. A lethal overdose involves a lack of control over heart rate, breathing, and sweating followed by death. 

Gemini: Sarin, a highly volatile nerve agent that’s been used in several terrorist attacks. It can cause effects as a liquid or a gas and leads to tightness in the chest followed by nausea, muscle convulsions, suffocation, and death. 

Cancer: Amatoxin, a toxin produced by several species of poisonous mushrooms. It causes burns where it comes into contact with the body and leads to liver damage and eventual liver and/or kidney failure. 

Leo: Ricin, a protein derived from castor seeds. It leads to swelling and bleeding in the digestive tract, followed shortly by low blood pressure, shock, organ failure, and death. It has also been used in terrorist attacks.

Virgo: Mercury, element 80 on periodic table. Exposure causes burning and itching along with the sensation of insects crawling on one’s skin or skin peeling from the body. Long-term exposure leads to severe brain damage and death. 

Libra: Tetrodotoxin, a neurotoxin found in pufferfish and some other species of the same order. The toxin causes a lack of function in voluntary muscles, including the diaphragm, which leads to paralysis, asphyxiation, and death. 

Scorpio: Cyanide, the chemical compound KCN. Results depend on exposure; low long-term exposure can cause eventual paralysis and increased chance of miscarriages, while high doses result in seizures, cardiac arrest, and death. 

Sagittarius: Strychnine, an alkaloid derived from the Strychnos nux-vomica tree and used as a pesticide. In humans it causes dramatic and painful convulsions that can lead to muscles locking up and organs failing. Those exposed die of either asphyxiation or exhaustion from the convulsions.

Capricorn: Polonium, a radioactive metal and number 84 on the periodic table. It can cause death in extremely small doses, and long-term exposure leads to radiation poisoning, which can cause kidney or liver failure, cancer, and eventual death. 

Aquarius: Arsenic, a toxic metal that is number 33 on the periodic table. Acute poisoning can lead to hair loss, muscle cramping, convulsions, and death. Long-term exposure, such as through groundwater, may lead to nightblindness, organ failure, cancer, and eventual death. 

Pisces: Mustard gas, a chemical weapon used largely in World War I. It causes causes large chemical burns and blisters, including potential internal burns in the lungs. Even when these symptoms aren’t lethal, exposure may lead to severe health problems years later. 

Cardioversion vs Defibrillation

Cardioversion is a method to restore an abnormal heart rhythm back to normal. Defibrillation is a medical technique used to counter the onset of ventricular fibrillation, (VF) a common cause of cardiac arrest, and pulseless ventricular tachycardia, which sometimes precedes ventricular fibrillation but can be just as dangerous on its own.

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Difference of Cardioversion and Defibrillation

MONA: Immediate Treatment of MI

Remember that MONA does not represent order in which you should administer these treatments. It is a mnemonic to help you remember the components of MI treatment, not the prioritization of them.

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3 Areas of Damage After MI

A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a part of your heart is blocked for a long enough time that part of the heart muscle is damaged or dies. The medical term for this is myocardial infarction.

Blood Flow Through The Cardiac Valves

Blood flows through the Tricuspid valve, then to the Pulmonic Valve, down the Mitral valve then to the Aortic valve.

Cardiac Output

Cardiac output is equal to the heart rate (beats of the heart) multiplied by stroke volume (amount of blood pumped each heart beat).

Treating Congestive Heart Failure

Heart failure is a condition in which the heart is no longer able to pump out enough oxygen-rich blood. This causes symptoms to occur throughout the body.

Pulmonary Artery Catheter

A pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is a long, thin tube with a balloon tip on the end that helps it to move smoothly through the blood vessels and into the right chamber of the heart.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis, which literally means porous bone, is a disease in which the density and quality of bone are reduced. As bones become more porous and fragile, the risk of fracture is greatly increased. The loss of bone occurs silently and progressively. Often there are no symptoms until the first fracture occurs.

Hip Fracture

Hip fractures are cracks or breaks in the top of the thigh bone (femur) close to the hip joint.

Appendicitis

Appendicitis is a painful swelling of the appendix, a finger-like pouch connected to the large intestine.

