modification note

This post is a part of The Student Guide. See the full series here or the introduction to the Study Methods segment here.


The Cornell method is a note-taking style that I’ve been using recently for all my classes. The method involves a special page layout which includes space for notes, questions and a summary of the material. I find it to be an extremely effective way of taking textbook notes and it helps me to memorise information better than other methods. While you can get special notepaper made for this method, all you really need is some paper, a ruler and a pen.

How Do You Do It?

The Cornell method is really simple, and you can modify it for your own needs as much as you like. Here are the basics:

  1. Add a title, by textbook section (for textbook notes) or by date / topic (for class notes). You can do this however you like, simple or fancy.
  2. Rule a margin about 5cm from the edge of the page. I suggest using grid paper when taking Cornell notes as it makes this step super easy.
  3. Take notes on the right side of the margin, using a new paragraph for each major concept / textbook section. Notes can be full sentences or bullet points, whichever you find most effective. If you like, you can highlight or underline key terms.
  4. On the left side of the margin, title each paragraph. Underneath the title, write any questions you still have about the content. These are your focus questions for further study before the exam. 
  5. Rule a line at the end of your notes, on the right hand side of the margin. Underneath it write a summary of all the content your notes have covered. You can summarise each paragraph in a sentence, write down key terms, or anything else that condenses the information. This summary, along with your questions, provide a great set of material for revision before your exams.

If you want, you can definitely change this method up. You can add doodles, eliminate the questions and/or summaries, write the summary on a sticky note instead, etc. 


Here are some of my favourite notes taken in Cornell style:


Basically do whatever you like with this method! It’s pretty flexible but provides a good base layout for your notes. Also I’ve decided that I’ll do something a little different with The Student Guide than originally planned. While existing posts will remain up, I’ll be restarting the series in 1-2 weeks time with a few modifications.

Things Taco Bell Never Advertises Because They’d Rather Do Boss Wraps: The Gluten Edition

Did you know you can order gluten-free at Taco Bell? SURPRISE! I’ve checked the ingredients on every fucking one of our component items so you don’t have to, and you actually have a ton of options compared to a lot of fast-food joints. Please keep in mind that no kitchen is 100% free of cross-contamination, and if your gluten problems are severe you may wish to steer clear altogether (for example: we don’t change our gloves when grabbing taco shells after putting flour tortillas on the grill). If incidental contact like this isn’t a problem, though, you should be good to go!

Ready? Here’s how to order gluten-free at the Bell:

1) INFORM YOUR CASHIER YOU HAVE A GLUTEN ALLERGY. Even if what you actually have is Celiac disease or gluten intolerance, say “gluten food allergy” or “wheat food allergy.” A lot of cashiers don’t know what Celiac is or what “intolerance” means. The word “allergy” is a magic one that makes people on the line change their gloves, but if you want to be doubly sure, feel free to explicitly request a glove change. And if you’re one of those folks who doesn’t have a gluten problem per se but tries to eat gluten-free for your health, do not say a glove change isn’t necessary. If you do, you are an asshole. Do not make it harder for people with actual gluten-related diseases and allergies to get their food made safely.

2) DO NOT ORDER POTATOES OR DESSERT ITEMS. We don’t have separate fryers for gluten and non-gluten items, so these get fried alongside things with flour shells.

3) DO NOT ORDER YOUR FOOD WITH BEEF. Our beef contains small amounts of wheat as a filler and is not gluten-safe. Instead, order beans (free of charge), or one of our premium meats (chicken, shredded chicken, steak–there’s an upcharge for these).

4) Now that the big “these are priorities” things are out of the way, here are the items on our menu that are gluten-free. Please remember that you will need to order these with a protein that is not beef. If further modifications are needed, I’ve noted them for you.

  • Crunchy Tacos
  • Double Tostada
  • Spicy Tostada
  • Cantina Power Bowl
  • Mexican Pizza, substitute tostada shells for pizza shells
  • Any Burrito not made with beef, “no tortilla, in a bowl”
  • Pintos and Cheese
  • Black Beans and Rice
  • Chicken or Steak Fiesta Taco Salad, no shell

And finally: if you want to get creative, you can order Crunchy Taco shells all by themselves. I think they’re like 30 cents each. Get three or four of them, order a Nacho Supreme with no chips, break your taco shells in half, dip, and eat for a gluten-free nacho experience.

Go forth, my children. Don’t let gluten keep you from fast food. Your options at the Bell are many–please feel free to take them.

[Know of an “alternative menu” you’d like to see? Need to know which items are dairy-safe or popular with little kids? Shoot me an ask, and I’ll put one together!]

note: plumeria’s body modifications are heavily based on canon-divergent au and mid-/post-game development.

a n y  v e r s e

  • Team Skull logo on her lower abdomen, descending down towards her pelvis.
  • Guzmanias and Alolan gardenias on the left side of her chest, below her clavicle, with leaves and filigree curling up towards her shoulder,
  • Half-sleeve on her right upper arm bearing a heavily stylized Salazzle, surrounded by hemlock and nightshade flowers in similar style.
  • Salazzle markings on the insides of her upper thighs, unfurling outwards from her pelvis.
  • 8mm plugs in the lobes of both ears, usually simple, solid and carved of reflective grey hematite.
  • An industrial piercing and three hoops in her right upper ear; six hoops in her left. She usually chooses small, unobtrusive jewelry that sits close to the skin so as not be easily grabbed by others.
  • Small barbell piercings in both nipples.
  • Her navel is pierced and she always wears the same piercing: a tiny, grinning black skull.

