molecular networks

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11/5/2017 // 3/100 || Today has been a wet and somewhat lazy Sunday. Preparing for the week ahead I’ve finished an online assignment, took some notes on molecular biology (which also helped me study for my quiz tomorrow), and I’m currently working on creating an outline for a paper due Thursday. Not too shabby for a Sunday… 📚📝

         PFL vs MJOLNIR

Note: This is a short essay written by @thestupidmeanone and posted here by his request. Content in it is not edited by me (though I did make suggestions). Any questions should go to him.

 It’s probably safe to say that a lot of people in the Red vs. Blue fandom don’t actually play much Halo, let alone read up on the lore in the expanded universe content. For the most part, that’s not really an issue; RvB does a very good job of detaching itself from the Halo universe proper, with a few exceptions or subversions. However, the introduction of the Project Freelancer story really brought the show closer to its video game origins, and a lot of fans of the show often equate the armor to its Spartan counterpart, the MJOLNIR Powered Assault Armor. This is, unfortunately, a common misconception, and I felt that it would be important to write something that would properly compare and contrast the two armor systems, so RvB roleplayers, fic writers, and theorists could have an easy-to-find resource for their research purposes, as opposed to scouring a score of novels and nine games for the information they need.

Keep reading

When genetics is taken into consideration, the boundary between the sexes becomes even blurrier. Scientists have identified many of the genes involved in the main forms of DSD, and have uncovered variations in these genes that have subtle effects on a person’s anatomical or physiological sex. What’s more, new technologies in DNA sequencing and cell biology are revealing that almost everyone is, to varying degrees, a patchwork of genetically distinct cells, some with a sex that might not match that of the rest of their body. Some studies even suggest that the sex of each cell drives its behaviour, through a complicated network of molecular interactions. ‘I think there’s much greater diversity within male or female, and there is certainly an area of overlap where some people can’t easily define themselves within the binary structure,’ says John Achermann, who studies sex development and endocrinology at University College London’s Institute of Child Health.

These discoveries do not sit well in a world in which sex is still defined in binary terms. Few legal systems allow for any ambiguity in biological sex, and a person’s legal rights and social status can be heavily influenced by whether their birth certificate says male or female.

'The main problem with a strong dichotomy is that there are intermediate cases that push the limits and ask us to figure out exactly where the dividing line is between males and females,’ says Arthur Arnold at the University of California, Los Angeles, who studies biological sex differences. 'And that’s often a very difficult problem, because sex can be defined a number of ways.’

—  Sex Redefined | Claire Ainsworth for Nature