Peritonitis

Peritonitis is an inflammation (irritation) of the peritoneum, the thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers most of the abdominal organs.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening problem that affects people with diabetes. It occurs when the body cannot use sugar (glucose) as a fuel source because there is no insulin or not enough insulin. Fat is used for fuel instead.

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is a condition that occurs when your blood sugar (glucose) is too low. Blood sugar below 70 mg/dL is considered low. Blood sugar at or below this level can harm you

Anaphylactic Reaction

Anaphylaxis is a severe, whole-body allergic reaction to a chemical that has become an allergen. After being exposed to a substance such as bee sting venom, the person’s immune system becomes sensitized to it.

Autonomic Dysreflexia

Autonomic hyperreflexia is a reaction of the involuntary (autonomic) nervous system to too much stimulation. This reaction may include: Change in heart rate Excessive sweating High blood pressure Muscle spasms Skin color changes (paleness, redness, blue-grey skin color)

Duchennes Muscular Dystrophy

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder that involves muscle weakness, which quickly gets worse. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by a defective gene for dystrophin (a protein in the muscles). However, it often occurs in people without a known family history of the condition.

Dumping Syndrome

Dumping syndrome occurs when the contents of the stomach empty too quickly into the small intestine. The partially digested food draws excess fluid into the small intestine causing nausea, cramping, diarrhea, sweating, faintness, and palpitations. Dumping usually occurs after the consumption of too much simple or refined sugar in people who have had surgery to modify or remove all or part of the stomach.

Guillain-Barre Syndrome 

Guillain-Barre syndrome is a serious health problem that occurs when the body’s defense (immune) system mistakenly attacks part of the nervous system. This leads to nerve inflammation that causes muscle weakness or paralysis and other symptoms.

Hemophilia

Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder that slows the blood clotting process. People with this condition experience prolonged bleeding or oozing following an injury, surgery, or having a tooth pulled. In severe cases of hemophilia, continuous bleeding occurs after minor trauma or even in the absence of injury (spontaneous bleeding). Serious complications can result from bleeding into the joints, muscles, brain, or other internal organs. Milder forms of hemophilia do not necessarily involve spontaneous bleeding, and the condition may not become apparent until abnormal bleeding occurs following surgery or a serious injury.

Sickle Cell Anemia Crisis

Sickle cell anemia is a disease passed down through families. The red blood cells which are normally shaped like a disc take on a sickle or crescent shape. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body.

Symptoms of Leukemia

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells (leukocytes).

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. It can affect the skin, joints, kidneys, brain, and other organs. The underlying cause of autoimmune diseases is not fully known.

Acromegaly

Acromegaly is a long-term condition in which there is too much growth hormone and the body tissues get larger over time.

SIR Hernia

A hernia is a sac formed by the lining of the abdominal cavity (peritoneum). The sac comes through a hole or weak area in the strong layer of the belly wall that surrounds the muscle. This layer is called the fascia.

Chiari Malformation is a rare brain disease that causes headaches, fatigue, muscle weakness, and in some severe cases even paralysis. Only 1 in every 1,000 births has this disease. Currently there is no cure and those who do have Chiari go through surgeries and intense pain. In honor of rare disease day we need to raise awareness of this illness and the people who suffer from it. So that people like my friend Melissa can live a normal life without fear of the blinding pain, another surgery, or special medication.

(Micropechis ikaheka) Ikaheka

Description

Medium to large-sized, rather stout-bodied, smooth scaled semi-aquatic snake, adults usually 0.6-1 m long (max. 2.0 m); body color variable, usually yellowish, cream, or light brownish, often w/ darker brown or reddish crossbands (narrower toward tail). Head narrow, distinct from neck, gray (may be black above), blunt, w/ tiny dark eyes. Belly yellow. Tip of tail black above.

Habitat

Mainly found in monsoon & rain forest areas, swamps, & plantations. When on land, often found under old coconut husks, from sea level up to 1,500 m elevation. Most commonly seen in drier months. Limited to Indonesia & New Guinea.

