rudjedet  asked:

Regarding Anubis: It is more or less incorrect to call Anubis (or Osiris) a "death god". Death was, to put it really bluntly, a passage between one state of existence and another, and therefore not a concept in itself in the way we conceptualise death. So there is no direct ancient Egyptian equivalent of "death gods". Osiris was the mummiform King of the West (the Afterlife), Anubis Protector of the Necropolis.

I think this is a really interesting point, because in ‘the west’ we tend to westernize the cultures we see across the world. That means equating Anubis and Hades, for instance, when the reality is much more complicated and Egyptian views on death don’t necessarily line up with ancient Greek or modern western views.

Edit: Add to that our modern interpretations of Hades are colored by Satan, especially when you look at things like Disney’s Hercules.

The colour in which jackal hieroglyphs are painted, where this can be established, has been mentioned briefly. With one exception, all the signs connected with the jackal deities appear originally to have been painted black. The exception is the very rare glph of a mummiform jackal deity on the wp-m-nfrt stela, where the animal is coloured yellow and his wrappings and base red-born. Despite the fact that Egyptian wild canids are rarely if ever black, this colour symbolizes night, mystery, and fecundity, and is highly appropriate for Anubis.
—  DuQuesne, the Jackal Deities

This is a fragmentary bust from one of a series of colossal figures that originally decorated the front of a row of rectangular pillars in the courtyard of a small temple at Abydos. The king is depicted mummiform in the style of the god Osiris. The king holds the symbols of kingship, the crook and flail, in his now missing hands. Since the figure was intended to tower over any human below, the eyes look down. Much of the original color remains.

Egypt, Abydos

Locus: Portal Temple

Period: New Kingdom

Eighteenth Dynasty

Nineteenth Dynasty

Date Made: 1290-1224 BC

Penn-Yale Expedition to Abydos, Egypt

Penn Museum

Shabti of Yuya

As the parents of Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep III, Yuya and Tjuyu were granted burial in the Valley of the Kings. They were provided with funerary equipment from the finest royal workshops, as demonstrated by this superbly carved shabti on which even the knees are subtly indicated. The text on these mummiform figurines states that the shabti will substitute for the spirit in any obligatory tasks it is called upon to perform in the afterlife.

funerary stele of DjedKhonsuiwesankh, daughter of SerThoth (Priest of Amon-Ra the King of the Gods, and “Master of the Secrets of the Garments of the Gods”); XXII Dynasty, ca.946-735 BCE; now in the Oriental Institute Museum of the University of Chicago…
DjedKhonsuiwesankh (wearing on her head a perfume cone and a lotus flower) pouring water on the offerings before the God Ra-Harakhty enthroned (falcon-headed, mummiform, wearing the Solar disk with the uraeus, holding the Flail and the ‘Heqa’-scepter). At left, the standard of the West; at right, the standard of the East.
On the top, the Winged Solar Orb (Horus of Behdet) with the Two Uraei

the God Sokar enthroned, represented mummiform, falcon-headed, holding the ‘Heqa’-scepter, the 'Uas’-scepter, and the Flail. On the throne, the symbol for “Union of the Two Lands”.
“Great Temple” of King Sethi I at Abydos,
detail from the north-west wall (second scene from west) of the “Complex of Sokar and Nefertum”.

scene from the interior of the coffin of Djemut, “Chantress of Amon-Ra King of the Gods” and “Wet Nurse of Khonsu the Child”; from ‘Uaset’-Thebes, XXI-XXII Dynasty (X-VIII century BCE). Now in the vatican museums…
To the left,
the 'Sem’-priest (wearing the ceremonial leopard skin) pouring water on the offerings and presenting flowers to Ankhefkhonsu (represented mummiform and with a perfume cone and a lotus bud on his head), husband of Djemut, “Uab-Priest of Amon-Ra King of the Gods” and “Scribe of Amon-Ra”.
To the right,
the 'Sem’-priest burning incense with the “Arm of Horus” (the arm-shaped censer) and pouring water on the offerings before Djemut (represented mummiform and with a perfume cone and a lotus bud on her head). At her feet, a woman kneeling and mourning.
In the middle, between Djemut and Ankhefkhonsu, the hieroglyphic symbol for “West/Netherworld”.
On the top, two winged uraei with the 'shen’-rings

