money to lend

Fun fact: the anti-Semitic stereotypes about Jews having lots of money/being greedy/cheap began in the Middle Ages thanks to Christian laws.

The Christian church began forbidding Christians from having professions that involved lending money, banking, or pawn work. It was because the church believed that money was ultimately unclean so although it was considered a necessity, Christians were instructed to deal with it as little as possible.

But someone still needed to run all of those money-based businesses. So these societies which were already run by Christian leadership basically made it a rule that these businesses had to be run by Jews since they were already “unclean”. Furthermore, due to other restrictions on Jewish people in these areas, these money-based positions were pretty much some of the only jobs Jews could legally hold.

This eventually led to numerous stereotypes involving Jews and money. And the acidity of these stereotypes grew when Christian people and leaders became resentful of the livelihood Jews were able to achieve for themselves with these jobs.

So to sum up: Christian society forces Jews to hold down money-centered jobs since, according to the church, Jews were already going to Hell. Then, once they made lives with these roles they were forced into, Jews were mocked and hated for being successful.

Hufflepuff Headcanons

• waking up late after a long night of reading
• looking for your best friend in a big crowd
• coming up with great comebacks and people being surprised about it
• laughing so hard that your stomach hurts and they tear up
• being great storytellers
• ‘No, you can NOT have my food’
• hugging someone when they don’t know what else to say
• always being supportive of their friends decisions
• they’re often late because they forgot to look at the time
• putting a lot of thought into little presents they give to their friends
• swearing like a sailor
• trying to be nice and diplomatic but ending up being passive aggressive
• wanting to change the world for the better but not knowing how
• forgetting the lyrics to the song and starting to hum the melody instead
• if it’s sunny they’re outside
• ‘I think I’m in love. ….Never mind.’
• they do NOT like yellow a lot
• dressing very colourful and stylish when not wearing the school’s uniform
• always knowing the newest gossip and the others wondering how
• always helping those in need but never helping those who don’t deserve it
• lending money
• ‘I’m not smiling. That’s how I look!’

Gryffindor Headcanons

Slytherin Headcanons

Ravenclaw Headcanons

  • <p> <b>Gryffindor:</b> high-fiving someone so hard it hurts your hand (on purpose, and you just get even more pumped up + happy), catching things right before they hit the ground, "home is not a place, it's a person", buying dozens of notebooks but only writing a couple of things in each of them, balconies, assuming everyone speaks the truth, instant noodles, carefree jokes in the middle of fighting in action movies, hitchhiking, board games (with friends), adopting slang words/expressions from other people, road trips, drinking/eating straight from the container, forgetting to brush your teeth, explaining things with your hands or by showing, volunteering (sometimes just so that those who REALLY don't want to do it won't have to), constantly changing your ringtone<p/><b>Ravenclaw:</b> reading funny/interesting facts and forgetting them right away (except for the VERY fascinating ones), going to a foreign country without knowing the language; learning as you go/by experiencing it yourself and through failed attempts, multitasking (with questionable results), space, tearing paper as a stress reliever, preferring ballpoint + mechanical pens because the line they draw is even, procrastination, blushing easily, either REALLY neat or REALLY messy handwriting, making sure everyone is drinking enough water (and not too much alcohol), never borrowing money but always lending it to others (with no rush to get it back), wind, green tea, talking really fast/loud when you get excited, laughing and smiling silently, only paying attention to the things that interest you<p/><b>Slytherin:</b> having a discussion with someone across the room by using just gestures and facial expressions/lip reading, ending up sharpening all the pencils instead of just the one you need, string instruments, both judgemental eye rolls and friendly and teasing eye rolls, never ignoring problems, taking one (or two) for the team, cutting your own hair/making your own jewellery and clothing; DIY, formal language with strangers and at work but swearing/using (internet) slang with friends and at home, never letting fate decide, keeping secrets (both others' and your own), forgiving relatively fast but NOT many times, avoiding telling white lies, mostly listening during conversations but impressing everyone with how intelligent and insightful you are when you do comment/speak<p/><b>Hufflepuff:</b> sunflowers and dandelions, (cookie) dough, colouring books, choosing the slightly smaller half of a halved pastry even though the other person said you could pick either one and they'd have the other one, bumblebees + honey bees, listening to loud music with headphones and constantly fearing others can hear it, humming and whistling, coffee and hot chocolate with lots of whipped cream and spices, blanket forts, not feeling pressured to do anything "productive", always thinking it's your fault (it's not), having days for yourself; peace and quiet and self-care, movie/TV/Netflix marathons, procrastinating at first and then working for hours and hours straight just before the deadline, rain (heavy or light), chocolate and peppermint and fudge<p/></p>
Humans are weird

So I just read a bunch of those Humans are weird posts, and I decided that our emotions and the way we react to them deserves some more credit.

