molotov ribbentrop pact

The End of Poland (no sound)

October 1939, Soviet and German troops meet at the center of Poland after its defeat, as part of the agreements of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, in which it was stated that the soviets would occupy Eastern Poland, while the Germans kept the west, the Vistula river becoming the new border between the two nations.

The flyers the germans are handing over read: “The German Army salutes the Red Army of workers and farmers, which has always held in the highest respect.” 

El Final de Polonia (sin audio)

Octubre de 1939, tropas Soviéticas y Alemanas se encuentran en el centro de Polonia luego de su derrota, como parte de los acuerdos del Pacto Ribbentrop-Mólotov, donde se estableció que los Soviéticos ocuparían Polonia oriental, mientras que los alemanes se quedarían con occidente, el río Vistula convirtiéndose en la nueva frontera entre ambas naciones.  

Los panfletos que los Alemanes reparten dicen: “El Ejercito Alemán saluda al Ejercito Rojo de trabajadores y granjeros, el cual siempre ha tenido en el mayor de los respetos”.

cerasolipsist  asked:

did antisemitism become a serious problem in the USSR only after stalin's death then? sorry i don't know anything it's just what that stat seems to imply. what changed?

i’d date the emergence of serious antisemitism in the soviet union to maybe 1941 or 1945. the twenties and, to a lesser extent, thirties soviet union was arguably the best country for jewish life in modern history (maybe tied with modern US, but that depends on what you value). jews were disproportionately representated in most things—university students, scientists, writers, party members, state apparatchiks, etc—and stricter laws against antisemitism were in place than probably in anywhere in history (one case that comes to mind was a trial in march 1925 of seven russian nationalists who had called for all soviet jews to be deported to palestine. all were shot.) the state funded an extensive network of yiddish-language schools (up to and including universities), newspapers, theaters, publishers, cultural institutions, etc. jewish settlement was financed in crimea, southern ukraine, and, less successfully, the far east, in birobidzhan. there were jewish organs in the party (evsektsiia) and state (evkom). you get the idea

during 1939-41, the state and party (and soviet jews themselves) came to see jews through an ethnic lens. the molotov-ribbentrop pact in ‘39 involved purging jews from some state organs, most notably maxim litvinov. when news of the nazi treatment of jews specifically got to soviet civilians, many prominent soviet jews—solomon mikhoels, ilya ehrenburg, vassily grossman, and so on—spoke out specifically as jews. the party meanwhile tried to quiet news of the holocaust, and once it was known, denied its separateness and uniqueness from the broader oppression of soviets

after the war, popular antisemitism was strong, partially from wildly successful propaganda in the nazi occupation zone, and several pogroms took place, most notably in kiev. antisemitism infected the party and state as well, unleashing purges of jews from many institutions, and after the founding of the state of israel in 1948, jews lost their status as one of the most trusted loyal minorities and gained that of a fifth column. the purges ramped up with a campaign against the ~cosmpolitans~, a dozen prominent soviet jews were executed in what is known as the night of the murdered poets, stalin tried to frame a few jewish physicians for assassination attempts in what is known as the doctors plot, and rumors were spreading that jews were to be deported to the far east, although there’s not much proof and stalin died before it could happen anyways

after the so-called black years of 1945-53, the antisemitism simmered down, but khrushchev institutionalized it, and you can see all of those statistics i quoted in the other post

Joint Declaration of the Ministers of Justice of the Baltic States

Based on the criminal Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of 23 August 1939 and its secret protocols, the USSR in  June  1940, occupied and  annexed three  independent  Baltic States:  the  Republic  of  Estonia,  the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Lithuania. After 50 years of resistance to the occupant regime, the  people  of  the three Baltic  States  re-established  their  independence.  Many  of  them  sacrificed their lives and/or were deported from their homeland.

During the years  of  occupation the  three  Baltic  States were exploited for  political  and  economic needs  of  the  occupying  regime;  as  a  result  they  have  suffered  enormous  demographic  and  socio-economic  losses.  After  the  collapse  of the USSR, the  Russian  Federation declared itself to  be  the successor  of the rights  and  obligations of  the  USSR. Consequently,  all claims arising from the occupation of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and its consequences, at present shall be solved with the Russian Federation.

