mix and match mani

We’ve managed to learn the name of the young boy with the sea-urchin like head. Everyone, meet “Murch”. Apparently, he looks up to Spyke as a role model, and works in the same industry (if not the same organization) as Spyke.

Murch is good with his hands, and he uses those nimble digits to perform a special service he calls “gear scrubbing”. This will reset the additional abilities on a piece of gear, returning it to its original state. From what we can tell, gear abilities you’ve removed from gear will be returned to you as “ability chunks”.

Once you collect enough ability chunks you’ll be able to use them to fill an empty gear slot with a new ability. Theoretically, this means that repeating Murch’s gear scrubbing many times would allow you to mix and match additional gear abilities as you see fit! That would be incredible! It could be that this young man is even more talented than Spyke himself!

just a little practice video i’ve been working on to get myself better acquainted with my new editor! it’s pretty random, so, i’m not sure if i’ll ever finish it properly, though

5

Introducing Kamen Rider Build and a variety of his forms! Similar to Kamen Rider W, Kamen Rider Build has a mix-and-match style that gives him access to many powers that best suit the situation. 

Some of the forms pictured include: Rabbit Tank (centre cover), Gorilla Diamond (top right of cover), Ninnin Comic (centre left cover), Hawk Gatling (bottom right cover), Tank Hedgehog, and Rabbit Cleaner. Also seen are Night Rogue (black bat-themed) and Kamen Rider Close (dragon-themed).

Versatility of RusAme

I just want to share how dynamic and versatile these two characters are when portrayed as couple:

1. Cheerful Extrovert Alfred x Introvert Ivan : Fluffy opposite-attract domestic couple

2. Cheerful Alfred x Cheerful Ivan : That couple which would contain their youthful energy even after decades later. Will make a good comedic sight in any party with their light bickering.

3. Sarcastic Alfred x Sarcastic Ivan : Bickering couple whom you shouldn’t mess up with

4. Psycho Alfred x Psycho Ivan : Mad couple whom you should NEVER mess up with

5. Melancholic Alfred x Melancholic Ivan : Angsty Couple with lots of hurt comfort

6. Space Geek Alfred x Space Geek Ivan : Space duo lovers. Would stargaze any time they can and geek over tons of astronomical facts or new breakthrough in space exploration missions.

Originally posted by glerasaurus

And so many more. You could also mix and match their personality such as Sarcastic Alfred x Introvert Ivan, Cheerful Alfred x Melancholy Ivan, etc and will get another interesting dynamics! And just like other hetalia pairings, there’re also nyotalia, nekotalia, and 2ptalia to make the mix and match more various.

This is why I don’t get bored with this couple even after few years shipping them. They’re the farthest couple from the “boring” definition.

Pennywise & Teen!Reader Imagine Part 2

Chapter 2 Part 2:

EXTREME WARNING: Blood, Reader is stabbed and light rape attempt. If this triggers you at all please DO NOT read this!!!!

Note: Part 2 of Chapter 2 as promised. In here Stan x Reader is more lightly replied and if you squint you can see you started dating Stan. No spoilers just read. Okay thanx :3!

Originally posted by just-doodles-and-stuff

Originally posted by antoinemaillard

(READ WARNING!!!!)

It was finally 6 and you had gone through way too many outfits to count mixing and matching tops and skirts and pants and shorts and dresses until your floor was covered with clothes some still with hangers. You were stressing about what you should wear cuz ya know…it’s your first ever date and hopefully kiss.

You couldn’t help but feel bad about Stan remembering the hurt in his eyes but then Micheal’s beautiful face would come back into your mind and you’d tuck Stan in the back of your mind. Your Aunts and Uncles were already back to their own homes leaving just you and your Aunts Sam and Kelly.

Neither were much help trying to pick an outfit and decided to wear a beautiful black dress that had a inner corset bodice with cute boots. Your aunt Kelly did your makeup and hair since you had little to no skills in those two beauty compartments. She finished doing your makeup literally seconds before the door bell rang.

