moor jews

most missed MCQs

Here are some random facts that were the most missed questions on my Euro midterm that was composed of old AP questions 

  • Banking was the main source of the Northern Renaissance financial success
  • The end of Italy’s renaissance was the sack of Rome by Emperor Charles V
  • The anabaptists were mainly considered ridiculous by the other sects of Christianity because of their strict belief in the separation of church and state
  • When the Jews, Moors, and Huguenots were expelled from Spain and France respectively, it negatively affected the economy because these races were made up the middle class.
  • The direct effect of St. Bartholomew’s Massacre was the War of Three Henrys aka a civil war.
  • The Fronde was a noble uprising in which they tried to keep their rights
  • The Robot were the manual labor serfs in Bohemia
  • A result of the 30 Years War was the maintained political fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire
  • The cause of the inflation of prices in Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries was the increase of population and precious metals
  • The reason behind Oliver Cromwell’s quelling of the Irish Rebellion was because the Royalists were attempting to overthrow the government.
  • Pride’s Purge is when Cromwell received control of Parliament and got rid of the House of Lords aka the nobility. It was left as the Rump Parliament
  • Intendants were used in French provinces to keep control and wtch of the people
  • Dutch Art focused of the average people and the middle class life
  • 17th century rulers supported academics that offered technology and prestige
  • Kepler proved mathematically that the plants’ path is in the shape of an ellipse
  • The metric system is an enduring change of the French Revolution
  • Edmund Burke was a foreigner who wrote a critic of the French Revolution
  • The major mid-17th century trade center was Amsterdam
  • The Civil Constitution of the Clergy curbed the power of the clergy
  • The COncordat of 1812 reconciled with the church but did not give its major rights back
  • The aim of the Congress of Vienna was to restore the previous monarchs to the throne and to return and keep the balance of power
  • IN Boccaccio’s Decameron you saw popular anticlerical beliefs
  • Oliver Cromwell was not a leader in the 30 Years War
  • Politique were instrumental in ending the wars of religion
  • Charles V did not go to parliament first
  • Marriage was tightly controlled by the law and parental guidance
  • The most important thing to an Enlightened Despot was the codification of a law
  • The growth of trade led to the growth of towns into national units
  • The consulate under Napoleon is very similar to the rulings of an enlightened despot
  • The 2 European powers that defied the pattern of absolutist government were England and the Dutch Republic

It’s amazing how some things have changed - and how some others remain exactly the same. We’re reading a very interesting book called “Mater Dolorosa” that tries to explain why Spain hasn’t a national identity and why Spanish nationalism is not widespread in the country. If you have those existential doubts, you should totally read it asap.

But let’s go with this blog’s subject. The thing is Basque people were once considered the “most Spanish” ones since - academics from that time said - we hadn’t been “polluted” by Moors or Jews. That explains why every Basque person was born with a title of nobility from the 15th century on since Basque blood was “pure and noble”. Even in the 19th century, very well known politician Mendizábal - who disentailed properties of the Catholic Church to turn them into national property - changed his Jewish-origin surname Méndez to Basque, and totally Christian since the beginning of time, Mendizábal: to go up in the very anti-semitic political world of that time.

Hard to believe now, huh?

King Ferdinand's letter to the Taino-Arawak Indians

In the name of King Ferdinand and Juana, his daughter, Queen of Castile and Leon, etc., conquerors of barbarian nations, we notify you as best we  can that our Lord God Eternal created Heaven and earth and a man and woman from whom we all descend for all times and all over the world. In the 5,000 years since creation the multitude of these generations caused  men to divide and establish kingdoms in various parts of the world, among  whom God chose St. Peter as leader of mankind, regardless of their law,  sect or belief. He seated St. Peter in Rome as the best place from which  to rule the world but he allowed him to establish his seat in all parts  of the world and rule all people, whether Christians, Moors, Jews,  Gentiles or any other sect. He was named Pope, which means admirable and  greatest father, governor of all men. Those who lived at that time obeyed  St. Peter as Lord and superior King of the universe, and so did their  descendants obey his successors and so on to the end of time.

The late Pope gave these islands and mainland of the ocean and the  contents hereof to the above-mentioned King and Queen, as is certified  in writing and you may see the documents if you should so desire.  Therefore, Their Highnesses are lords and masters of this land; they were acknowledged as such when this notice was posted, and were and are being  served willingly and without resistance; then, their religious envoys  were acknowledged and obeyed without delay, and all subjects  unconditionally and of their own free will became Christians and thus  they remain. Their Highnesses received their allegiance with joy and  benignity and decreed that they be treated in this spirit like good and  loyal vassals and you are under the obligation to do the same.

Therefore, we request that you understand this text, deliberate on its  contents within a reasonable time, and recognize the Church and its  highest priest, the Pope, as rulers of the universe, and in their name  the King and Queen of Spain as rulers of this land, allowing the religious fathers to preach our holy Faith to you. You own compliance as a duty to the King and we in his name will receive you with love and charity, respecting your freedom and that of your wives and sons and your  rights of possession and we shall not compel you to baptism unless you,  informed of the Truth, wish to convert to our holy Catholic Faith as  almost all your neighbors have done in other islands, in exchange for  which Their Highnesses bestow many privileges and exemptions upon you.  Should you fail to comply, or delay maliciously in so doing, we assure  you that with the help of God we shall use force against you, declaring  war upon you from all sides and with all possible means, and we shall  bind you to the yoke of the Church and of Their Highnesses; we shall  enslave your persons, wives and sons, sell you or dispose of you as the  King sees fit; we shall seize your possessions and harm you as much as we  can as disobedient and resisting vassals.  And we declare you guilty of  resulting deaths and injuries, exempting Their Highnesses of such guilt  as well as ourselves and the gentlemen who accompany us. We hereby  request that legal signatures be af fixed to this text and pray those  present to bear witness for us, etc.