We,  the Ministers  of  Justice  of  the  Baltic  States declare that it  is  time  to arrange the  relationship with the past and to calculate in a scientifically justified manner the losses caused by the totalitarian communist  occupation  regime  of  the  USSR. The Declaration  aims  at emphasising  the  need  for  the national experts and politicians of the three countries to enhance their joint efforts and address the following issues.

1. To  state  the  fact  that  the  Baltic  States  never  ceased to  legally  exist,  even  during  the  Soviet occupation.

2. To assess  and  declare  through  joint  cooperation the  total economic loss  and  damage  inflicted upon  the  three  Baltic  States  by  the  USSR,  based  on the  most  practical  and  thorough research method.

3. To  highlight  the  fact  of  occupation  in  relations  with  the  Russian  Federation and  to  ensure  that the Russian Federation as the successor of rights and obligations of the USSR acknowledges this occupation, takes full responsibility and compensates all related losses.

4.To  enable the  three  Baltic  States to  prepare  for  international actions in  accordance with International   Law   to   claim   legally   and factually justified   compensation   from   the   Russian Federation.

5.To ensure that current and future generations have full and objective understanding of the USSR occupation and  its impact based  on the facts  and information  obtained from  the research  and calculations, and to provide them with means of taking legal action individually.

6.To  ensure  that  the  crimes  of  the Soviet totalitarian  regime  and  in  particular  the  occupation  of the Baltic States receive respective evaluation at the international level.

Minister of Justice of the Republic of Estonia

Minister of Justice of the Republic of Latvia

Minister of Justice of the Republic of Lithuania

Riga, 5 November 2015

anonymous asked:

hi sorry to bother you but i was wondering what are some reasons you hate stalin and the ussr so much? this might be a stupid question but im still new to socialism and my sources of information seem to be quite sympathetic to the way of the tank sometimes

Just getting around to this ask, sorry.

One of the most prime reasons is the Soviet-Nazi non-aggression pact, known formally as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. As the description implies, the MRP was a peace treaty signed between the Soviets and Nazis about a week before the invasion of Poland.

The Nazis commenced their invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939, and the Soviet Union theirs on 17 September of the same year (1 day before my birthday, but beside the point). The two nations divided up Poland, and despite having the manpower, Stalin and his officials maintained the secret pact and did not stand up to Germany until Hitler broke the pact with Operation Barabrossa on 22 June 1941.

Stalin himself used antisemitic buzzwords in his dissertations against Trotsky, who was Jewish, or at least of Jewish ancestry. The Soviet state-run press spoke of Jews as “groveling before the West,” helping “American imperialism,” “slavish imitation of bourgeois culture” and “bourgeois aestheticism.”

There was also the suggested “Jewish Autonomous Oblast”, which would’ve sequestered the Jewish population of the Soviet union in the far east, bordering the bitterly-cold Heilongjiang province in China. From Wikipedia, Stalin and Antisemitism:

To offset the growing Jewish national and religious aspirations of Zionism and to successfully categorize Soviet Jews under Stalin’s nationality policy an alternative to the Land of Israel was established with the help of Komzet and OZET in 1928. The Jewish Autonomous Oblast with the center in Birobidzhan in the Russian Far East was to become a “Soviet Zion”. Yiddish, rather than “reactionary” Hebrew, would be the national language, and proletarian socialist literature and arts would replace Judaism as the quintessence of culture. Despite a massive domestic and international state propaganda campaign, the Jewish population there never reached 30% (as of 2003 it was only about 1.2%). The experiment ground to a halt in the mid-1930s, during Stalin’s first campaign of purges, as local leaders were not spared during the purges.

I’m not Jewish, but their poor treatment in the Soviet Union is a major reason why I don’t stand behind it. The aesthetics might be nice, and we can respect legendary Nazi-killers like Vasiliy Zatzyev and Lyudmila Pavlichenko without looking up to statism or Stalinism.