You quickly  bolted to the door and peeked through the eye hole just in case to see if it was Micheal or not. You checked yourself over blindly and took a breath before opening the door. You were trying to act cool and collected but once again you felt like you had butterflies in your stomach noticing he was wearing a brown leather jacket with a collared button shirt and jeans.

Your Aunt Sam came over noticing the commotion and walked over to the door before stopping and staring, “Oh, uh, (Name)…who’s this?”

“Um, Auntie Sam this is my…uh, date Micheal.” You introduced the boy.

“Hello miss.” The boy greeted with a firm hand shake before kissing the back of your aunts hand making her flush.

“Oh-oh my, your quite the charmer.” She chuckled.

“Well you two have fun and make sure to listen to the curfew be back in an hour and don’t go into the woods!” Your aunt reminded.

“Aye aye!” You said saluting.

You realized you did that in front of your date and flushed embarrassed noticing him staring. Instead of the taunting laugh you were expecting he instead chuckled from amusement, “Your different than most girls.”

“Uh, thanks.” You smiled nervously.

“C'mon I’ll take you to the best ice cream parlor.” He said holding out his arm.

“Sweet! Bye auntie!” You called.

“Have fun!” The woman called back.

You watched the door shut over your shoulder before turning back to see he was leading you to a motorcycle that wasn’t parked there before. Was this dude Mr. Perfect or what?! Instantly all thoughts of Stan was pushed right out out of your head and heart. You carefully climbed on behind him and he handed you a beautiful motorcycle helmet before putting his on.

He started the bike and you could feel the rumble of the expensive engine beneath you. Micheal kicked out the kick stand and you squeaked grabbing onto his shoulders.

“Here, put your arms around my waist.” He directed.

You did as he told and held back a squeal noticing he had rock hard abs! Like, deep chiseled abs. Without warning he started driving and you squeaked as he set off fast making you hold onto him tightly and press your head into his back. He gradually slowed down until he arrived to the ice cream parlor. It was different than the one you went at with your Loser friends and was pink and blue  with a cute cartoon strawberry ice cream as the logo.

You looked at all the flavors with wide eyes wishing it wasn’t possible for you to get sick from too much ice cream. There was so many flavors; cookie dough, strawberry, rocky road, triple chocolate, Boston Creme pie, and even ones like garlic, hot sauce, and and even carrot ice cream. God you wanted one of each. Well not so much the gross ice cream.

Eventually you decided on (ice cream flavor) ice cream in a waffle cone with rainbow sprinkles. It’s not ice cream if it doesn’t have rainbow sprinkles after all. You couldn’t help but notice Micheal seemed to stare you with darkened eyes watching as you licked and occasionally took a bite of your frozen dessert.

You didn’t pay too much attention to it though enjoying the sweet flavor bursting across your tongue. Eventually you arrived to the tip of the cone and finished the last of it.

“Thanks for recommending this place Micheal!” You grinned.

“Your welcome. Do you wanna go for a walk?” The boy suggested.

“Oh well its almost 7 and-”

He took your hand and looked you in the eye making your face burn and brain melt to goo. When he practically puppy begged, “Please?” you gaped trying to find your words until you finally said, “O-Okay.”

He grinned and squeezed your hand before leading you down the road opposite of where his bike was parked. Not many people were out and the only ones at the parlor were you, a few other teenagers, and an elderly couple who didn’t seem to care about talking too much and just eat their flavored frozen milk.

You and Micheal strolled down the sidewalk hand in hand giggling like teenage lovers. The moon was so bright that night making a romantic atmosphere and lighting up everything. You were always a nerd when it came to outer space and always dreamed of going into space and exploring the worlds and stars. You did have a highly active and creative imagination.

Just when your heart settled down it jumped back up when Micheal said your name in a questioning way. You turned towards him feeling your heart pound so hard it hurt, “Yeah?”

“C'mon let’s go into the forest. I know a short cut to get you to your house quicker.” The boy explained.