v e r s e - s e n s i t i v e

the long walk home (cranium verse)

  • A bolded, stylized ‘G’ on the inside of her left ring finger, between the first and second knuckles.

eyes wide open (schädel verse)

  • The tattoo on her torso is replaced by a detailed black Schädel with canine fangs pulled into a sickly grin, the words ’DEATH BITES BACK’ worked between the teeth in thick, stylized lettering. 
  • The back of her left hand bears the nose and mouth of a skull, the words ’HEALING HANDS’ clenched hard between its teeth.
  • Similarly, her right appendage has been completely covered with a heavily shaded skeletal hand, following the lines of her own bones.
    • Both of these tattoos are marred by the extensive scarring on her knuckles, as though they were applied to well-healed scar tissue which then split and healed over again.
  • Both canines and one lateral incisor have been replaced with false teeth that come to sharp points.

I feel it’s important to give credit for a recipe to the one who created it. If I change a recipe slightly I will say something like, “modified from…”, or “inspired by…”, and then name the source.

Occasionally, however, I will come across ten recipes for something like pretzel dogs, where every single blog site posts the same recipe (I am talking verbatim) and none name the source. Then I wonder, who originally wrote this? More often than not, I’ll make the recipe and realize there are many flaws. Why didn’t the people who perpetuated the original change the text to make the recipe better?

With the Super Bowl only days ahead, I decided to try these and they were okay. The dough could have easily wrapped a dozen hot dogs rather than eight, and the oven temperature was so high, they browned before the dough had thoroughly cooked through. If I post a recipe and am not entirely thrilled, you’ll hear about it.

Why am I posting this? I might make them again with some modifications (noted), or maybe you’ll have better luck than I had. We’re having them for dinner, regardless.

The recipe I posted last year for bite-sized pigs in a blanket were outstanding, which I will reblog later today.

My notes: 

The recipe says to cut the dough into 8 pieces and roll into 20 to 24-inch lengths. My suggestion would be to cut the dough into 12 pieces and roll into 18-inch long, thin pieces. Given the high oven temp, if the dough is too thick, the bread will brown before the dough is cooked through. If the bread is thin enough, I suggest keeping the oven temperature the same.

Pretzel dogs (not sure of the original author, but possibly Alton Brown) Ingredients:

  • 1-½ cups warm (110 to 115 degrees F) water
  • 1 tablespoon sugar
  • 2 teaspoons salt
  • 1 package (1 scant tablespoon) active dry yeast
  • 4-½ cups all-purpose flour
  • ¼ cup unsalted butter, melted (these are salty enough without using salted butter)
  • 10 cups water
  • 2/3 cup baking soda
  • Additional 2 tablespoons unsalted butter, melted
  • Coarse sea salt or kosher salt, for sprinkling
  • 8 good quality hot dogs (or more)


Combine the water, sugar and yeast in the bowl of a stand mixer. Let sit for 5 minutes or until the mixture begins to foam.

Add the flour, salt, and butter. Combine with dough hook. Continue to mix with the dough hook on low speed until well combined. Change to medium speed and knead until the dough is smooth and pulls away from the side of the bowl, approximately 4 to 5 minutes.

Transfer the dough to a lightly oiled bowl. Cover and let rise in a warm place for about 1 hour, or until the dough has doubled in size.

Preheat the oven to 450 F. Line 2 baking sheets with parchment paper and lightly brush with vegetable oil. Set aside. (I did not oil my parchment paper and they did not stick.)

In a large pot, bring the 10 cups of water and the baking soda to a rolling boil. Meanwhile, punch down the dough, turn it out onto a slightly floured work surface, and divide into 8 equal pieces. (Or possibly more – see notes.)

Roll out each piece of dough into a rope that’s about 20 to 24-inches long, depending on how big your hot dogs are. Starting at one end, wrap the dough around the hot dog, pinching each end together so that it’s sealed. Place onto the pan and repeat with the remaining dough and hot dogs.

Place the pretzel dogs into the boiling water two at a time and boil for 30 seconds. Remove them from the water using a large flat slotted spatula. Return the boiled pretzel dogs to the pan, brush the tops with melted butter and sprinkle with the sea salt.

Bake until dark golden brown in color, approximately 12 to 14 minutes. Transfer to a cooling rack for at least 5 minutes before serving.


Gram's German Apple Cake

I was going to post pictures but a) I forgot how not aesthetically pleasing this cake is and b) my pan is half gone and the other was given away. Sorry!

I’ll copy the original recipe and note my modifications next to it.

-1 C Oil (¾ C apple sauce, ¼ C Oil)
-2-3 eggs depending on size (I used 2 large eggs)
-2 C Sugar
-2 C Flour
-2 tsp. Cinnamon
-1 tsp. Soda
-½ tsp. Salt
-4 C Sliced Apples (I used 3 large Fuji’s but Macintosh are pretty standard, thin slices)
-1 C Nuts (screw nuts, hate ‘em and don’t add them into mine)
-1 tsp. Vanilla

Beat eggs and add oil; beat until foamy. Add sugar, flour, salt, soda & cinnamon. Add apples and vanilla. When the recipe says it’s thick at this point, it means very near cement. The juice from the apples leeches out so, totally normal. Pour (scoop) into 13x9" pan. Bake 45-55 minutes @ 350. I put mine on the second to lowest rack. Cool & frost with cream cheese frosting.