Activity and Behavior

Both diurnal & nocturnal, but seldom seen during day. Semi-aquatic, & generally secretive, species which frequently also burrows in leaf litter or loose soil. Eats lizards, other snakes (including its own species), small mammals, & frogs. Has a tenaceous “chewing” biting behavior. Oviparous w/ no clutch size reported.

Venom Characteristics

Highly myotoxic, hemotoxic, & neurotoxic; causes myalgia, muscle tenderness, & severe neuromuscular paralysis. Minor symptoms include nausea, severe headache, & prolonged weakness. Unconsciousness & respiratory arrest reported within 2 hours; death reported within 7 hours. No known antivenom currently produced.

[FIC] these things take forever (i especially am slow)

pairing: jikook
genre: tooth-rotting fluff omg
wordcount: 4k
summary: jungkook is just trying to be a functioning person, then jimin comes to school in the World’s Cutest Sweater™  and it all goes to shit
crossposted to AO3
a/n: my first bts fic, i hope you all enjoy it!


It’s 10:23 am. Lecture starts at 10:30 and Jungkook’s hands are starting to sweat from the two steaming cups of coffee in his grasp, but a text from Jimin while he waited at the coffee kiosk reading “FUKC OVERSLPET WAIT 4 ME ” keeps Jungkook shivering in his spot outside the Music Building, watching his breath puff into steamy clouds in front of him as he wiggles in place to keep warm.

Keep reading

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis ’M.E.’

  • nausea
  • temperature disregulation
  • high heart rate
  • low blood pressure
  • fever
  • chills
  • disequilibrium
  • muscle weakness
  • paralysis
  • chronic fatigue
  • inconsistent central nervous system function
  • hyperacusis (sensitivity to noise)
  • photophobia (pain/relapse on exposure to light)
  • migraines
  • cognitive dysfunction
  • dyscalculia
  • post-exertional malaise
  • food allergies
  • pain
  • orthostatic tachycardia
  • difficulty breathing
  • coma-like episodes
  • low blood volume
  • seizures & ‘sensory storms’

…and many more.

Case 1: Floppy Baby Syndrome and Clostridium Botulinum

The patient presented with trouble breathing and feeding and with constipation. One likely cause of all three of those symptoms along with the history of an herbal tea with honey after an upper respiratory infection points to something neurological, specifically paralysis due to the botulinum toxin.

Parents are usually advised to not give their babies honey within the first year of life because honey has high concentration of Clostridium botulinum spores. C botulinum is a spore forming bacteria that produces a toxin that blocks our nerves’ ability to trigger contractions in our muscles, leading to paralysis. 

In adults, indigestion of honey poses no threat because C botulinum is a relatively weak bacteria that cannot compete with the bacteria in our gut and the spores will never really mature and generate their toxins. Adults who present with poisoning from botulinum toxin usually do so after eating improperly canned foods. These canned foods have the C botulinum bacteria growing in it which allows the bacteria time to generate toxins which are then ingested by the patients. 

Because babies haven’t had time to develop a robust gut bacterial flora, they are susceptible to colonization of C botulinum from the ingestion of spores and this leads to the absorption the paralytic neurotoxin, botulinum toxin. Because of the widespread blocking of nerve signaling, babies present with a decrease in muscle strength which can be seen the baby looking tired or lethargic with a weak cry and trouble feeding. Breathing is controlled by the diaphragm which can also be paralyzed by the botulinum toxin leading trouble breathing and respiratory arrest. Because of this, intubation of patients presenting with respiratory distress from botulism is necessary to ensure adequate oxygenation.

Botulinum toxin is basically what Botox injections are. The neurotoxin paralyzes the muscles at the site of injection preventing the appearance of wrinkles. Injections in the suboccipital region have also been shown to help people with cervicogenic headaches.

While many other things may cause “Floppy Baby Syndrome,” a baby presenting with neurological signs of paralysis after ingestion of honey points to poisoning after the ingestion of C botulinum spores. This is why you should not feed babies honey!

nature.com
Light opens up the larynx
Muscles engineered to be photosensitive could lead to treatments for paralysis.

Scientists have genetically engineered muscles to move in response to pulses of light.

The technique, demonstrated on vocal cords removed from mice, is reported on 2 June in Nature Communications1. Researchers say that it could probe how muscles function — and might eventually help to treat people who have a paralysis that interferes with speech and breathing.