We as a species can be pretty brutal and violent, with a near constant conflict at least somewhere in the world, which gave us a pretty bad reputation in the beginning.

But if there is one thing about humans that can overwhelm our more negative traits, it’s our compassion. We see someone suffering, and we can’t help but want to help.

So yeah, little kiddy aliens get warned to not make a human angry, for an angry human is a dangerous thing. But I’d like to think that they also get taught that if they ever need help really badly, go to a human.

Because for most of us, we don’t need a reason to help, we just do. Whether it’s money, supplies or just lending a helping hand, it’s the humans you can count on.

Also, I think it would be awesome if our violent traits are well-known, but our compassion is legendary.

@humans-are-space-orcs

Qrowin!Jelsa for @knightsquall and @shinamatsuoka 

I think I just need excuse to draw Elsa in Atlas Specialist uniform

Sometimes, 
I worry about the way time passes 
for different people. 

A year is always 365 days but 
no one ever tells you that the hours 
can stretch with stress and responsibility.


So, I meet another 19 year old 
and she is actually 19-
she is lucky. The days have passed 
as they should and she has lived 
the teenage dream, sneaking out, 
making out, falling out 
of love over and over again 
and she kinda gets it, maybe. 
She is getting there at least. 
She knows that at some point
her parents aren’t going to pay for her 
frivolities, that the car she drives will one day be 
in her name, with her paycheck in the gas tank. 
And yeah, she works part time in the mall,
goes to school, dreams of what life will bring,
but she doesn’t know, not yet. 


At least she is tolerable. I meet another girl
who claims she is 19 but acts like she is 12 
(I know, overused internet insults, but bear with me).
Time has passed too quickly and she never grew up.
She just can’t imagine not having her debit card
attached to her father’s account,
doesn’t know what interest on a loan means
and I have to help her fill out applications 
for a job she won’t keep more than a week.
I don’t think she will ever get it,
she is taken care of and I can’t say I’m not jealous 
of the way she has everything,
how she doesn’t ache after long days.
Part of me hopes she gets slapped in the face 
with reality, but why wish the harshness of the world
on someone who will never be ready?


Oh and here is the part none of you will believe,
you’ll tell me I am making it up for poetry,
but I promise when I say
I am more middle aged 
than teenaged 
I am not joking. I haven’t ever been pregnant 
but sometimes it feels like I’ve got 3 kids,
my brother and sister’s teachers expect me at parent conferences,
my high school sister doesn’t know I pay for her everything 
so that she can be the girl above, the girl who doesn’t know,
the girl who frustrates me, but I don’t want her to be 
19 and working a minimum of 50 hours a week. 


It’s a life and I am living.


Don’t tell me when you don’t know 
to cut back on my hours, take time for myself,
save my money and stop lending to my family. Honey,
I am not going to leave the ones I love to poverty.
I’ve got bills to pay and meds I need,
oh, and in case people forget,
a girl has got to eat.
Fuck you and your privileged "life hacks" 
that won’t save me a damn penny.
This is a conversation for the people who get it,
who struggle and bust their asses to care for 
themselves and those they love,
so sip your coffee,
it’s cyclical poverty 
and there is little chance of you understanding.

—  RANT || O.L.
8

Alpha!Brett x Reader


~ Part 1, Part 2, Part 3

Word count: 1 462

_


It was with doubt and a slight ounce of regret you walked through the main entrance at the Animal Clinic. You and Brett had been asked to meet up with both of your old packs to discuss the future and Deaton had offered the clinic as a safe space for you to talk.

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google.com
Esther Afua Ocloo’s 98th Birthday
Esther Afua Ocloo’s 98th birthday! #GoogleDoodle

Today’s Google Doodle honors Ghana’s Esther Afua Ocloo

“As both an entrepreneur and an advocate for microlending, “Auntie Ocloo” worked tirelessly to help others like her succeed. Esther Afua Ocloo had only six shillings to her name — less than a dollar — when she made and then sold her first jar of marmalade as a teenager in the 1930s.

