movie:-japanese

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1088/2000

JLPT: N1

School Grade: Junior high school

This character is a combination of 臤 a non-general use character meaning both “hard” and “wise,” and 糸 thread. Here 臤 is a phonetic element expressing “entwine” while lending a meaning of “hard/compact.” Together with 糸 this gives “threads tangled in a tight not,” leading to the meanings of “tight/compact” in a broader sense. It can also be used figuratively to refer to a highly strung state of nerves. 

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#7:世界に広がる宗教

語彙

  • 分布(ぶんぷ):Distribution
  • ~教徒(きょうと):Ist (suffix, ex; buddhist)
  • 人口分布(じんこうぶんぷ):Population distribution
  • 割合(わりあい):Percentage, rate
  • 伝統的(でんとうてき):Traditional
  • 無宗教(むしゅうきょう):Secular, without official religion
  • 無神論(むしんろん):Atheism
  • 東方正教会(とうほうせいきょうかい):Orthodox church
  • 注目(ちゅうもく):Notice, attention
  • 次ぐ(つぐ):To rank next, to come after
  • 東欧諸国(とうおうしょこく):Eastern european countries
  • 形式(けいしき):Form, formality, method, system
  • 共通点(きょうつうてん):Common feature
  • 特色(とくしょく):Characteristic, idiosyncrasy, feature
  • ~派(は):Faction, school
  • 普及(ふきゅう):Diffusion, spread
  • 上座部仏教(じょうざぶぶっきょう):Theravada Buddhism (南伝仏教)
  • 大乗仏教(だいじょうぶっきょう):Mahayana Buddhism
  • 朝鮮半島(ちょうせんはんとう):Korean peninsula
  • および:As well as, and
  • 古来(こらい):昔から今まで
  • 掲げる(かかげる):to tout, to adopt (principle)
  • 新興宗教(しんこうしゅうきょう):A new religion
  • 別派(べっぱ):Different sect/school/party
Lucky Star! Episode 1, Part 9

This is a fun one. Let’s just get to it!

こなた:カレーによるな

こなた:ソースかけたり生卵を落としたりする時は混ぜ混ぜするかな

つかさ:カレーにソース?

こなた:うん おいしいよ~

みゆき:目玉焼きにもソースですか?

こなた:ううん 目玉焼きは醤油

つかさ:へ~ 私はマヨネーズかけるよ

みゆき:ゆで卵じゃなくて、目玉焼きにですか?

つかさ:うん! マヨネーズはね玉子料理にはだいたい合うよ

こなた:カレーにもかけるの?

つかさ:うん!


こなた:カレーによるな
(Konata: Karee ni yoru na)

カレー (karee): is a noun meaning “curry.” We’ve seen this before.

に (ni): is a particle that our verb takes.

よる (yoru): is a verb that has many homophones, and each homophone has various interpretations, which is to say that “yoru” can mean a lot of thing. Here, though, it’s going to mean “to depend on.” 

な (na): is our ending particle, which is a casual counterpart to “ne.”

Translation: It depends on the curry.

こなた:ソースかけたり生卵を落としたりする時は混ぜ混ぜするかな
(Konata: Soosu kaketari namatamago wo otochitari suru toki wa mazemaze suru ka na)

ソース (Soosu): is a noun meaning “sauce.” Big surprise.

かけたり (kaketari): is the stem of the verb “kakeru,” which like “yoru” means lots of things but here means “to add,” along with the suffix “-tari,” which, as we’ve mentioned before, describes a non-exhaustive list of things done. 

生卵 (namatamago): is a noun meaning “raw egg.”

を (wo): is our accusative particle, making “namatamago” the direct object of the following verb.

落としたり (otoshitari): is the stem of a verb we’ve already seen, “otosu,” meaning “to drop,” along with the same suffix as before. Now, what’s important to note at this point is that the non-exhaustive list we’re making here doesn’t necessarily connote that all the things on the lists were done. Here we’re talking about “adding sauce” and “dropping a raw egg,” presumably on the curry. These are two things that aren’t necessarily done at one go. So in our translation, we can join both actions by “or” and that’s okay.