“Oh, uh, thanks. But couldn’t you just have-”

“C'mon where’s the romance in just driving you back home on my bike when we can go for a lovely stroll?”

“Well my aunt said-”

“C'mon don’t be a scaredy cat.” He teased already pulling you to the guard rail.

He let go of your hand to step over the rail looking back at you before continuing down the hill. You stuttered but followed him scratching your leg on the metal structure before sliding down the hill carefully. You arrived to the bottom and frowned noticing the trees covered most of the beautiful moon light making the atmosphere eerie and creepy.

“Micheal, I don’t think we should…Micheal?” You looked scared not seeing him.

“Mike?” You asked curious and for once a little scared.

“Micheal this isn’t funny! Where the hell are you?”

Next thing you knew your back was being slammed against a tree and there was a tongue shoved down your throat. You choked and tried to breath or call for help but you couldn’t with the overly violent kiss. The attacker was bitting your lips hard enough to make them bleed. When the person pulled away the culprit revealed to be Mark who licked your lipstick stain you left around his lips.

“What the hell?!” You demanded shoving him away.

He chuckled and wiped the lipstick off his face grinning rather creepily. You took a few steps back feeling the fear come back from when your father used to abuse you. He pulled out a pocket knife and you felt your heart drop.

“You have a pretty face doll. I’m sure your organs will be just as beautiful.” He grinned.

You ran and he chuckled giving you a few second head start before chasing after you himself. You were breathing heavily wishing you hadn’t tightened the corset so tightly. You ironically tripped over a tree root but got back up hearing him call your name in a terrifying way.

“Here kitty kitty kitty. I promise I won’t bite!” He called.

You hide behind a thick tree unsure what else you could do. You saw there was a familiar sewer drain nearby and debated if you should crawl in there. You could buy another one of your dresses any day and getting sick was better than being dead. Just as you were about to run a hand came and wrapped itself around your neck slamming you back into the bark of the tree hard enough that a few pieces of it fell off in the process.

You let out a choked cry of pain as he stabbed his knife into your abdomen. He chuckled and pulled the knife out grinning at the blood. He even licked the flat part of the knife with his tongue. He leaned forward for another kiss and you turned your head away keeping your mouth closed and your eyes shut.

However he stabbed you again with the knife and you let out a cry of pain allowing him to force you to taste your own blood on his tongue. He made sure to smear it around your lips before traveling from your lips to your jaw line to your neck. Your heart best raced faster than before realizing he wasn’t just going to kill you, he was going to have his way with you before you die.

The knife was still in your body and his hand around your windpipe blocking any screams from escaping.

“Please don’t.” You whimpered feeling him ghost his lips from your neck down to your collar bone where the dress started.

He took his hand off your neck and growled, “Make a sound and you’ll die a slow horrible death.”

He jiggled the knife a little just to remind you. You whimpered feeling him reach under your dress to your thigh gently caressing it with his thumb. You closed your eyes and almost instantly he slapped you making you wince.

“Keep your eyes open slut!” He spat.

You heard a chuckling sound and looked through your tears to see a rather scary looking clown was standing there. He had a seemingly glowing red ballon and had buckteeth and orange hair. Why was that clown so familiar? Your brain was too tired from too much blood loss to think.

Micheal growled before spatting, “Get lost freak!”

The clown chuckled and held out the ballon, the sinister grin still on his face. Mark growled and stepped away from you pulling his knife out of you in the process. You dropped to the ground but were able to catch yourself on your hands and knees and knowing the knife had a very high possibility that it punctured a vital organ.

You were panting heavily and with shaky elbows and knees crawled anywhere away from what was going on. You could faintly hear the screams of agony coming from your bag shit crazy date, but didn’t dare to look back. By then you were nearly army crawling only making it at least 10 feet until you saw tan shoes in front of you with fuzzy red pom-poms on the tips.

“P-Penny?”

You weren’t sure why you remembered that name but it seemed to be the clowns name. Then it hit you. That was Mr. Clown! Pennywise! Penny! Your friend! The one who killed your father to save you.