Esther was determined to expand her livelihood of making marmalade and orange juice, but she needed a loan to increase production, and credit was hard to come by for women with little economic resources. It took persistence and a supply contract to secure the money to start her company, Nkulenu Industries.

After traveling to England to learn the latest techniques in food processing, Esther returned home and shared those skills with other Ghanaian women. Perhaps more importantly, she taught them everything she knew about starting and running a business, which put more money in their pockets. She made such an impact that in 1975 she was invited to the first U.N. World Conference on Women.

Esther and other advisors knew that lending money to women could have a ripple effect, improving the prosperity and health of the women as well as their communities. But because they lacked collateral, low-income women were often ignored by banks. So in 1979, Esther helped found and became Chairman of the Board of Directors of Women’s World Banking, which provides millions of low-income women with the small loans needed to reach their financial goals.

On what would have been her 98th birthday, today’s Doodle shows Esther empowering the women of Ghana with the tools to improve their lives and communities.”

Source

Case for killing rich!Roy

I can’t remember the last decent fanfic I read where Roy did not live in a fucking mansion with multiple bedrooms, a real fireplace, a library, and a sports car. Even when the setting did not give him a significantly better-paying job than a military officer or policeman.

And even if he had way more income, or had been in his decent-paying position long enough to have saved up for and paid off all the above, let’s have a look at what we know about Roy’s canon economic situation and behaviour.

- he lives in a townhouse (Interview with Arakawa)
- he has a personal vehicle (interview with Arakawa)
- the car is not especially fancy-looking, shiny, or impressive (visuals /character non-reactions)
- he doesn’t drive the car long distances (he takes busses and trains, which may speak to the age and endurance capabilities of the car)
- he did not grow up rich (Chris Mustang runs a gentleman’s bar in a seedy part of town)
- he has an understanding of budgetary responsibility and is bothered when it’s missing (any time he’s chastised Ed about expenses or looked worried when informed about them)
- he is hesitant to lend money (520 cenz)
- he isn’t above blackmailing, but never attempts bribery (lack of funds?)

Most of this would suggest Roy to be likely middle-class.

But fan fiction can alter character aspects like this. We can write AUs where Roy is a millionaire, or a lottery winner, or a trust fund baby.

But we can also write AUs where he’s penniless and has slept at work when he’s between places to live, where he works overtime to make extra and everyone politely ignores the circles under his eyes, where he lectures the Elrics to think of their futures and not spoil their prospects because he knows how quickly things can turn around, where Chris Mustang set him up with his apprenticeship under Hawkeye because then at least he’d have a steady roof over his head and food to eat every night. Where he joined the army cause it was the only way he could afford an education, and now he has roommates because who the he’ll can afford a Central City apartment solo?

We can have middle class Roy who shops at Costco/Price mart, is in his neighbourhood carpool, and can’t help financially, but pulls all the social strings he can to help the people who are important to him. Roy who BBQs on the balcony of his apartment, Roy who really can’t fucking afford for his car to be wrecked right now, and has to cancel all plans of the ‘paint the town’ nature for a while until the payment plan is under control, Roy who sneaks dollar store candy and pop into the theatre. Roy who always helps his neighbour down the hall get her groceries up the stairs. Roy who learned to fix his own damn furnace because contractor prices are ridiculous and how different can it be from his alchemy anyway?

I often see Rich Roy giving boundless cash, gifts, and resources to whoever he’s being shipped with, who is often - at the start if the story - in a position where they need help or rescue to varying degrees. Roy being wealthy certainly helps facilitate this kind of dynamic, but it doesn’t kill the story for him to be poor or middle-class.

Imagine poor!roy skipping his own meal to feed his shipmate, sleeping on the floor or hideously hard/lumpy couch so they can have the bed, scrubbing his shabby apartment within an inch of its life to make it look more upper class, doing his best to dress up ramen with frozen veggies as a gourmet meal, and their shipmate just being so grateful for the help that they don’t even care.

Middle class Roy stretching things for an extra person, looking up creative meals on the internet because damnit there’s enough miscellaneous foods in the house he’s got to be able to make enough of SOMETHING for two, panicking when his shipmate expresses a sugar craving because he can’t afford to buy a dessert but how dies he turn down that face after all they’ve been through and surely he can whip something up with crackers and chocolate sauce right?