する (suru): is the non-past, non-negative, indicative conjugation of the verb meaning “to do,” which is the verb that the “-tari” suffix uses to keep things verb-y. 

時 (toki): is a noun meaning “time.” We have this Verb Phrase in the attributive position relative to “toki,” and so we’ll translate it in a subordinate way. The interesting thing about “toki” is that Verb Phrases that modify it will be interpreted differently depending on the tense of the Main Verb. Hopefully we’ll talk about later. It sounds complicated, but it isn’t.

は (wa): is our topic marker particle.

混ぜ混ぜする (mazemaze suru): I’m taking all at once. “Maze” is the stem of the verb “mazeru,” meaning to mix. So this means something like, “to do mix and mix,” which is just a way of being more descriptive with one’s “mixing.” Don’t think too much about this one.

かな (kana): are two ending particles which together connote casual reflection on the sentence. Like it may very well be that Konata hasn’t ever thought about her habits of putting sauce and a raw egg on curry.

Translation: When I add sauce or I drop a raw egg [on the curry], I mix it up, I guess.

つかさ:カレーにソース?
(Tsukasa: Karee ni soosu)

カレー (karee): is the same as before.

に (ni): Is our dative particle. So it translates to “at,” “in,” or, in this case “on.” Really anything that we need to give the noun the correct location.

ソース (sauce): is the same as before. It has “Karee ni” in attributive position. This is a bit irregular in that we don’t have a verb, but it’s no mystery what Tsukasa’s talking about, so we’re okay.

Translation: Sauce on curry?

こなた:うん おいしいよ
(Konata: Un oishii yo)

うん (Un): is an interjection. It’s a casual affirmative. It’s casual negation counterpart is “uun,” which is just “un” with an extra /u/; and yes, it is confusing.

おいしい (oishii): is an i-adjective (thatsnotactuallyanadjectivebutwhatever) meaning “delicious,” and it’s conjugated in a non-negative, non-past manner.

よ (yo): is an ending particle that indicates that this is information the speaker is giving to the listener. It is actually similar to “yo” in English in that way; but don’t translate it as “yo.” That’d be weird.

Translation: Yeah, It’s delicious.

みゆき:目玉焼きにもソースですか
(Miyuki: Medamayaki ni mo soosu desu ka.)

目玉焼き (medamayaki): is a noun meaning “fried eggs.”

にも (ni mo): is a double particle that means “even” or “also.” What it does is that it indicates that the noun is also part of another set of things previously discussed. In this case, it’s things that go good with sauce.

ソース (soosu): is still “sauce.” 

です (desu): is our polite, non-past, non-past, indicative conjugation of the copula “da.” You’ll notice that this isn’t quite the verb you want. This happens sometimes; where Japanese will only retain the pertinent noun but won’t bother to repeat all the verbs, and so “da” can be added. In our translation, we need to add those things because English can’t go without them.

か (ka): is the interrogative particle.

Translation: [Do you put] sauce even on fried eggs? 

こなた:ううん 目玉焼きは醤油
(Konata: Uun medamayaki wa shoyu)

ううん (uun): is that casual negation interjection I was talking about.

目玉焼き (medamayaki): is still “fried eggs.”

は (wa): is our topic marker.

醤油 (shoyu): is a noun meaning “soy sauce.” What’s interesting about this sentence is that it clearly shows why it’s bad to think of “wa” as a subject marker. If it were the subject of the sentence, then this sentence would translate to “Fried eggs as soy sauce.” and that makes no sense. What’s neat about the sentence, though, is that it’s similar to when one at a restaurant may say “I’m the steak; she’s she sandwich.” like when a new waiter comes with the food but doesn’t know what belongs to whom. So I wanted to convey something like that in my translation.

Translation: Nah, [on] fried eggs it’s soy sauce.

つかさ:へ~ 私はマヨネーズかけるよ
(Tsukasa: Hee Watashi wa mayoneezu kakeru yo)

へ~ (hee): is an interjection one sees a lot. It’s an acknowledgement of what one has just heard. That’s the gist of it. It’s not always necessary to translate it because it can give off the wrong impression regarding what it actually means. (It doesn’t necessarily connote amazement, which seems to be the most common misdirection for translations.)