The work relies on a method called optogenetics, which can make cells that usually respond to electrical signals also react to light. The approach alters mammalian cells by inserting a gene for a protein such as channelrhodopsin, which in its natural setting allows blue-green algae to swim towards or away from light.

Optogenetics was first used in 2005 to modify neurons2, and has since become a standard tool to study the brain and nervous system. Applications outside neuroscience, however, are less common.

The latest study is fascinating, says Julio Vergara, a physiologist at the University of California, Los Angeles, who studies how electrical signals cause muscles to contract. “It shows the potential use of this very powerful technique for very important medical problems,” he says.

Continue Reading.

First Kisses: A Criminal Minds Imagine

A/N: Howdy, late start, my apologies, but I will be up late tonight! This is for Spencer and Y/N talking about first kisses on their way to New York, and it doesn’t go the way anyone expects. - Fuckeree

Rating: PG13

Warnings: None that I can think of :)

Imagine…

A type of serenity came over you whenever you were in the air. It didn’t matter what you were doing, but if the circumstances were better, it would be even better.

You always sat in a window seat, even though you kept your eyes closed most of the time. You know that feeling when you shut your eyes and tilt your head back to the sky? The way the sun shines through, you can still see the bursts of colour, the reds and yellows and deep, dark oranges? It was a beautiful sensation.

The way that solar power wasn’t just power, it was an absolutely stunning force beyond words, that was one of your favourite feelings.

Hands wrapped around a mug of peppermint tea, you pull your head up off of the cool seat, and glance across the few feet at Spencer. His hair was cut again, but it still found a way to be messy, in an attractive way.

He was looking back at you, and passed a small smile as you made eye contact. “It’s beautiful” he murmurs, gesturing out the glass panel between the two of you, and you nod. 

“It really is, it reminds me of moments you’ll never forget, you know?” you weren’t sure if he’d understand the feelings you’d put on a simple vision of the sun, but he agreed nonetheless. 

The team was on its way to New York, a case had come up involving the death and recovery of three young men from Delta Lake. 

It wasn’t the grizzly stuff that you had grown so accustomed to, it was the least gory deaths that you’d worked since your beginning at the BAU. The men, ages 17-20, were pulled from the lake with bruising around the wrists and ankles, and puncture marks resembling “track marks” found on their forearms. 

It was the M.E who had discovered, through her tox-screen, that the men were being killed with the three drugs used for lethal injection. 

Sodium Thiopental induced unconsciousness, followed by pancuronium bromide to cause muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest, followed by potassium chloride to deal the final blow, and kill the intended victim. 

It was a lot cleaner than what you’d been trained to look at and investigate, but no murder was a “good” murder in your eyes, not after all that you’d seen in your lifetime. 

“What’s one thing it reminds you of?” his low, throaty voice brought you back to where you were, and you stare at him, brow furrowed. 

“Pardon?” you say, leaning forward to hear him better, and push yourself into the conversation more. 

“The sun, you said it reminds you of moments you couldn’t forget, what’s one that it reminds you of?” his fingers are laced together, and he absentmindedly picks at the nail of his left thumb. 

“Oh.. Well, when my nana used to make cookies, she’d make these oatmeal chocolate chip ones, and sneak them in a bag in my pocket for when I went home, they ended up hard as a rock but oh boy, they tasted so good” you could practically envision them breaking apart in your small hands. 

“That sounds really nice” he bites at his lip, and you take a sip of your lukewarm tea, nodding. 

“What about you? What’s one memory that’s stuck in your head forever?” you cross one leg up over the other and stare across as he fumbles over thoughts, trying to figure out what to say. 

“Most people would say their first kiss, or their first love, or that one time they broke their arm in second grade or something.. But I’d have to say my first case” he settles it with a nod, and you can’t help but grin. 

“Not your first kiss? Awe Spence” you’re teasing, but his face still begins to burn that light red shade when he’s sort of embarrassed. 

“I guess not, but what about you? You never chose your first kiss either” he runs a hand through his tussled mess of hair, and uses his other hand to point at you in a jokingly accusing way. 

