moorish style

Bab Bou Jeloud - Fes, Morocco

Bab Bou Jeloud, or the Blue Gate, leads to Fes el Bali, the oldest walled part of Fes. The monumental gate was built in 1913, in the Moorish style. It features three symmetrical horseshoe arches, and is interlaced with polychrome glazed tiles. The tiles on the outside are coloured blue, while the tiles inside are green. From this gate, you can see Bou Inania Madrasa, the only madrasa in Fes that has a minaret. 

The are around the gate is one of the busiest thoroughfares in the area, with people, cars, donkeys, and mopeds heading through the gate. Cafes on either side of the gate also offer a great view of the gate, and are great for people watching. 


The Dohány Street Synagogue, also known as The Great Synagogue or Tabakgasse Synagogue, is a historical building in Erzsébetváros, the 7th district of Budapest, Hungary. It is the largest synagogue in Europe and the second largest in the world.
The synagogue was built between 1854 and 1859 in the Moorish Revival style, with the decoration based chiefly on Islamic models from North Africa and medieval Spain (the Alhambra). The synagogue’s Viennese architect, Ludwig Förster, believed that no distinctively Jewish architecture could be identified, and thus chose “architectural forms that have been used by oriental ethnic groups that are related to the Israelite people, and in particular the Arabs”. The interior design is partly by Frigyes Feszl.

on “To Be Love”

The Huffington Post story about a “lost” Bowie demo has caught fire on the Internet, and people keeping sending me the link and asking me about it. This is the last time I’m writing about it.

in short. Yes, it’s possible Bowie did cut some demos with the person interviewed, Ronald de Strulle. But the “demo” offered is obviously not Bowie singing. Part of the problem is that the demo is being mislabeled—in the HP article, de Strulle says it’s his song that Bowie’s just playing drums on. Yet it’s being talked up as “Bowie’s lost demo”

So is it an actual 1971 recording of a mediocre song in which Bowie’s clubbing away on the drum kit? it’s conceivable. but why has this never surfaced before? De Strulle wrote the song and owns the recording: why did he never do anything with it over the past 45 years?

The accompanying article has a host of wrong details, including:

“In the fall of 1970, a young musician from London arrived in Los Angeles to work on demo tapes for what he and his manager hoped would be a recording contract with a major label.  It was David Bowie’s first trip to the United States.”

Bowie first came to the US in late January 1971, as per all biographies, as well as evidenced by recordings of him doing radio interviews on the East Coast during his trip. He arrived in Washington DC, then went to New York, then Chicago & Detroit. LA was the last stop on the trip.

Bowie already had a recording contract with a major label. He was signed to Philips/Mercury. The reason he was on the trip in the first place was to promote his Mercury LP, the Man Who Sold the World, which was released in November 1970 in the US (it wouldn’t come out until spring 1971 in the UK).

Roxbury Road Studios in the Hollywood Hills, de Strulle and his partners Tom Ayers and Aynsley Dunbar were in contact with an executive at United Artists who asked if they could host “a new talent from across the pond who was beginning to make a big stir.”  Impressed by the quality of  recordings produced at RR Studios, United Artists promised Bowie’s manager that his client would have privacy, first class treatment, and 24/7 access to the studio.”

Tom Ayres (note correct spelling) was a producer and A&R guy at RCA Records. Aynsley Dunbar was a session drummer and worked with Zappa (that part of article is true). There’s no record of them co-owning a studio together, esp with the mysterious “de Strulle.”

What did exist was a home studio in Ayres’ Hollywood mansion, where artists like Gene Vincent and, yes, Bowie could record demos.

(Also, why would United Artists fund a luxurious trip for an artist signed to another label and have him work at the home studio of a producer at another rival label?)

Designed by silent screen star Lilian Gish in the 1920s, 8233 Roxbury Road in West Hollywood resembled a Moorish castle, an architectural style that was popular at the time… the studio in a converted garage offered artists what de Strulle describes as “a fantasia-like haven for recording artists, musicians, and producers” who could jam and record at any hour of the day or night while retaining control of their intellectual property.