The origins of the Soviet Union are even stranger. Lenin supported a system of state capitalism, which is what the Soviet Union started as, and what it remained as until its death in 1991. From Lenin, The Tax in Kind:

State capitalism would be a step forward as compared with the present state of affairs in our Soviet Republic. If in approximately six months’ time state capitalism became established in our Republic, this would be a great success and a sure guarantee that within a year socialism will have gained a permanently firm hold and will have become invincible in this country.

From Lenin, To the Russian Colony in North America:

The state capitalism, which is one of the principal aspects of the New Economic Policy, is, under Soviet power, a form of capitalism that is deliberately permitted and restricted by the working class. Our state capitalism differs essentially from the state capitalism in countries that have bourgeois governments in that the state with us is represented not by the bourgeoisie, but by the proletariat, who has succeeded in winning the full confidence of the peasantry.
Unfortunately, the introduction of state capitalism with us is not proceeding as quickly as we would like it. For example, so far we have not had a single important concession, and without foreign capital to help develop our economy, the latter’s quick rehabilitation is inconceivable. 

Additionally, the Soviets crushed anarchist movements in the Union. There was no room for error if you were in the Soviet Union- once the anarchists had served their purpose, they were often executed or “disappeared” to gulags.

The major example of this is the Kronstadt Rebellion. This originated when Soviet production plummeted and the anarchist sections of the Soviet Baltic Fleet deserted. They formed a new constitution of sorts in Petrograd:

  1. Immediate new elections to the Soviets; the present Soviets no longer express the wishes of the workers and peasants. The new elections should be held by secret ballot, and should be preceded by free electoral propaganda for all workers and peasants before the elections.
  2. Freedom of speech and of the press for workers and peasants, for the Anarchists, and for the Left Socialist parties.
  3. The right of assembly, and freedom for trade union and peasant associations.
  4. The organisation, at the latest on 10 March 1921, of a Conference of non-Party workers, soldiers and sailors of Petrograd, Kronstadt and the Petrograd District.
  5. The liberation of all political prisoners of the Socialist parties, and of all imprisoned workers and peasants, soldiers and sailors belonging to working class and peasant organisations.
  6. The election of a commission to look into the dossiers of all those detained in prisons and concentration camps.
  7. The abolition of all political sections in the armed forces; no political party should have privileges for the propagation of its ideas, or receive State subsidies to this end. In place of the political section, various cultural groups should be set up, deriving resources from the State.
  8. The immediate abolition of the militia detachments set up between towns and countryside.
  9. The equalisation of rations for all workers, except those engaged in dangerous or unhealthy jobs.
  10. The abolition of Party combat detachments in all military groups; the abolition of Party guards in factories and enterprises. If guards are required, they should be nominated, taking into account the views of the workers.
  11. The granting to the peasants of freedom of action on their own soil, and of the right to own cattle, provided they look after them themselves and do not employ hired labour.
  12. We request that all military units and officer trainee groups associate themselves with this resolution.
  13. We demand that the Press give proper publicity to this resolution.
  14. We demand the institution of mobile workers’ control groups.
  15. We demand that handicraft production be authorised, provided it does not utilise wage labour.[7]

The Soviets responded to this by labeling them as members of the Black Hundreds, who… didn’t actually exist anymore. They then forcibly retook the city from the socialists who had drafted a constitution and set out their goals in a fair manner, and executed upwards of 2000 people.

This is a long ask, and I can go into more detail if you need, but these transgressions are more than enough for most leftists to discard Soviet worship as a whole.

the boy king

(I felt like trying my hand at writing some fic, as a change from just drawing!)

Summary: It’s 1947, and they’re supposed to be picking up the pieces. Alfred makes a scene, Ivan is unmoved and Arthur reflects on how the world has changed- and what Alfred has become. 

Warnings: historical!hetalia. allusions to various real events. profanity.  


The silence is shattered by the sound of Alfred’s chair scraping across the floor.