There are so many more options than rich Roy who lives in luxury, cooks gourmet meals, drives a hot car, and never worries about cost. Let’s see some more of them, please.

I just spoke to Thomas Lopez-Pierre, who is running for New York City city council...

on a platform that argues that “Jewish landlords” are kicking black and latino residents out of their apartments. This blatantly antisemitic and dirty tactic for winning his race led me to call his office. And he picked up.

I spoke to him in length about the history of Jewish money lending, and why portraying the corrupt landlords as “Jewish landlords” labels them in a way that is bigoted. I continued to reiterate my values as a Jew, that all human beings were created in the Image of God, and all of the social justice issues that the Progressive Jewish community prides itself in. I emphasized that in New York City institutions of higher Jewish learning, gathering, and prayer constitute large populations of social justice activists who continue to fight for what is right. I argued that if he publically resigned his antisemitic comment, thus referring to the “Jewish Landlords: as just "landlords,” then he would have more Jewish supporters. Not only did he refuse, but he explained that he will make a public apology to the Jewish people AFTER “he wins”.

After 40 minutes, he still did not know why his platform is antisemitic. But apparently, I will be receiving a call “after he wins” in September?

4

I could’ve been a contender. You’re still a contender. Oh yeah? I’m broke, busted, beggared. I have no apartment, no car; hell, my license expired 3 months ago. Get outta here.

Signs that you need to drop your shitty friends

•  They act outwardly threatened about anything good that you have to offer. ex - (If you get praise from another friend and your suspected bad friend festers in anger and waits till they get the other friend alone in attempt to sway their opinion. “They’re really not that great, I’m better!!”) 

Another example is if you have talent or a healthy self esteem, if things are going well in your life, you’re real friends would be happy for you. A bad friend would feel threatened - “they want to see you do well but never better then them.” A real friend would recognize that we all shine as individuals and would celebrate your achievements rather then down talk them or compete with them. (You shouldn’t have to compete with your friends.)

•  They disregard or don’t care about your feelings *aka* calling you negative, being ignorant about how events in your life may make you feel, (make you feel stupid for talking about it.) Just because they don’t understand it doesn’t mean they have the right to patronize you.

•  They financially manipulate you. (“I forgot my wallet”, “You get it this time and I’ll get it next time”- but next time never comes or they pretend to forget. It’s a matter of respect and it’s not your responsibility to pay for them. If they can’t afford to go out, they should be responsible enough not to. That shouldn’t fall on you; you’re not their parent. Keep your finances entirely separate; that means separate orders and no lending money or buying alcohol/food/clothes for them. They need to realize that it’s time to grow up. If the problem persists, drop them.

•  They level with you or try to make you feel bad or insecure about yourself. This is usually a result of being so insecure they want to project that on you as well. They will down talk your good qualities or uptalk themselves aggressively (usually around other people.) It’s a game of playing off of your insecurities. Their goal is to make you just as miserable as them. Misery loves company. 

•  They act with a blatant disregard of your feelings, take for example - if they flirt with your significant other on purpose. This usually stems out of insecurity but even though it’s a valid feeling, selfishly pursuing their own agenda causes too much pain to sit around and watch without acting on it. Needing attention is a natural feeling but if a friend tries to get it from your significant other it shows that they don’t care how it might hurt you. That will snowball. People like that only care about themselves. It’s best to cut your ties.

•  Move on, although it may hurt now, it won’t forever. You can’t control how everyone treats you, but you do have the ability to know your worth and to demand to be treated better. When someone is no longer positively impacting your life or trying to hurt you on purpose it’s not worth the pain. Be thankful for the good times you shared together but recognize that the relationship is no longer healthy. The good thing is that you can learn and grow from the experience. Recognize that sometimes people change and friendships end because of circumstance or you’re just at two different points in your lives. Either way, if you’re feeling as though you are being treated unfair, you probably are. Trust you’re gut and realize that there’s no point wasting your time and letting them continue to hurt and belittle you.