You winced as the clown carefully picked you up bridal style making you wince.

“Don’t worry my dear. I’ll help you.” He said comfortingly.

You laid your head against his chest feeling the darkness take you away.


You cracked your eyes open everything blurry and fuzzy. You felt hot yet cold and were shivering yet your skin was sticky from sweat…or was it blood? You could feel something heavy being draped over your shoulders. You wrapped it closer around you feeling a cold breeze brush past you.

You looked up and could faintly see the outline of a white face with orange hair. You couldn’t really focus on anything. Your eyes fluttered shut before opening again when felt a silk-gloved hand gently caress your cheek and realized that the hand was brushing away a tear.

“You kept your promise.” A raspy voice whispered.

You could feel something soft press against your forehead before you closed your eyes and drifted away again.

“Don’t go….” You whispered.

When you woke up you weren’t expecting to be hearing beeping.

Where were you?

You fluttered your eyes open and winced at the bright light coming from above.

“(Name)!” You gasped as were suddenly attacked in a group hug (more like pile up) by your Maine friends.

You sat up and looked around to see your friends Bill, Bev, Eddie, Mike, Stan, Ben, and Richie, aka The Losers.

“Hey guys, what am I doing in a hospital?” You asked confused.

The happy smiles turned into frowns and you furrowed your brow in concern.

“Don’t you remember what happened that night?” Bev asked.

“Uh. No. Not really. I remember hanging out with you guys and then Stan taking me home.” You replied giving a knowing look to Stan.

He smiled back and you took his hand squeezing it tightly and sharing a blushing moment.

"Well someone found you on the side of the road banged up really badly. Your aunt said you were out on a date with Micheal Koroz before he went missing and you were found a few hours later.” Mike said.

“Why can’t I remember any of that?” You asked feeling your brain hurt.

“The doctor said you had had a couple deep stab wounds that were stitched up to allow you to live a few more hours.” Bill said.

“You seriously don’t remember any of that?” Stan added.

“I wish I did but sadly I don’t. I’m sorry. What about this Micheal kid?” You asked.

“He disappeared. A lot of kids these days are.” Eddie explained.

“Oh…wait how long was I asleep for?”

“A week.” Beverly replied.

“So…when am I going back home?” You asked sadly fidgeting with the sheet covers your legs.

“Tomorrow, but we’ll make sure to send letters back and forth as much as possible.” Richie replied.

“Thank you.” You nodded.

They all shared into a final group hug but you couldn’t help but wonder one thing…

Whose this Penny you had to keep your promise with?

Epilogue: Yes. This is not the end. Only the beginning. Lol Idk. I’m thinking of doing a Bill Skarsgard x Reader next cuz you find none of that. Like you only find his character Roman from Hemlock Grove (who under the smoking and sex and drugs is HOT) and ya know Pennywise who is hot too but never an actor. Just request it with a prompt and I’ll do it. I might have the 3rd chapter up tonight no guarantees though! Thanx for reading!! :3!

husbandmurders  asked:

Hey! Thank you, it was very clear! Thank you so much for taking the time to explain!! I use my tablet for only a year and I change my way of doing so it is really interesting for me to see how others do. (I can say Queen Bella too! Haha I'm unstoppable!) I have one last question if you do not mind? How do you manage a background? I LOVE your Otayuri WTTD, one with just the light and the other the spectators, the ice ... it intrigues me a lot! I hope not to disturb you with all my questions! ;-;

I’m so sorry it took SO long ;;-;; I lost the file and found it recently
so here it is
I’m not sure if this drawing is the one you talked about

I have to say this many times. I’m not good at explaining things and mostly my artists friends are the same as I am.
if you ask them “how did you draw this and that” and you want them to explain, they’ll only said “uhhhh” or “idk i just draw it” because yes we only draw it just like that. and everytime I explain how I draw something they always said “ok nevermind i don’t get it tho”

you needs practices and experiments to be great at something, not just copying from people you admire.