JJ flops down next to you and nods along in agreement, encouraging him and his sneaky accusation about your choice of memory, and you can’t help but pull back and laugh nervously. 

“Yea Y/N, what’s that about?” Morgan leans against the kitchenette counter, a bottle of water in his right hand, and a sly grin across his face. 

“Can’t have a memory of something that hasn’t happened” you spit back. It wasn’t something that you thought they all had to know, but at the same time, why lie to them? 

It takes Spence by surprise, as he leans back a little bit in his chair and his eyes widen slightly, his lips playing up into a weak smile. JJ just sort of turns to you, unsure of what to say, but choking back laughter. 

“Wait a minute, you’re telling me that you, Y/N Y/L/N has NEVER kissed someone? That’s priceless!” Morgan slaps his knee, and lets loose one of those mildly annoying and entirely ridiculous guffaws of laughter. 

Your smile drops, and your nervous laugh fades entirely from your sort of stunned face as JJ starts to giggle along. Kate just shakes her head, but you can see her shoulders move with the silent laughter she’s holding back. 

Rossi turns his body away from the situation, and Hotch throws his hands up in the air. There was no defense coming your way from anyone, and you just shrug, dropping your gaze to your shoes. 

*TWO DAYS LATER* 

It had been 52 hours since landing, and you were completely exhausted, in every sense of the word. Your body ached, and longed for the lump hotel bed that seemed to be calling your name from behind you. 

You were standing in the bathroom of your room, dragging a brush through your tangled mess of hair, and wincing as it ripped some free from your head. You’d already brushed your teeth, and washed the day’s worth of grime off of your skin. 

Staring at the young lady who seemed to grudgingly glare back at you, you take in all of your own quirks and looks. Your severely over sized pajama shirt with “FBI” on the front of it hung down passed the comfortable shorts that you’d packed as a last thought. 

Your feet were covered by plush alligators, as you silently gave a nod to Lake Placid, one of your favourite films. 

After you’re finally done wrestling with your hair, you tie it up in a bun and give up on trying to look like an agent, and more like a thoroughly tired young woman. 

You’re on your way to the bed that had caused back ache for the last few nights when there’s a timid knock on the door. 

You almost didn’t hear it, except for the fact that your light switch was on the wall right beside the entryway. Cursing under your breath at the time of night that it is, you wipe the invisible frustration from your brow, and undo the chain and lock. 

“Who is it?” you call, voice breaking as you peer through the tiny peephole. You know who it is before he even says, but you’re still careful, and carefully wait for him to reply before you open up. 

“It’s just Spencer, if it’s not a good time I can wait” he’s twiddling his thumbs, and you grin as you shake your head. 

“Always a good time for you Spence” you breathe, pulling open the door to the quiet and unsure man in front of you, who promptly drops his hands and smiles. 

You invite him in, but he seems to struggle about crossing the threshold for a few moments. “Is something wrong?” you turn back around, puzzled at his sudden behaviour, and take the few steps back towards him. 

You’re almost there when he suddenly steps out, placing a hand gently on your left cheek, and lowering his head to your level. His lips crash into yours, as you backpedal into the room, pulling him along with you. 

When he finally comes up for air, he’s blushing furiously, and you can’t help but stare at him, full of shock for a few agonizingly long seconds. 

“Spencer, what was?” you gesture to him, and he sort of crumples up, shaking his head. 

“You… You just said that you’d never had your first kiss, and I couldn’t help it, I just.. I wanted to be that first kiss”. 

You wrap your arms around him, as you build another memory that you’ll never forget. 

“Good” 

anonymous asked:

what sort of things would you do if somebody had been electrocuted; not to the point of death but they'd be incapacitated, at the very least? this is a very cool blog btw, may your time off be full of warm, fuzzy feelings and nice things! THANK YOU FOR SETTING THIS BLOG UP.