Alfred is smiling, as always. There is no want for jauntiness in his manner, nor in the casual friendliness of his relaxed slouch, palms pressed to the table. He’d always been good at that. Putting people at ease. Not for the first time, Arthur thinks of the tall blonde surrounded by a ragged semi-circle of German children, cracking jokes, ruffling heads, handing out sweets and chewing gum. They took to him easily; he was every bit that straightforward and handsome boy-next-door, who might’ve been their older brother in another life.

But now, there is also something distinctly calculating in the tilt of his head, in the sharp alertness of his eyes.

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People act like the USSR were some kind of saviors for the Jewish people as if the Germans/Hitler/Nazis held some kind of monopoly on antisemitism, which is comically false. The Russians have hated their Jews for literal centuries. They hated us before the USSR during the time of the Czars (literally just google the word “Pogrom”), during the time of the USSR when the culturally Christian-style of atheism was set in place and Judaism was classified as “Zionism” (Different from the racist style of Zionism that the Israeli apartheid state perpetrates) and therefore an “Ideology” that was “detrimental” to the Communist state. Jews became second-class citizens in the Soviet state where we were subjected to constant surveillance, kidnappings, interrogations, torture, and the inability to leave. And then after the collapse of the USSR and into the modern day.

Stalin was more than willing to work with Hitler and the Nazis despite the fact that Fascism and Communism are the antithesis of each other as they both had imperialist desires and intentions. This was proven by the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, where the USSR pretty much gave the Nazis their blessings to invade Poland (a joint invasion where the USSR would be given the eastern portions of the Polish state with assistance from the Wehrmacht) and the USSR would be allowed to invade the Baltic states, Finland, etc. Stalin was fully aware of Hitler’s antisemitism (how could you not be?) and massacres against the Jewish population of Poland began almost immediately as soon as the German invasion began. The Nazis never would have invaded Poland without Stalin’s blessing so as to avoid another two-front war situation that inevitably caused Germany to lose WW1. Also lets not forget the conferences between the NKVD (Soviet secret police) and the Gestapo (Nazi secret police) where the two sides shared many strategies and tactics for dealing with the deportations and murders of Jews, polish nationals, and any other kind of dissenters.

Say what you will about the minor improvements that Soviet Jews had under Stalin such as migrations from the Pale into the cities, Stalin delivered Poland and its Jews right into Hitlers hands. The only reason Stalin and the USSR went to war with Germany is the obvious fact that Germany broke the pact and invaded the USSR in what we now know as Operation Barbarossa.

tl;dr the Soviets were never allies of the Jewish people, the USSR was more than willing to cooperate and collaborate with the Nazis in the murder of Jews and it only stopped when Hitler broke the pact that allowed him free reign in eastern Europe.

FINLAND. Between November 30, 1939 and March 13, 1940. A Finnish soldier with a Molotov Cocktail during the Winter War (1939-1940).

A Molotov cocktail is a breakable glass bottle containing a flammable substance such as petrol or a napalm-like mixture, with some motor oil added, and usually a source of ignition such as a burning cloth wick held in place by the bottle’s stopper. The wick is usually soaked in alcohol or kerosene, rather than petrol. In action, the wick is lit and the bottle hurled at a target such as a vehicle or fortification. When the bottle smashes on impact, the ensuing cloud of petrol droplets and vapour ignites, causing an immediate fireball followed by spreading flames as the remainder of the fuel is consumed.

Due to the relative ease of production, they are frequently used by street criminals, protesters and non-professionally equipped fighters in riots, gang warfare, and urban guerilla warfare. They are primarily intended to set targets ablaze rather than instantly obliterate them.

The name “Molotov cocktail” was coined by the Finns during the Winter War. The name is an insulting reference to Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov, who was responsible for the setting of “spheres of interest” in Eastern Europe under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in August 1939. The pact with the Nazis bearing Molotov’s name was widely mocked by the Finns, as was much of the propaganda Molotov produced to accompany the pact, including his declaration on Soviet state radio that bombing missions over Finland were actually airborne humanitarian food deliveries for their starving neighbours. When the hand-held bottle firebomb was developed to attack Soviet tanks, the Finns called it the “Molotov cocktail”. Molotov himself despised the name, particularly as the term became ubiquitous.