Here’s the tell. Let’s quote from Kevin Cann’s Any Day Now, shall we.

“In LA Bowie stays with the well-connected RCA staff producer Tom Ayres. Ayres’ house in 8233 Roxbury Road, off West Sunset, was once owned by Dorothy and Lillian Gish and has recording facilities” and the late Ayres is quoted as saying “at my house he worked with a tape-op called Ronnie”


In the fall of 1970, while Bowie’s manager was talking deals with Capitol and Atlantic Records, the young musician was busy recording and polishing tracks for a demo that would lead to his first U.S. album, Hunky Dory.

Bowie’s manager Tony Defries was angling for a new record deal, yes, but he was doing that mainly in 1971, when the Philips contract was expiring (it was a 2-LP contract).  Hunky Dory obviously wasn’t Bowie’s first U.S. album since he was in the U.S. to promote an album. Even the 1967 Deram LP had been released in the US!!

During that first all-night session, Bowie had 5 demo songs which were just about complete.  “He was looking to create a couple of signature styles to promote to the record companies,” says de Strulle. “David brought ideas and lyrics and we cut some rough tracks.

So…were the songs “just about complete” or were they just “lyrics and “ideas”? 

Of the three record companies that were wooing him, Bowie signed with RCA Records because they agreed to give him full creative control. De Strulle says, “He saw United Artists as a bunch of bullies. After a few days of meeting with senior people, he confided in me that there was no way he was gonna work with them.”

RCA didn’t give Bowie full creative control; they would put out compilations against his wishes, publicly groused about Low, and he was stuck on that label until the early 1980s; he unsuccessfully argued the 2-LP Stage should help reduce his album commitments to them. As far as I know, he did not meet with United Artists during his promo trip in Feb. 1971.

And so on. There’s the story about Bowie going to a biker bar “in drag” and De Strulle showing up at the Whisky a Go Go with his pet timberwolves. If you want to believe it, go ahead.

in summary: the demo might be some fragment from these demo sessions, but Bowie is not singing on it, he didn’t write it and, given the amount of outrageous bullshit in the accompanying interview, I seriously doubt that he’s playing on it.


100 things that you did not know about Africa - Nos.51- 75

51. The mediaeval Nigerian city of Benin was built to “a scale comparable with the Great Wall of China”. There was a vast system of defensive walling totaling 10,000 miles in all. Even before the full extent of the city walling had become apparent the Guinness Book of Records carried an entry in the 1974 edition that described the city as: “The largest earthworks in the world carried out prior to the mechanical era.”

52. Benin art of the Middle Ages was of the highest quality. An official of the Berlin Museum für Völkerkunde once stated that: “These works from Benin are equal to the very finest examples of European casting technique. Benvenuto Cellini could not have cast them better, nor could anyone else before or after him … Technically, these bronzes represent the very highest possible achievement.”

53. Winwood Reade described his visit to the Ashanti Royal Palace of Kumasi in 1874: “We went to the king’s palace, which consists of many courtyards, each surrounded with alcoves and verandahs, and having two gates or doors, so that each yard was a thoroughfare … But the part of the palace fronting the street was a stone house, Moorish in its style … with a flat roof and a parapet, and suites of apartments on the first floor. It was built by Fanti masons many years ago. The rooms upstairs remind me of Wardour Street. Each was a perfect Old Curiosity Shop. Books in many languages, Bohemian glass, clocks, silver plate, old furniture, Persian rugs, Kidderminster carpets, pictures and engravings, numberless chests and coffers. A sword bearing the inscription From Queen Victoria to the King of Ashantee. A copy of the Times, 17 October 1843. With these were many specimens of Moorish and Ashanti handicraft.”

54. In the mid-nineteenth century, William Clarke, an English visitor to Nigeria, remarked that: “As good an article of cloth can be woven by the Yoruba weavers as by any people … in durability, their cloths far excel the prints and home-spuns of Manchester.”