Highschool AU! Wonho

Highschool AU for the other members ;

Shownu / Wonho / Minhyuk / Kihyun / Hyungwon / Jooheon / I.M


  • “Super Ultra Bad Boy Shin Hoseok” is a very common misconception
  • The cool way he dresses with his muscle tanks, ripped jeans, tinted shades and occasional leather jacket makes most people fear him at first glance
  • Plus his calm and suave nature, especially when he walks down the halls
  • But he’s actually super soft
  • Usually the first to initiate conversations with people
  • Often advertises his mother’s café (where he also occasionally works at!)
  • Will invite people to casual and friendly dates (to his mother’s café lol)
  • An actual momma’s boy, the type of guy who would love it if his mother dropped him off or picked him up
  • If there were parent-teacher interviews he’d make sure to give his mom a tour and introduce him to his teachers and friends
  • Loves when people talk to him, will basically flirt casually with anyone but uses it as a form of flattery because he likes making people smile too
  • Super healthy and athletic, basically used his gym bag as his actual school bag and forgets his backpack exists
  • He’ll seriously leave his backpack everywhere and ends up interrupting classes as he sheepishly approaches the teacher and admits to leaving it in their room
  • There was one incident where he left his backpack and people went through it and accused him for having drugs
  • But they were really just his vitamins and other supplements
  • Going to the school’s Weight Room (exercise room with all the equipment) with Shownu and occasionally his other friends if he manages to drag them along is his daily routine
  • Encourages people to stay fit and even offers to personally train people
  • The type of person to use all those health apps on his phone, keeps track of his exercises, calories, sleep time etc
  • Also the type of person to send snapchats of himself in the Weight Room (occasionally featuring Shownu!)
  • Seems pretty proud and smug, especially just around his friends like “Yeah, I work out alot ;)” but when he’s left alone with others he may get flustered
  • Likes to sing whenever but will get embarassed when people hear him
  • Aside from eating instant noodles often, only unhealthy thing he does is barely getting sleep, he often stays up late composing songs, exercising, or rehearsing dance choreo or songs
  • Occasionally dozes off on breaks or even in class, sometimes you can catch him slowly slouching as his head just dips downwards before eventually landing on the surface of a desk
  • Lowkey forgets about homework  so when teachers ask for it he’ll be all “hahah sorry I lost it!” “Oh sorry, I left it at home!” “Can I give it to you tomorrow?”
  • Sometimes he’ll even ask if he can go get it in his locker and will skip the rest of his class
  • Feels guilty about skipping classes though so he’ll either tell his mother or ask for permission beforehand
  • One time tried to be a #rebel and skip class without telling, but 15 minutes into the block the guilt consumed him and he called his mom to apologize
  • Has secret sweet stashes for his “cheat days”
  • It anyone catches him cheating his diet he gets super flustered and will be like “NO it’s not what it seems??”
  • When he doesn’t work at his mother’s café he takes on a variety of other part time jobs to help his mother pay bills and such
  • When he works at Starbucks customers literally ask for him specifically because he’s so charming and he makes great frappes
  • Always so polite and friendly, he’ll definitely be the one who manages to sneak customers extra whipped cream or extra cookies or donuts free of charge
  • His school supplies are super cute, the type of person who uses notepads and pencils with designs on them and scented erasers in the shape of food or animals
  • Either works on assignments and projects non-stop and finishes them super early, or will put them off until the last minute
  • “Shin Hoseok… your last project was utterly flawless, professionally well done and perfect… so why does this one look like you just copied it all from a Wikipedia page?”
  • (It’s because he was working on a cool song he didn’t want to lose inspiration to)
  • Most people refer to him as Wonho because he really does protect people
  • Will defend anyone from bullies without hesitation, either if it happens right in front of him or if he finds out he’ll literally confront the bully
  • Covers for people and will even take the blame for them
  • Sacrifices his lunch, always lends money if people ask for it, and always treats his friends to free food
  • Always tries to cross roads first, even if the light doesn’t indicate the crossing yet because he wants to make sure it’s safe for the other people crossing
  • Cries during emotional / important speeches, as well as Anti-Bullying / Memorial / End-of-Year assemblies

“Don’t Take The Money” by Bleachers


After quietly deleting all of their Instagram posts and posting a cryptic video that showed a first person view of someone’s day, the Jack Antonoff fronted band, Bleachers, has released the first single off their sophomore album, “Don’t Take The Money.”

This marks the first release since he re-released his album, Strange Desire, with all female vocals (titled Terrible Thrills) but the excitement doesn’t stop there – especially for Lorde fans.

Jack helped produce and write Lorde’s latest songs, “Green Light” and “Liability” and it seems she’s returning the favor by apparently being a co-writter on “Don’t Take The Money” and also lending her vocals after the bridge in the song.

