mizraim

Iraqi Jews in front of Ezekial’s Tomb in Al Kifl, Iraq; 1932.

Iraq was one of the historic centers of Jewish thought in the world.  Through Nazi propaganda coupled with the rise of Pan-Arabism, minority groups such as the Jews in Iraq - but also the Kurds and the Assyrians - were increasingly ostracized.   This had led to a pogrom known as The Farhud in 1941 which caused the deaths of up to 780 Jewish Iraqis with a thousand injured and spelled the beginning of the end for the Iraqi Jewish community.  Through their flight out of the country years later, Iraqi Jews left behind billions of dollars in property and assets and are fighting the Iraqi government for reimbursement.

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SIGNIFICADO DE MIZRAIM

http://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Mizraim.html#.Um3SQXBIaqi

Mizraim 
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Mizraim is a son of Ham, son of Noah (Genesis 12:10). This name is also the common name for Egypt (which is also known as ‘the land of Ham,’, for instance in Psalm 105:23).

Egypt was known by the names Musuru, Musru, Misir or Masri in other languages, and Mizraim is probably simply a phonetic transliteration into Hebrew of any of them. The word 

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 looks identical to what a dual form of 
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 would look like (see below). This duality possibly helped to denote Upper and Lower Egypt. The word for Egyptian is 
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.

The similar 
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 (masor), a poetic nickname for Egypt that is used on three different occasions (Isaiah 19:6, 2 Kings 19:24 = Isaiah 37:25, Micah 7:12), may shed some understanding on how a Hebrew audience might have interpreted the name Mizraim.

The noun 
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 (masor) means siege, entrenchment, and it derives from the verb 
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 (sur), bind, besiege. Another derivation of this same verb is the noun
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, stronghold. HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament notes that a stronghold or walled city may be an instrument of protection during the first stages of a war, but will turn into a lethal trap if a siege last long. A beautiful figurative use of this word occurs in Psalm 31:21, where the author compares himself under siege by his troubles.

The verb 
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 from which the noun 
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 derives, is part of a group of five different roots. These roots all have different linguistic sources but were perhaps readily incorporated into the Hebrew language due to similar or related meanings, more or less:
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 (swr) is the assumed root of the words 
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 (sawwar), neck and 
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(sawwaron), necklace. The neck is simply a part of the body, but figuratively it is used as seat of strength (Job 39:19) and subsequently as target of defeat (by the placing of the victor’s foot on the neck of the conquered - Joshua 10:24). The similarity between a necklace and a besieging army is obvious.
The verb 
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 (sur) means to bind or besiege; referred to above.
The verb 
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 (sur) means show hostility to, be an adversary. According to BDB Theological Dictionary and HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, this verb is probably a by-form of 
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 (sarar), see below.
The verb 
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 (sur) means to form or fashion. According to HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, this verb is possibly a by-form of 
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(yasar), form or fashion.
The noun 
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 (sur) does not occur in the Bible, but is probably related to words in cognate languages that mean rock or hill. A derivative that does occur in the Bible is 
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 (sur), the common Biblical word for rock. BDB Theological Dictionary suggests relations with 
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 (sara), see below.

The words 
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 and 
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 are linguistically closely related. Their respective meanings also shows much kinship:
The verb 
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 (sarar) means to bind, be narrow/ confined, be in distress. Derivatives are: 
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 (sar), narrow, tight; 
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 (sar), distress; 
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 (sara), straights, distress; 
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 (sarar), suffer distress; 
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 (seror), bundle; 
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(mesar), straights, distress. The latter word written in a dual form would yield the name 
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, Mizraim. Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names assumed that this is what Mizraim would have meant to a Hebrew audience and reads Double Distress.
The verb 
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 (sarar) means show hostility towards. Derivation 
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 (sar) means adversary.
The assumed root 
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 (srr) is unused in the Bible but in Arabic it means be sharp. Its common derivative is 
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 (sar), pebble, flint.

The name Mizraim means Double Distress or Double Stronghold

Related names are Zur and Tyre.

http://www.linguee.com.br/portugues-ingles/search?source=auto&query=double+distress

http://www.linguee.com.br/portugues-ingles/search?source=auto&query=double+stronghold