the enshrined ‘henu’-barque of the God Sokar-Osiris:
in the middle, Sokar-Osiris in His form of sacred falcon (mummiform, wearing the 'menat’-necklace and the Solar disk) emerging from a shrine; at left, a fish and a small falcon. At the prow, an antelope-head facing backwards; behind it, a bull’s head facing forward.
Detail from a coffin dated to the 1069-664 BCE; now in the Louvre Museum…

‘Ipet-Sut’ (“Karnak”), the highly sacred Precinct of Amon-Ra at 'Uaset’-Thebes,
Chapel of “Osiris Lord of Life”, scenes from the lintel (exterior face) of the First Hall:
in the middle, the cartouche of “Osiris Lord of Life” represented upon a shrine.
To the left,
King Taharqa (wearing the Double Crown) offering wine to Osiris (mummiform, standing on the hieroglyph for “Maat”, holding the 'Uas’-scepter); behind Him, a Goddess (probably Isis, holding the 'Ankh’ and the papyrus-scepter).
To the right,
Shepenupet II (daughter of King Piye and sister of King Taharqa), “Divine Adoratrice” and “God’s Wife of Amon”, offering milk to Ptah (mummiform, standing on the hieroglyph for “Maat”, holding the composite 'Djed’-'Ankh’-'Uas’-scepter); behind Him, Hathor (holding the 'Ankh’ and the papyrus-scepter).

the funerary mask with cartonnage breastplate of Cratès, neokoros-priest of Serapis (and who had the charge of watching over the Temple of the God, His images and objects of worship) at
‘Uaset’-Thebes; II century CE. Now in the Louvre Museum…

On the cartonnage breastplate, three registers topped by the winged scarab:
in the lower register, Anubis performing the funerary rituals for Osiris represented lying on the lion-couch bed and flanked by Isis and Nephthys;
in the middle register, four mummiform Gods flanked by four Goddesses each seated and holding a palm branch;
in the upper register, six Deities (two are bull-headed, three are falcon-headed, and one is ram-headed) each seated and holding a feather (the symbol of “Righteousness, Truth”).
At left and at right, two huge falcon-headed and mummiform Gods.

“Atum Lord of the Two Lands of On-Heliopolis” (translation of the hieroglyphs on the top).
The God Atum is represented enthroned, mummiform, and holding the ‘Uas’-scepter.
'Ipet-Sut’ (“Karnak”), the highly sacred Precinct of the God Amon-Ra at 'Uaset’-Thebes,
detail from the Hypostyle Hall (interior), north wall, east half

scene from the “Book of Coming Forth by Day” (spell 148) of Ramose, “Supervisor of archivists of the Lord of the Two Lands”; ca. 1300 BCE, now in the Fitzwilliam Museum…
Ramose making adorations to the God Sokar; before him, a ‘Ka’-shaped altar.
Sokar is represented falcon-headed, mummiform, wearing the Solar disk, holding the 'Uas’-scepter, and standing inside a shrine.

scene from the “Book of Coming Forth by Day” of Lady Heruben, XXI Dynasty (now in the cairo museum…):
Seth at the prow of the Sacred Barque of Ra, repelling and slaying with His spear the cursed apopi (represented as a huge snake), the enemy of the Gods, during the nocturnal journey of Ra.
Ra-Harakhty is represented enthroned in the middle of the Solar Barque; behind Him, Horus and Thoth (both mummiform), and the ‘Udjat’-Eye; the Sacred Barque of Ra is carried by two rows of four jackals (representing the “Souls of the West”) and four Uraei.
To the left, a baboon-headed God slaughtering with His knives the cursed apopi.
To the right, the blessed Lady Heruben making adorations to the Gods and to Their Triumph over the cursed apopi