私 (watashi): is a first-person, singular pronoun. It’s very polite. It means “I.”

は (wa): is our topic marker.

マヨネーズ (mayoneezu): is a noun meaning “mayonnaise.”

かける (kakeru): is the same verb as before. You may have noticed that there’s an actual object marker missing for “mayoneezu.” This also happens sometimes. In these cases, we add the necessary particle ourselves. I believe it’s “ni,” but I might be wrong. And for our purposes that doesn’t matter right now.

よ (yo): is the same ending particle as before.

Translation: Oh… As for me, I add mayonnaise.

みゆき:ゆで卵じゃなくて、目玉焼きにですか
(Miyuki: yudetamago janakute, medamayaki ni desu ka)

ゆで卵 (yudetamago): is a noun meaning “boiled egg.” Yes, today we’re learning all about eggs.

じゃ (ja): is a combination of the two particles “de wa,” It’s essentially our topic marker.

なくて (nakute): is the negative, gerundive conjugation of the copula verb “aru.” What the gerundive is doing in this case is serving as an exhaustive conjunction between this Verb Phrase and the next. “1VP-te, 2VP” translates to “1VP and 2VP.” Because this in negative and the following VP isn’t, we will translate them as two separate sentence.

目玉焼き (medamayaki): is still “fried eggs.”

に (ni): is our dative particle, same as before. The verb that’s missing in this sentence is “kakeru;” and that’s why I believe the particle that verb takes is “ni.”

です (desu): is the same as before.

か (ka): is the same as before.

Translation: Not [on] boiled eggs? On fried eggs?

つかさ:うん! マヨネーズはね — 玉子料理にはだいたい合うよ
(Tsukasa: Un! Mayoneezu wa ne — tamago ryouri ni wa daitai au yo)

うん (un): is the same as before.

マヨネーズ (mayoneezu): is the same as before.

は (wa): is the same as before. 

ね (ne): is the reflexive/dubitative ending particle. Because it’s at the middle of a sentence, we’re in a sort of respite period. So we’re being allowed to focus for a second on “mayoneezu wa,” as in “this is the situation regarding mayonnaise.” We’ll be making this the direct object in our translation lest this sentence become too clunky.

玉子 (tamago): is a noun meaning “egg.” 

料理 (ryouri): is a noun meaning “cuisine” or “dishes” or, if you want to get ugly, “the family of foodstuffs based on X,” where that X is the preceding noun, because it’s normally found as a compound word. So, take this as “egg dishes” or something like that.

には (ni wa): is a double particle meaning “for,” or “in respect to.”

だいたい (daitai): is an adverb meaning “generally.”

合う (au): is the non-past, non-negative, indicative conjugation of the verb meaning “to fit,” which has many different interpretations and uses as a definition in itself but here means “to go well with.”

よ (yo): is the same as before.

Translation: Yeah! In respect to egg dishes, mayonnaise generally goes well.

こなた:カレーにもかけるの?
(Konata: Karee ni mo kakeru no?)

カレー (karee): is the same as before.

にも (ni mo): is the same as before.

かける (kakeru): is the same as before. Congratulations, you can get through an entire VP by yourself!

の (no): is a substantivizing particle. Now that VP is a noun. And if you’ve been following this runthrough, you will have known that too! So you’ve just conquered your first sentence by yourself! Congrats!!
Because we have no other VP to work with in this sentence, it’s okay to not translate the noun/VP as a subordinate clause within a larger VP because it’ll sound clunky.

Translation: Do you add it even on curry?

つかさ:うん!
(Tsukasa: Un!)

うん (un): is the same as before.

Translation: Yeah!

You’re already well on your way to handling sentences without help! This bunch of sentences was good because it was a lot of the same words in different orders.

Words worth memorizing:

  • かける kakeru — to add
  • 混ぜる mazeru — to mix
  • 玉子 tamago — egg
  • カレー karee — curry
  • マヨネーズ mayoneezu —mayonnaise
  • ゆで卵 yudetamago — boiled egg
  • 目玉焼き medamayaki —fried eggs
  • には ni wa — in respect to
  • にも ni mo —even in/for
  • かな ka na — I guess
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