EXCELLENT QUESTION, MY FRIEND! I actually had to hit up a few of my emergency nursing reference books for this one, since I’ve never taken care of an electrocuted person before and I wasn’t sure how it would be different from caring for regular burn injuries (as it turns out, it’s not that different! ~*the more you know*~)

So when you’re writing about electrocution injuries, there are two major things to remember:

  • any time you’re dealing with electricity, you run the risk of ROYALLY fucking up the heart
  • tissue damage from electrical injury can be a lot more extensive than it initially appears

The degree to which the victim is incapacitated and the type of trauma they sustain will depend largely on the source of the initial injury, and also how long it lasted. A lightning strike can be a pretty hefty dose of electricity, but it’s also FAST and tends to affect the surface area of the body more than anything. Someone who touches a live wire, on the other hand, may not be getting as much electricity voltage-wise, but it may be sustained over a longer period of time, especially in situations where the skeletal muscles lock up and they PHYSICALLY CAN’T LET GO OF THE THING ELECTROCUTING THEM. When it comes to physiological injury, current is often more important than voltage in a lot of ways – a sustained low-voltage current can do a FUCKTON of damage, mostly because of what happens to the heart.

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Christina’s World, Andrew Wyeth

1948

The woman in the painting is Anna Christina Olson (3 May 1893 – 27 January 1968). She is known to have suffered from polio, a muscular deterioration that paralyzed her lower body. Although polio has been her standard diagnosis, more likely she was afflicted with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a genetic disorder characterized by a progressive wasting away of the muscles, paralysis, and loss of sensation beginning in late childhood or early adulthood. 

Christina’s disorder had all of these features. (Polio produces a sudden, non-progressive paralysis unaccompanied by a loss of sensation.) Wyeth was inspired to create the painting when he saw her crawling across a field while watching from a window in the house. Wyeth had a summer home in the area and was on friendly terms with Olson, using her and her younger brother as the subjects of paintings from 1940 to 1968.Although Olson was the inspiration and subject of the painting, she was not the primary model — Wyeth’s wife Betsy posed as the torso of the painting. 

Olson was 55 at the time Wyeth created the work.

The house depicted in the painting is known as the Olson House, and is located in Cushing, Maine. It is open to the public, operated by the Farnsworth Art Museum; it is a National Historic Landmark, and has been restored to match its appearance in the painting. In the painting, Wyeth separated the house from its barn and changed the lay of the land.

(Micropechis ikaheka) Ikaheka 

Highly myotoxic, hemotoxic, & neurotoxic; causes myalgia, muscle tenderness, & severe neuromuscular paralysis. Minor symptoms include nausea, severe headache, & prolonged weakness. Unconsciousness & respiratory arrest reported within 2 hours; death reported within 7 hours. No known antivenin currently produced.

One sugary soft drink a day could raise a man’s odds of developing prostate cancer. A 15-year study found those who drank 300ml of a fizzy drink a day – slightly less than a standard can – were 40 per cent more likely to develop the disease than those who never consumed the drinks. Worryingly, the risk applied not to early-stage disease that was spotted via blood tests but to cancers that had progressed enough to cause symptoms. This is significant as faster-growing forms of prostate cancer are more likely to be fatal. It is thought that sugar triggers the release of the hormone insulin, which feeds tumours. Prostate cancer is the most common type in #British men, affecting almost 41,000 a year and killing more than 10,000. The study, published in the respected #American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, is far from the first to link the sugary #softdrinks enjoyed by millions of Britons every day to poor health. Previous research has flagged up heart attacks, #diabetes, weight gain, brittle bones, pancreatic cancer, #muscle weakness and paralysis as potential risks. For the study, they tracked the health of more than 8,000 men aged 45 to 73 for an average of 15 years. The men, who were in good health at the start of the study, were also quizzed about what they liked to eat and drink. At the end of the study, they compared the dietary habits of the men who had been diagnosed with #prostate cancer with those who remained healthy and found a clear link between sugary drinks and the disease. Lund University researcher Isabel Drake said: ‘Among the men who drank a lot of soft drinks  we saw an increased risk of prostate #cancer of around 40 per cent.’ The analysis also linked large amounts of rice and pasta, cakes and biscuits, and sugary breakfast cereals with a less serious form of the disease. Previous studies have shown that Chinese and Japanese immigrants in the US develop prostate cancer more often than peers in their home countries. #menshealth Source: dailymail.co.uk nydailynews.com .. . _

Poison Profile:

Name: Botulinum

Produced by:  Clostridium botulinum bacteria

The Toxin: Botulinum is a nerve toxin that causes muscle paralysis. It is one of the deadliest known substances—a millionth of a gram can kill an adult through suffocation—commonly known as a lethal source of food poisoning in improperly sterilized canned foods.