55. The recently discovered 9th century Nigerian city of Eredo was found to be surrounded by a wall that was 100 miles long and seventy feet high in places. The internal area was a staggering 400 square miles.

56. On the subject of cloth, Kongolese textiles were also distinguished. Various European writers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries wrote of the delicate crafts of the peoples living in eastern Kongo and adjacent regions who manufactured damasks, sarcenets, satins, taffeta, cloth of tissue and velvet. Professor DeGraft-Johnson made the curious observation that: “Their brocades, both high and low, were far more valuable than the Italian.”

57. On Kongolese metallurgy of the Middle Ages, one modern scholar wrote that: “There is no doubting … the existence of an expert metallurgical art in the ancient Kongo … The Bakongo were aware of the toxicity of lead vapours. They devised preventative and curative methods, both pharmacological (massive doses of pawpaw and palm oil) and mechanical (exerting of pressure to free the digestive tract), for combating lead poisoning.”

58. In Nigeria, the royal palace in the city of Kano dates back to the fifteenth century. Begun by Muhammad Rumfa (ruled 1463-99) it has gradually evolved over generations into a very imposing complex. A colonial report of the city from 1902, described it as “a network of buildings covering an area of 33 acres and surrounded by a wall 20 to 30 feet high outside and 15 feet inside … in itself no mean citadel”.

59. A sixteenth century traveller visited the central African civilisation of Kanem-Borno and commented that the emperor’s cavalry had golden “stirrups, spurs, bits and buckles.” Even the ruler’s dogs had “chains of the finest gold”.

60. One of the government positions in mediaeval Kanem-Borno was Astronomer Royal.

61. Ngazargamu, the capital city of Kanem-Borno, became one of the largest cities in the seventeenth century world. By 1658 AD, the metropolis, according to an architectural scholar housed “about quarter of a million people”. It had 660 streets. Many were wide and unbending, reflective of town planning.

62. The Nigerian city of Surame flourished in the sixteenth century. Even in ruin it was an impressive sight, built on a horizontal vertical grid. A modern scholar describes it thus: “The walls of Surame are about 10 miles in circumference and include many large bastions or walled suburbs running out at right angles to the main wall. The large compound at Kanta is still visible in the centre, with ruins of many buildings, one of which is said to have been two-storied. The striking feature of the walls and whole ruins is the extensive use of stone and tsokuwa (laterite gravel) or very hard red building mud, evidently brought from a distance. There is a big mound of this near the north gate about 8 feet in height. The walls show regular courses of masonry to a height of 20 feet and more in several places. The best preserved portion is that known as sirati (the bridge) a little north of the eastern gate … The main city walls here appear to have provided a very strongly guarded entrance about 30 feet wide.”

63. The Nigerian city of Kano in 1851 produced an estimated 10 million pairs of sandals and 5 million hides each year for export.

64. In 1246 AD Dunama II of Kanem-Borno exchanged embassies with Al-Mustansir, the king of Tunis. He sent the North African court a costly present, which apparently included a giraffe. An old chronicle noted that the rare animal “created a sensation in Tunis”.

65. By the third century BC the city of Carthage on the coast of Tunisia was opulent and impressive. It had a population of 700,000 and may even have approached a million. Lining both sides of three streets were rows of tall houses six storeys high.

66. The Ethiopian city of Axum has a series of 7 giant obelisks that date from perhaps 300 BC to 300 AD. They have details carved into them that represent windows and doorways of several storeys. The largest obelisk, now fallen, is in fact “the largest monolith ever made anywhere in the world”. It is 108 feet long, weighs a staggering 500 tons, and represents a thirteen-storey building.

67. Ethiopia minted its own coins over 1,500 years ago. One scholar wrote that: “Almost no other contemporary state anywhere in the world could issue in gold, a statement of sovereignty achieved only by Rome, Persia, and the Kushan kingdom in northern India at the time.”

