Architect Kisho Kurokawa was very innovative in his creation of the Nakagin Capsule Tower in 1972, which was the first capsule architecture design. The 140 capsule module was created with the intention of housing traveling businessmen that worked in central Tokyo (Ginza area) during the week. It is a prototype for architecture of sustainability and recycleability, as each module can be plugged in to the central core and replaced or exchanged when necessary.
Philip Johnson, Rockefeller Guest House, New York, (1949-1950)
One of the earliest examples of Mies van der Rohe’s brand of modernism in New York City is Philip Johnson’s Rockefeller Guest House. Designed for Blanchette Hooker Rockefeller, the house was praised at the time by critics for its simplicity and elegance. Ada Louise Huxtable described it as: “sophisticated … handsome, unconventional.”
The home was primarily intended as a place for social gatherings, and as a modern art gallery for its owner. Its design was based largely on Mies’ sketches for the IIT campus buildings as well as his drawings for unbuilt court houses. Designed at a time when Johnson was primarily designing private residences, the Guest House makes use not only of the architectural vocabulary that he favored at the time, but also of the proportions that he would use in future residences (like the Hodgenson House and the Oneto House, both of which have front doors and surrounding windows nearly identical to the façade and fenestration that Johnson used to enclose the small courtyard in the Rockefeller Guest House).
In the late 1940’s and early 1950’s, Johnson had built only single-story structures, and thus when faced with the dilemma of how to design a façade with a second floor, he turns to Mies van der Rohe’s sketches, and places a second floor almost entirely of glass. The relationship between this design and that of the Wiley House is apparent, when one considers that both have a substantial first floor made of stone or brick (in this case red brick walls laid in a Flemish bond) with a second floor of glass, though the urban context of the Rockefeller Guest House limits the top floor to being just a one sided version of the all glass pavilion which sits atop the Wiley House. This division between floors also allows for the separation of public and private functions, something which Johnson no doubt picked up from Marcel Breuer during his time at Harvard. The second floor, which was meant to be a bedroom, has seldom if ever been photographed.
The home is one room wide, and upon entering, the living room stretches far back until it is book-ended by floor to ceiling windows that closely mimic the façade’s layout. The living room space has white brick walls and features lighting fixtures designed by Mr. Johnson. Beyond the windows, there is a small courtyard that features a prime example of Philip Johnson’s concept of “safe danger”. In the courtyard, visitors must carefully walk on square travertine stepping-stones and avoid falling into the shallow reflecting pool on either side.
The Rockefeller Guest House was donated by the Rockefellers to the Museum of Modern Art in 1955, after which it had its share of owners. Johnson himself rented the home and lived there from 1971 to 1979. The home was given landmark status by the Landmarks Preservation Commission in December 2000.
When the foundation stone of the Basílica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família was laid in 1882, it’s unlikely that anyone involved anticipated that the construction of this church would take well over a century to complete. But when Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí, now famous for his unique take on the Modernista movement, took charge of the project a year later, he scrapped the original neo-Gothic design plans and exchanged them for a grander vision, unlike any the world had ever seen.
Gaudí worked steadily on his masterpiece until his death in 1926, at which point an estimated 15 to 25 percent of the total design, including the crypt, the apse walls, a portal, and a tower, was complete. Since then a series of architects have attempted to continue his legacy. Not surprisingly, progress on Sagrada Família’s construction has faced a few setbacks over the past 130 years. Vandalism in 1936 following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War resulted in the destruction of many of Gaudí’s models. The sacristy was destroyed in a fire in 2011.
Though Sagrada Família is said to be Gaudí’s magnum opus, the architect appeared unfazed by its glacial progress, remarking, “There is no reason to regret that I cannot finish the church. I will grow old but others will come after me. What must always be conserved is the spirit of the work, but its life has to depend on the generations it is handed down to and with whom it lives and is incarnated.”
The Fountainhead was a 1949 film adaptation of a novel written by Ayn Rand. During production, Rand’s screenplay instructed that “It is the style of Frank Lloyd Wright – and only of Frank Lloyd Wright – that must be taken as a model for (the main character is an architect) Roark’s buildings.” Frank Lloyd Wright turned down an offer to work on the film and the “International Style” architecture of German modernism was adopted instead by production designer Edward Carrere. Rand hated the style and described the designs as copied from pictures of “horrible modernistic buildings”, and judged them as “embarrassingly bad”.
Today is the 161st year since the birth of the architectural legend that was Antoni Gaudí.
He created many amazingly beautiful buildings as a pioneer and pusher of the Modernism movement and its boundaries but his Casa Batlló building is my absolute favourite.
Affectionately named Casa dels Ossos (House of Bones) by Barcelona and Catalan natives.
I love how the balconies and in fact the whole building looks like a bunch of skulls and bones which is quite sombre and depressing but then that is offset by the wonderful bright colours scattered over the whole building and that bright amazing roof. During the night time the building takes on a really haunting presence but still has a calming feel which is again due to those bright colours and the smooth curves of the building. The roof is an astonishing piece of mosaic design and it’s believed to represent the back of a dragon which can be seen from the mosaic design and the curves and bumps all along the length of the roof which peaks at a spine like design. The tower on the left which leads to the cross is also said to represent a lance of Saint George who is the patron saint of Catalonia, Spain slaying the Dragon.
Lina Bo Bardi was a Brazilian modernist architect born in Italy. A prolific architect and designer, Lina devoted her working life, most of it spent in Brazil, to promoting the social and cultural potential of architecture and design. Lina designed the “Casa de Vidro” (“Glass House”) to live with her husband in what was then the remnants of the Mata Atlantica, the original rain forest surrounding São Paulo.