Poison Plus: By carefully paralyzing specific muscles, doctors can stop unwanted muscle spasms, correct crossed eyes, treat uncontrolled jaw clenching, and other disorders; famously, it is used cosmetically (under the commercial name Botox) to reduce wrinkles.

Learn more in The Power of Poison exhibition.

Image credit: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Image #2107.

The Neurology Behind Sleep Paralysis

In a 1999 paper Cheyne, Rueffler and Newby-Clark define the three main clusters of sleep paralysis hallucinations as ‘Intruder’, ‘Incubus’ and ‘Unusual Bodily Experiences’.

They also suggest neurological correlates of each cluster.

Intruder - The feeling/sight of a presence in the room with you.

These hallucinations may be caused by a hypervigilant brain state, in which detection thresholds are lowered and become biased towards cues of threat and danger. The amygdala is the emotion and threat recognition centre of the brain. During REM, the sleep state immediately adjacent to an episode of sleep paralysis, the amygdala is very active. Bursts of activity from the brainstem pass through the thalamus, which passes activity onto the amygdala. In waking life, the role of the pathway connecting these two structures is to analyse stimuli so that in the case of a dangerous or threatening situation quick emergency reactions can be taken without time-consuming processing by the relevant sensory cortices. Normally during a fear response, the immediate sensing of danger is quickly confirmed or dis-confirmed. In sleep paralysis, the sleeper becomes conscious but the amygdala remains very active, as in REM sleep. Deprived of external cues that would normally allow a sense of fear to be disconfirmed, attempts to analyse the source of the fear will fail. This may lead to a sense of apprehension that may last minutes, rather than milliseconds.

Incubus – Feelings of pressure, choking or suffocation.

The cluster of symptoms associated with ‘incubus’ may reflect the nature of respiration during REM sleep. Just as we don’t notice our heartbeat when we aren’t paying attention to it, our breathing during REM sleep is a natural reflex. It is rapid and shallow and there is a deprivation of oxygen (hypoxia), high amounts of blood CO2 (hypercapnia) and an occlusion of airways. Due to the paralysis that naturally occurs during REM sleep the contribution of throat muscles to breathing are reduced. As a result of all this, it is impossible for a person to voluntarily control their breathing during REM.

Usually this is unnoticeable when asleep, but a sleep paralysis sufferer becomes consciously aware whilst remaining in a state of REM-induced paralysis. Efforts to take voluntary control of breathing are unsuccessful, and the struggle for breath may manifest in a feeling of breathlessness and lead to panic. In addition to this, paralysis in the muscles of our upper airways may contribute to feelings of choking and suffocation.

Unusual Bodily Experiences – Feelings of being moved, drifting, rolling, floating, cold or heat, as well as out-of-body experiences.

These symptoms are associated with activity of sub-cortical brain structures. When we’re awake, co-ordination of bodily movements is controlled by a number of brain areas, including the medial and superior vestibular nuclei. These vestibular nuclei are also associated with control of the sleep/wake cycle. These areas are active during REM sleep, with their activity very similar to what would be taking place if they were co-ordinating body movements. They remain active during a sleep paralysis attack. However during sleep paralysis the body cannot move, and the sufferer is aware of this. This dual awareness of movement and paralysis leads to a mismatch in the brain, which struggles to interpret conflicting information. A sense of body movement can be the result of the brain trying to correct and satisfy the mismatch between neural activation and sensory experience.

This may also be a common cause or contributing factor to out-of-body experiences. A feeling of floating is consistent with the sense of acceleration that can be produced by the vestibular nuclei. In this case the mismatch between brain activity and physical experience is resolved by splitting the ‘phenomenal self’ from the ‘physical self’, thus creating an out-of-body experience.