68. The Ethiopian script of the 4th century AD influenced the writing script of Armenia. A Russian historian noted that: “Soon after its creation, the Ethiopic vocalised script began to influence the scripts of Armenia and Georgia. D. A. Olderogge suggested that Mesrop Mashtotz used the vocalised Ethiopic script when he invented the Armenian alphabet.”

69. “In the first half of the first millennium CE,” says a modern scholar, Ethiopia “was ranked as one of the world’s greatest empires”. A Persian cleric of the third century AD identified it as the third most important state in the world after Persia and Rome.

70. Ethiopia has 11 underground mediaeval churches built by being carved out of the ground. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries AD, Roha became the new capital of the Ethiopians. Conceived as a New Jerusalem by its founder, Emperor Lalibela (c.1150-1230), it contains 11 churches, all carved out of the rock of the mountains by hammer and chisel. All of the temples were carved to a depth of 11 metres or so below ground level. The largest is the House of the Redeemer, a staggering 33.7 metres long, 23.7 metres wide and 11.5 metres deep.

71. Lalibela is not the only place in Ethiopia to have such wonders. A cotemporary archaeologist reports research that was conducted in the region in the early 1970’s when: “startling numbers of churches built in caves or partially or completely cut from the living rock were revealed not only in Tigre and Lalibela but as far south as Addis Ababa. Soon at least 1,500 were known. At least as many more probably await revelation.”

72. In 1209 AD Emperor Lalibela of Ethiopia sent an embassy to Cairo bringing the sultan unusual gifts including an elephant, a hyena, a zebra, and a giraffe.

73. In Southern Africa, there are at least 600 stone built ruins in the regions of Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa. These ruins are called Mazimbabwe in Shona, the Bantu language of the builders, and means great revered house and “signifies court”.

74. The Great Zimbabwe was the largest of these ruins. It consists of 12 clusters of buildings, spread over 3 square miles. Its outer walls were made from 100,000 tons of granite bricks. In the fourteenth century, the city housed 18,000 people, comparable in size to that of London of the same period.

75. Bling culture existed in this region. At the time of our last visit, the Horniman Museum in London had exhibits of headrests with the caption: “Headrests have been used in Africa since the time of the Egyptian pharaohs. Remains of some headrests, once covered in gold foil, have been found in the ruins of Great Zimbabwe and burial sites like Mapungubwe dating to the twelfth century after Christ.”

Part 1. 1-25

Part 2. 26-50

Part 3. 50-75

By Robin Walker 

Robin Walkers book When we ruled is one of the best books Africans and African Diaspora can use firstly as a introduction to African history and secondly a good source to become proficient with precolonial African history.

Recommended reading


Prague’s Spanish Synagogue is a wonder for the eyes. Built in 1868 in the Moorish Revival style, it isn’t the largest synagogue in Europe, but it’s definitely one of the most ornate.

Lisbon is a city of plazas, parks, overlooks and gardens. For more than a century, these beautiful public spaces were graced by Art Noveau and Moorish-style kiosks — small, ornate structures that provided chairs and shade and served traditional Portuguese snacks and drinks.

These quiosques de refrescos (refreshment kiosks) were the heart of public life in the city. But, under the long dictatorship of Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar, which started in the 1930s, laws actually discouraged public gathering and conversation. Many restaurants closed down and the kiosks ­­fell into disrepair and all but disappeared.

That was, until Catarina Portas, a native of Lisbon, former journalist and entrepreneur stepped in.

“From the 19th to the 20th century, there were some hundred different kiosks in Lisbon. The city was full of them in different colors, different designs,” says Portas. She used to take walks around the city and see these “sad, abandoned structures,” she says. “I started to think, How could we bring this to our times?”

So Portas began hunting down these kiosks — some still in place but boarded up or neglected, others in storage. She teamed up with architect João Regal to restore the buildings – not just to their former glory, but to their former place of prominence in Lisbon’s public spaces.

History, Horchata And Hope: How Classic Kiosks Are Boosting Lisbon’s Public Life

Photo: Paul Arps/Flickr