With both albums reported to come out this summer it seems it could be a summer of Bleachers and Lorde. Check out the new song above.

A new beginning... (1/11...ish)

hey there everyone! it feels like years since I’ve posted a fic, and it feels weird to publish this. For the past 8 months or so I haven’t posted any new fic or updated my WIP Sparks, and I feel really bad but I’ve just really haven’t felt inspired even though I really wanted to write, added to the fact that my current and new (well it’s been 8 months it’s not totally new but who cares) job that takes most of my time and energy. 

I’ve been wanting to get back to writing but since i have zero inspiration, my dear friend @phiralovesloki gave me some good advice to help me get back into it, which led me to try and rewrite an old story of mine. I decided to rewrite one of the first fics I’ve written three years ago (the writing was aaaaaawful, seriously it’s dreadful). I’m improving the story and I’ll probably end up changing a few (a lot?) of things, and let me reassure you, my writing got a lot better since! I still hope you’ll enjoy it. Now I’ll shut up and let you read it.

Thanks to @ultraluckycatnd for editing the story! 

Summary: Financial problems leads Emma and her brother David to seek a roommate, which leads Killian to occupy their spare bedroom. 

Rating: M for some swearing, and eventually smmmmmut.

AO3  |  FF.net


The evening had been busy and hectic, which made Emma appreciate the soft gust of wind as she walked out of the dinner. Monday nights at Granny’s were usually calm, which gave her some time to study in between clients. Maybe it was the nice warm weather that spring brought after a very cold winter that made people want to go out and have a meal outside of their houses. She was grateful for the tips; she usually didn’t make much on Monday’s, but the downside was that she was starting her week exhausted.

Emma debated with herself for a moment, pondering on whether she hailed for a cab or if she took the bus back to her apartment. Walking was out of the question, because her feet were killing her. The cab was quite tempting since she would be home in no time, but it meant spending some of the extra money she made tonight. With the financial strain that her and her brother had been going through, spending that extra money wouldn’t be wise. Emma sighed as she tried to muster some of the energy she had left and did the wise thing as she walked towards the bus stop. Hopefully, she wouldn’t have to wait too long for the bus to arrive.

After what felt like hours (it was really fifteen minutes, but her tired state was playing tricks on her mind), Emma finally arrived at her apartment complex and slowly climbed the stairs up to her floor. Once she entered her apartment, she dropped her bag as she freed her feet from the pressure of her shoes and walked directly to the living room. She fell next to her brother on the couch and sighed with relief as she let her aching muscles finally relax. Her head slowly rolled to the side when David groaned as he closed his laptop, and she noticed that he looked tense.

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anonymous asked:

What is the difference between nobles and merchants the idea is that merchants only sit around doing nothing making money of others work but isint that basically the same thing nobles do except they make it law that the people under them a half to pay taxes that the nobles use to buy pointless things like dresses

As with most questions of class, it comes down to questions of ideology and and power. 

Ideologically, the ideals of the nobility and of the merchant class were entirely opposite: noblemen were supposed to be open-handed (especially since their power originated from them acting as “ring-givers” to armed men), ostentatiously luxurious (so as to display their glory and magnificence that set them apart from the common herd) and pleasure-seeking, bold and reckless in pursuit of fame and glory; merchants were supposed to be thrifty, sober, and prudent. 

The nobleman saw in the merchant a coward who would debase himself (and debase others) for mere profit, and who valued his skin more than his honor; the merchant saw the nobleman as a hypocritical parasite who despised anyone who worked for a living and exalted his own idleness, while excusing mindless debauchery and bloodshed by appeal to obsolete virtues. 

But as a Marxist historian would argue, there is always the means of production. The power of the nobility was in landed wealth and their rights to extract labor and taxes from those who dwelt on their land. The power of the merchant was in capital, and thus to a feudal mindset represented that terrifying impossibility: wealth not based on land and feudal tenure, notional, imaginary wealth that could fly through the air invisible like spirits and reshape entire economies, and somehow turn a peasant into a magnate richer than any nobleman, threatening the social hierarchy

And to a merchant, the medieval order itself was the dead hand of the past, the obstacle to all progress. As Polayni notes, capitalism requires free markets in land, labor, and money - feudalism had frozen land into an unbreakable chain of agreements between lords and vassals; serfdom had chained men to their land and their ancestral occupations; faith had deemed lending money at interest to be a mortal sin.