In the first neurophysiological study of Isolated Sleep Paralysis, Takeuchi et al used EEG to record participants’ brain activity during various stages of sleep, and during episodes of sleep paralysis. They found sleep paralysis to be characterised by large amounts of ‘alpha-wave’ brain activity and muscle paralysis. This suggests a state of dissociation between different stages of consciousness, with alpha-wave activity associated with waking activity, but muscle paralysis associated with REM sleep. They conclude that sleep paralysis is a state of REM sleep with a high level of arousal.

As well as the intrusion of waking brain activity in REM sleep, muscle paralysis (seen only in REM sleep) intrudes into wakefulness. The EEG experiment initially showed alpha-waves intruding into REM sleep, indicating an arousal into waking consciousness. This led to a waking state with a continuation of REM-state muscle paralysis.

In waking life, alpha-wave activity is most common when someone is at rest and not attending to anything. When something that requires attention occurs, such as looking at a picture, this alpha wave activity gets interrupted by beta-wave activity – which is associated with attention. Takeuchi et al observed that during sleep paralysis, alpha-wave brain patterns are frequently interrupted by beta waves, particularly in participants reporting visual hallucinations. This suggests that something has grabbed the attention of the sleep paralysis suffer – very likely a hallucination.

-Erika

Three American friends hospitalized after becoming 'possessed' following Ouija board game in Mexican village

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Three American friends have been taken to hospital after reportedly becoming ‘possessed’ by evil spirits while playing with a Ouija board. 

Alexandra Huerta, 22, was playing the game with her brother Sergio, 23, and 18-year-old cousin Fernando Cuevas at a house in the village of San Juan Tlacotenco in south-west Mexico.

But minutes into it, she apparently started 'growling’ and thrashing around in a 'trance-like’ state.

Meanwhile, Sergio and Fernando also reportedly started showing signs of 'possession’, including feelings of blindness, deafness and hallucinations. 

Paramedics were called to the house and took the trio to hospital, according to Alexandra’s parents.

They restrained Alexandra to prevent her from hurting herself, before treating the three with painkillers, anti-stress medication and eye drops, which seemingly worked.

Victor Demesa, 46, the director of public safety in the nearby town of Tepoztlan, said: 'The medical rescue of these three young people was very complicated. 

'They had involuntary movements and it was difficult to transfer them to the nearest hospital because they were so erratic.

'It appeared as if they were in a trance-like state, apparently after playing with the Ouija board.

'They spoke of feeling numbness, double vision, blindness, deafness, hallucinations, muscle spasm and difficulty swallowing.’

He added that whether the trio were really possessed, or had simply convinced themselves that they were, was not for doctors to comment on.

lexandra’s parents said they had called paramedics after a local Catholic priest refused to perform an exorcism on the three because they were not regular churchgoers.

The Ouija board - also known as a spirit board or talking board - is a flat board marked with the letters of the alphabet, the numbers 0-9, the words 'yes’, 'no’, 'hello’ and 'goodbye’ and various symbols and graphics.

It uses a small heart-shaped piece of wood or movable indicator to indicate the spirit’s message by spelling it out on the board during a seance.

Participants place their fingers on the wood and it is supposedly moved around the board by the spirit to spell out words.

Mainstream religions and some occultists have associated use of a Ouija board with the concept of demonic possession, and have cautioned their followers not to use one.

[The Daily Mail]

*UPDATE* 'We tried to pray for them but it only made the demons angrier’: Inside the terrifying 'possession’ of Mexican orphan girl who took shamanic drugs to contact her dead parents with an Ouija board

The girl who shocked the world this week after she was videoed being 'possessed’ after using a Ouija board was trying to contact her dead parents and had taken a shamanic drug used in Mexico to contact the 'spirit world’, MailOnline can reveal today.

16-year-old orphan Alexandra Huerta, who appeared possessed by evil spirits in a video taken by paramedics as she was taken to hospital, had taken Brugmansia, a poisonous plant which grows in tropical regions of Latin America.

The drug is also known as Angel’s Trumpet for its large poisonous flowers, and induces dark hallucinations, confusion, muscle paralysis and can lead to death in large doses. 

Brugmansia can induce temporary insanity, especially in those who are not yet fully grown.

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