monarchy of france

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French Queen Marie-Antoinette “en grand habit de cour” by Jean-Baptiste Gautier Dagoty, 1775. Versailles. These are a few variants of the same painting in tapestry, cameo, engraving and miniature painting and details. A favorite of Harriett Pullman Carolan.

Carolands.org

Jean-Pierre Cortot (1787-1843)
“Le Triomphe de 1810”
Neoclassicism
Located at the Arc de Triomphe, Paris, France

“Le Triomphe de 1810”(“The Triumph of 1810”), also referred to as “Triomphe de Napoléon” (“Napoleon’s Triumph”), illustrates the year 1810, the climax year of Napoleon’s reign. His marriage to Marie-Louise of Austria which was to assure the future of the dynasty, and the conquests which expanded the French Empire to its largest size.

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Here are several of my Instagram friends dramatic photos of the Chateau of Versailles, they clearly love mood filters, maybe I should try a few as well huh?! LoL. I’ll post more of my recent trip photos soon but enjoy these for now…

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History meme - Catherine De Medici

Italian-born French queen, regent and mother of three kings of France. She was a powerful influence in 16th century France, particularly during the Wars of Religion.
Caterina Maria Romola di Lorenzo de Medici was born in Florence on 13 April 1519. Her father was Lorenzo de Medici, Duke of Urbino and ruler of Florence and her mother was Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne, cousin of Francis I, King of France.
Catherine’s mother died when she was two-weeks-old and her father soon afterwards. In 1533, at the age of 14, Catherine’s uncle Pope Clement VII arranged her marriage to the duke of Orléans, second son of the king of France.
A year after their marriage, the duke began a long affair with Diane de Poitiers. Diane remained a dominant force in his life for the next 25 years, leaving Catherine sidelined. It was not until ten years after their marriage that Catherine gave birth to their first child. This greatly improved the queen’s position and the couple eventually had seven surviving children.
In 1536, the duke of Orléans became heir to the throne. Eleven years later he was crowned Henry II of France. Unfortunately it was to be a short reign as Henry died in a jousting accident in 1559, thrusting Catherine onto the political stage. Their eldest son Francis was proclaimed king, but died after less than a year. Then in 1560, their second son Charles was crowned, aged just ten years old. Catherine acted as regent for the young king and as a result dominated Charles throughout his reign.
She at first adopted a conciliatory policy towards the Huguenots (French Protestants), but in 1562 civil war broke out in France, marking the beginning of the series of conflicts which became known as the French Wars of Religion.
In 1572, in an effort to bring reconciliation, Catherine arranged the marriage of her daughter Marguerite to the Protestant Henry, King of Navarre. During the wedding celebrations in Paris, the Huguenot leader, Coligny, was murdered, as were hundreds of other Protestants who had gathered for the wedding. This became known as the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, in which Catherine was probably involved.
Charles IX died in 1574 and Catherine’s favourite son Henry succeeded as Henry III of France. She continued to play a central role in government and made further fruitless attempts to reconcile the opposing sides in the ongoing civil war.
Catherine died on 5 January 1589 and was buried next to her husband in the church of St Denis in Paris.

Courage! I have shown it for years; think you I shall lose it at the moment when my sufferings are to end?
— 

Marie Antoinette, 

Responding to the priest who had accompanied her to the foot of the guillotine, who had whispered, “This is the moment, Madame, to arm yourself with courage.”

Dauphin (dolphin in French) was a sort of pet name that the son of the Count of Vienne, Guigues, was given by his English mother when he was a child. When Guigues inherited the title and lands of the Count of Vienne, he formally called himself “The Dauphin,” and had a dolphin as his motif on his arms. The territory he ruled became known as the “Dauphiné.” When it was later purchased by the King of France, he gave the land, and the title, to his son and heir. Which is why to this day the heir to the throne of France is called the “dauphin.”

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Emperor Charles, Count Odo and Princess Gisela, Vikings S03E07 “Paris”

The show presents an amalgam of the two historical events and three different rulers named ‘Charles’.
There were notably two separate sieges of Paris: The first one took place in 845: 


-The Siege of Paris and the Sack of Paris of 845 was the culmination of a Viking invasion of the kingdom of the West Franks. The Viking forces were led by a Danish chieftain named “Reginherus”, or Ragnar, who traditionally has been identified with the legendary saga character Ragnar Lodbrok. Ragnar’s fleet of 120 Viking ships, carrying thousands of men, entered the Seine in March and proceeded sailing up the river. The West Frankish king Charles the Bald assembled a smaller army in response, but as the Vikings defeated one division, comprising half of the army, the remaining forces retreated. The Vikings reached Paris at the end of the month, during Easter. After plundering and occupying the city, the Vikings finally withdrew after receiving a ransom payment of 7,000 French livres (2,570 kilograms or 5,670 pounds) of silver and gold from Charles the Bald.
-Charles the Bald was the King of West Francia (843–77), King of Italy (875–77) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–77, as Charles II). After a series of civil wars that began during the reign of his father, Louis the Pious, Charles succeeded by the Treaty of Verdun (843) in acquiring the western third of the Carolingian Empire. He was a grandson of Charlemagne and the youngest son of Louis the Pious by his second wife, Judith.


-The Siege of Paris of 885–86 was part of a Viking raid on the Seine, in the Kingdom of the West Franks. The siege was the most important event of the reign of Charles the Fat, and a turning point in the fortunes of the Carolingian dynasty and the history of France. The siege is the subject of an eyewitness account in the Latin poem Bella Parisiacae urbis of Abbo Cernuus.
With hundreds of ships, and possibly tens of thousands of men, the Vikings arrived outside Paris in late November 885, at first demanding tribute. This was denied by Odo, Count of Paris, despite the fact that he only could assemble a couple of hundred soldiers to defend the city. The Vikings attacked with a variety of siege engines, but failed to break through the city walls after some days of intense attacks. The siege was upheld after the initial attacks, but without any significant offence for months thereafter. As the siege went on, most of the Vikings left Paris to pillage further upriver. The Vikings made a final unsuccessful attempt to take the city during the summer, and in October, Charles the Fat arrived with his army.
To the frustration of the Parisians who had fought for a long time to defend the city, Charles stopped short of attacking the Viking besiegers, and instead allowed them to sail further up the Seine to raid Burgundy, as well as promising a payment of 700 livres (pounds; 257 kg). Odo, highly critical of this, tried his best to defy the promises of Charles, and when Charles died in 888, Odo was elected the first non-Carolingian king of the Franks.
-Charles the Fat also known as Charles III, was the Carolingian Emperor from 881 to 888. The youngest son of Louis the German and Hemma, Charles was a great-grandson of Charlemagne and was the last Carolingian to rule over a united empire.


-Charles III called the Simple or the Straightforward (Latin Carolus Simplex) was the King of Western Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919–23. He was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. In 893 Charles was crowned by a faction opposed to Odo at Reims Cathedral, though he only became the effectual monarch with the death of Odo in 898. In 911, a group of Vikings led by Rollo besieged Paris and Chartres. After a victory near Chartres on 26 August, Charles decided to negotiate with Rollo, resulting in the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. For the Vikings’ loyalty, they were granted all the land between the river Epte and the sea, as well as Brittany, which at the time was an independent country which France had unsuccessfully tried to conquer. Rollo also agreed to be baptised and to marry Charles’ daughter, Gisela.

Source: Wikipedia

Image 1: Charles the Bald

Image 2: Charles the Fat

Image 3: Charles the Simple