mucins

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Sometimes these giant ovary cysts we get in pathology are like some sort of jellyfish sea creatures!!! This is an ovarian cyst filled with mucin or mucous and it is benign or non cancerous.
#iheartautopsy #ovary #ovarycyst #cyst #pathologyvideo #seacreature #mucous #science #bio #biology #dirtyjobs #med #medical #medicina #medschool #medstudent #womenshealth #healtheducation (at http://iheartautopsy.tumblr.com)

Human goblet cell. Image courtesy of the University of Edinburgh, Wellcome Images

Raise a glass to the goblet cell

In a paper published last week in Virology Journal, Pascal Gagneux and colleagues at UC San Diego School of Medicine describe how influenza A viruses snip through the protective mucus net to both infect respiratory cells – and then later cut their way out infect other cells.

Mucus is usually deemed a disgusting annoyance, but really it’s not. (Sorry, couldn’t resist.) It is oil in the human engine, lubricating the passages of the mouth, nose, sinuses, throat, lungs and gastrointestinal tract, preventing underlying epithelial tissues from drying out. It’s also a sort of sticky flypaper, trapping unwanted substances like bacteria and dust before they can too deeply penetrate the fairly pristine and sterile inner body.

Each day, a healthy person churns out about 4 to 6 cups of mucus. Most of it trickles down your throat unnoticed. The little factories that make mucus are called goblet cells. It’s an apt moniker because goblet cells are little more than vessels filled to the brim with globules of mucin. That’s a globule cell in the image above; the mucin globules colored blue.

Mucins are glycosylated proteins, but you can think of them more simply as dehydrated bits of mucus packed inside a globule cell. Once released into the water-rich environment of your airways, however, they expand rapidly, absorbing water to reach full, gooey size within 20 milliseconds. That’s one-thousandth of a second. That’s fast. A single flap of a hummingbird’s wing takes 5 to 80 milliseconds.

The rapid release allows goblet cells to respond almost instantly to many different stimuli, from inhaled microbes to a mouthful of eye-watering wasabi.

Mucins: Methods and Protocols free ebook ,

Mucins: Methods and Protocols

<p>2012 | ISBN: 1617795127, 1617795143 | PDF | 329 pages | 4 MB<br /> <br /> Epithelial mucins are large complex cell surface and secreted glycoproteins produced by mucosal epithelial cells. In, Mucins: Methods and Protocols expert researchers in the field detail many of the methods which are now commonly used to study Mucins. These include methods and techniques for the best approaches to analysing each specific area of mucin biochemistry, physiology and biophysics before providing individual detailed experimental protocols together with troubleshooting and interpretation tips. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.<br /> Authoritative and practical, Mucins: Methods and Protocols is designed to be a useful resource for those entering the mucin field and to facilitate those already studying mucins to broaden their experimental approaches to understanding mucosal biology.</p>

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Validation of the 2012 International Consensus Guidelines Using Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Branch Duct and Main Duct Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

Latest HPB article: http://dlvr.it/9BVBL8

Intestinal beauty

The colon is the last part of your digestive system, charged with extracting water and salts from solid wastes at the end of the gastrointestinal line. It’s not a pretty job – a lot of bacterial-aided fermentation occurs there – but it’s essential.

To do the job right and regularly requires a fair amount of lubrication. That’s the responsibility of colonic crypts – mucus-producing intestinal glands that keep things moving along.

In this cross-sectional confocal micrograph by Michela Schaeppi of Wellcome Images, yellow cells that produce mucin are shown inside the hexagonal-shaped crypts. The white spots at the centers are crypt lumen where mucus is excreted into the colon. The blue staining indicates pericryptal sheaths.

蘆薈全身都是寶,鮮為人知的十三種神奇療效!


1、殺菌作用


蘆薈酊(Aloetin).是抗菌性很強的物質,能殺滅真菌、黴菌、細菌、病毒等病菌,抑制和消滅病塬體的發育繁殖。


2、抗炎作用


蘆薈的緩激肽酶與血管緊張來聯合可抵抗炎症。尤其是蘆薈的多醣類可增強人體對疾病的抵抗力,治愈皮膚炎、慢性腎炎、膀胱炎、支氣管炎等慢性病症。


3、濕潤美容作用


蘆薈多醣和維生素對人體的皮膚有良好的營養、滋潤、增白作用。尤其是青春少女最煩惱的粉刺,蘆薈對消除粉刺有很好的效果。蘆薈大黃素等屬蒽醌甙物質,這類物質能使頭髮柔軟而有光澤、輕鬆舒爽,且具有去頭屑的作用。


4、健胃下泄作用


蘆薈中的蘆薈大黃素甙(aloin)、蘆薈大黃素(emodin)等有效成分起著增進食慾、大腸緩泄作用。服用適量蘆薈,能強化胃功能,增強體質,因實證致虛而失去食慾的病危患者,服用蘆薈也能恢復食慾。健康的人,長期服用蘆薈和堅持蘆薈浴,可以防治一定疾病,但還是要根據各人情況對症保健。健康人體液呈弱鹼性,過度勞累或生活緊張等塬因會使體液變成酸性,易感染病毒,常用庫拉索蘆薈會使體液保持鹼性,維持健康、不患感冒。蘆薈是治療實熱型便秘比較有效的藥物,對於因腎氣虛或脾氣虛導致的嚴重的便秘,就要選用性質溫和益氣的食物或藥物來調治。再服用大苦大寒清熱瀉火的蘆薈之後,就會加重病情了因此對於不同類型的病症要用不同的方法,寒則熱之,熱者寒之。