Photograph: Unknown

Rabbi speaking in front of a swastika during reannexation event in Transylvania, 1940

As part of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between the USSR and Nazi Germany, Romania was divided amongst the two, with the Soviets getting Bessarabia (Now Moldova), and the Nazis getting Northern Transylvania, which due to its large Hungarian population, they gave to their ally Hungary.

lady-sisu-deactivated20160715  asked:

Hey! I'm really interested in your nation, and I'm doing a presentation about the Singing Revolution at school. I was wondering if you have any good websites/information that you could give me? That would be really appreciated!

It all started in 1985 when Gorbatchev introduced glastnost (openess) and perestroika (restructuring). It was his first mistake that lead to his downfall.

1987

In 1987 Moscow introduced plans to start mining phosphorus in Virumaa (grey areas on the picture is where phosphorus sources are located)

Estonian’s didn’t really like that as that would have meant even more foreign workers and Estonians were already slowly becoming minority (in 1980′s Estonians made up barely 61% of population). Other reason was that mining would have done huge damage to Virumaa’s nature.

It sparked massive protests and it is considered the spark that started revolution in Estonia. Soviet authorities had to abandon the mining plans by September since people were so against it. 

On 23rd August first protest against Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was held. (Known as Hirvepargi Meeting in Estonia).

1988

On 14th May Five Patriotic Songs were performed in Tartu Pop Music Festival and Estonian flag was brought out for the first time, however it was placed as all colours on 3 flags.

In June, after the Old Town Days were over, the authorities told people to leave (they performed the Five Patriotic Songs again) but the crowd moved to the Song Festival Grounds  - hence the name Night Songfestivals. People sang through the night, performing national songs that were forbidden by authorities.

There Estonian flag was properly brought out for the first time. It was done by a lone man on a motorcycle, but after him “the flags popped out from crowd like mushrooms after rain” as witnesses have later told. The lone biker got a tribute in 2008, at the Jubilee Night Songfestival.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1SZcABCytAg (starting from 1:28)

On September 11, “Song of Estonia” was held at Song Festival Grounds. There gathered 300 000 Estonians (or 1/3 of all Estonians in the world). Heinz Valk coined his now famous “Ükskord me võidame nii kui nii!” (”One day we shall win, no matter what!”) there. It was the first time full independence was demanded by our public leaders.

On 16 November, the legislative body of Estonia issued the Estonian Sovereignty Declaration. It meant Estonian laws are superiour to those of Soviet Union’s. Basically autonomy was declared.

On 7th December Estonian is declared to be the state language of Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic.

1989

On 24th of February, people could start to register themselves as Estonian citizens (as de jure Republic of Estonia existed).

On 23rd August 2 million Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians linked hands to form 600 km long human chain to demand freedom. It was one of the first protests Western Media recognised and reported.

1991

On August 20th, Soviet Troops try to storm Estonian TV tower, the only connection with outside world, due military coup. People went to protect TV tower from tanks with no weapons whatsoever.

August 20th 23.03 The Estonian Supreme Soviet along with Congress declared restoration of Republic of Estonia.

August 22nd Iceland becomes first country in the world to recognise Republic of Estonia.

Somewhere around August, September - Lenin’s statue is removed from Lenin Square (renamed Iceland Square to show Estonians gratitude to Iceland for recognising us first.)  


1994 - The Russian army leaves Estonia. World War II (and Soviet Occupation) comes to an end for Estonians

2

On 25 March, candles for the Estonians forcefully taken from their homes by the Soviets in 1949, are lighted on Freedom Square in Tallinn. Nearly 3% of the Estonian population were seized in a few days and dispatched to remote areas of Siberia. About quarter of the people already died in exile. This was the most affecting deportation to Estonia out of the many others demanded by the Communist Party.

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