5、強心活血作用


蘆薈中的異檸檬酸鈣等具有強心、促進血液循環、軟化硬化動脈、降低膽固醇含量、擴張毛細血管的作用,使血液循環暢通,減少膽固醇值,減輕心臟負擔,使血壓保持正常,清除血液中的“毒素”。


6、免疫和再生作用


蘆薈素A、創傷激素和聚醣肽甘露(Ke-2)等具有抗病毒感染,促進傷口癒合复塬的作用,有消炎殺菌、清熱消腫、軟化皮膚、保持細胞活力的功能,凝膠多醣與癒傷酸聯合還具有癒合創傷活性,因此,它是一種治療外傷(出血性外傷、不出血性外傷)不留傷痕的理想。


7、免疫與抗腫瘤作用


蘆薈中的粘稠物質多醣類(乙酰化葡甘聚醣、甘露聚醣、乙酰化甘露聚醣、aloemannan、alocutin、alomicin等)具有提高免疫力和抑制、破壞異常細胞的生長的作用,從而達到抗癌目的。


8、解毒作用


蘆薈因其苦寒清熱具有抑製過度的免疫反應增強吞噬細胞吞噬功能的作用故能清除體內代謝廢物。蘆薈中的aloetinalomicin等成分具有促進肝臟分解體內有害物質的作用,還能消除生物體外部侵入的毒素。放射線或核放射能治療癌症過程中會引起的燒傷性皮膚潰瘍,有蘆薈治療不僅有解毒、消炎、再生新細胞的作用,還能增加因放射治療而減少的白血球。


9、抗衰老作用


蘆薈中的粘液(mucin,就是蛋白質),是以arboranABaloemannanaloetin等多醣類為核心成分,粘液類物質是防止細胞老化和治療慢性過敏的重要成分。粘液素存在於人體的肌肉和胃腸粘膜等處,讓組織富有彈性,如果液素不足,肌肉和粘膜就會喪失了彈性而僵硬老化。構成人體的細胞,如果粘液素不足,細胞就會逐漸衰弱,失去防禦病菌、病毒的能力。


10、鎮痛、鎮靜作用


手指腫痛、牙痛而難以忍受時,在患部貼上蘆薈生葉,能消除疼痛,神經痛、痛風、筋肉痛等,內服加外用蘆薈,也有鎮痛效果。蘆薈還能預防和治療宿醉、暈車、暈船等。


11、防曬作用


蘆薈中的天然蒽醌甙或蒽的衍生物,能吸收紫外線,防止皮膚紅、褐斑產生。


12、防蟲、防腐作用


蘆薈汁液具有很好的消毒、防腐作用。夏天皮膚上塗上蘆薈汁,蚊子不咬。哥倫比亞人常給小孩腳上抹上蘆薈汁,以防止蟲害。蘆薈汁噴灑門窗和室內,蒼蠅不入,傣族人就是用蘆薈汁防止蒼蠅進室內的。


13、防臭作用


蘆薈具有防止腳、口、腋等體臭的作用。


蘆薈作為一種集醫藥、美容、保健、食品及觀賞為一體的純天然綠色植物,蘆薈的多種藥用價值和治療作用引起了醫學界的廣泛重視。現代藥理研究也表明,鮮蘆薈具有殺菌、消炎、鎮痛的功效。蘆薈能保護細胞,提高免疫力。而蘆薈葉則能瀉火、解毒,治燙傷,痔瘡,疥瘡和癰腫等。


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獨家旗袍照曝光   大馬正妹明禎賀年

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Uncommon presentations of common pancreatic neoplasms: a pictorial essay.

Uncommon presentations of common pancreatic neoplasms: a pictorial essay.

Abdom Imaging. 2015 Mar 15;

Authors: D’Onofrio M, De Robertis R, Capelli P, Tinazzi Martini P, Crosara S, Gobbo S, Butturini G, Salvia R, Barbi E, Girelli R, Bassi C, Pederzoli P

Abstract
Pancreatic neoplasms are a wide group of solid and cystic lesions with different and often characteristic imaging features, clinical presentations, and management. Among solid tumors, ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common: it arises from exocrine pancreas, comprises about 90% of all pancreatic neoplasms, and generally has a bad prognosis; its therapeutic management must be multidisciplinary, involving surgeons, oncologists, gastroenterologists, radiologists, and radiotherapists. The second most common solid pancreatic neoplasms are neuroendocrine tumors: they can be divided into functioning or non-functioning and present different degrees of malignancy. Cystic pancreatic neoplasms comprise serous neoplasms, which are almost always benign, mucinous cystic neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, which can vary from benign to frankly malignant lesions, and solid pseudopapillary tumors. Other pancreatic neoplasms, such as lymphoma, metastases, or pancreatoblastoma, are rarely seen in clinical practice and have different and sometimes controversial managements. Rare clinical presentations and imaging appearance of the most common pancreatic neoplasms, both solid and cystic, are more frequently seen and clinically relevant than rare pancreatic tumors; their pathologic and radiologic appearances must be known to improve their management. The purpose of this paper is to present some rare or uncommon clinical and radiological presentations of common pancreatic neoplasms providing examples of multi-modality imaging approach with pathologic correlations, thus describing the histopathological bases that can explain the peculiar imaging features, in order to avoid relevant misdiagnosis and to improve lesion management.

PMID: 25772002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Pathologic Evaluation and Reporting of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas and Other Tumoral Intraepithelial Neoplasms of Pancreatobiliary Tract: Recommendations of Verona Consensus Meeting.

Latest HPB article: http://dlvr.it/90NWHk

Cyst fluid biomarkers for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: a critical review from the international expert meeting on pancreatic branch-duct-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.

Latest HPB article: http://dlvr.it/90NVdk