I’m going to explain how to color the background. wml

1. get yourself your already done drawing

2. since I’m not good at drawing backgrounds, I usually use pictures from google or screenshots from videos. Kubo-sensei also use pictures for backgrounds for her WTTM comic.
edit it on photoshop
I always trying to draw my own background though. I use pictures for backgrounds just in a special occasion or I ran out of time to finish the drawing

3. you can’t just place the picture. you need to adjust the position so it’ll looks proportional (this part is actually pretty hard)

4. add dark purple, blue and red around the characters as seen on the picture

5. mY FAVORITE PART lmao. give layer clip effects on the blades and any part you feel like need a little touch like hair and blush on the cheek (I already discuss it on the previous tutorial)

6. give it a glow

7. add more details like faint glows on the blades, thin and thick scratches on the ice,highlight on the clothes, etc

8. give some tiny dots to make the drawing looks fresh and fun. don’t just randomly add the dots but you have to pay attention that some part need ice splatter and other part don’t

it’s done heheh *sweats*
I hope you can understand..

try to do experiments with your own style because some tutorials didn’t fit your style
I colored this one with my own coloring style. I just randomly mix and match the colors and have to redo many times before I get the color I desire

NCT DREAM REACTION....

To you surprising them at their basketball game, even thought you told them you couldn’t make it.

Mark

When the whistle went to state the match had ended he had many mixed emotions, he was happy his team had won, but was there really any point if you weren’t even there? That was until you ran onto the pitch and pounced on him, making the whole crowd erupt in a unison of awes. He was initially shocked af at first but soon was in a fit of smiles and laughter.

‘Woahh Y/N, you came!’

Renjun

Renjun wasn’t playing his best all game at all, to the point his teammates were getting really irritated by him. His eyes would always look over the crowd hoping that he would find you, but this smol bean never did even though you were right in front of him. When you saw that he wasn’t focused you shouted his name and cheered him on. Once he heard your words he started to put in 100% effort and gave you the biggest hug once the game was over!

‘Ahhhh Jagiya, thank you for coming, it seems like you’re really my good luck charm!’

Jeno

This was Jeno’s big game and he would of loved it of you came, so obviously he was really disheartened that you couldn’t but soon accepted it. But when he walked out onto the pitch and locked eyes with you he almost screamed, he ran right towards you and enveloped you in his arms. He was so unbelievably happy that you were here and told you that he’d win the game for you. And he did just that!

‘Jagiya! I’m going to win this game for you and buy you ice cream after and don’t you dare say no!’

Haechan

Tbh even though Haechan told you that it was entirely fine that you couldn’t go to the game, inside he was really upset and disappointed. So when he heard your cheers in the crowd he was most definitely uplifted, but of course he didn’t admit it. He would hug you out of an ‘act of kindness’ and also start to complain that he’s sweaty and you shouldn’t see him like this. Little did you know he loved every second of it.

‘Aish Y/N you shouldn’t have come, look how sweaty I am, you’re embarrassing me.’

Chenle

Even though Chenle wasn’t too fussed about basketball, he still wanted you to come and see him play, no matter how bad he was all he wanted was your support. And when he saw that you had surprised him by coming to the game even when you said you couldn’t, he let out the loudest ‘OH MY GAWD’ anyone had ever heard. He wasn’t allowed to greet you until after the game, but once it was over he ran right to you and kissed you on your cheek whilst giving you the biggest hug. This really meant a lot to this little bean.

‘OH MY GAWD! Y/N YOU’RE HERE! YOU ACTUALLY CAME TO SEE ME!’

Jisung

Okay so we all know how shy Jisung is so he probably didn’t even ask you to come in the first place, one of his hyungs probably did. And when he was told you weren’t able to go he went into a slump, debating whether he should actually go to the game himself. In the end he did, but only becuase he was forced to by his members. Once he saw you in the crowd with your banner waving over your head that said ‘LET’S GO JISUNGIE!’ He felt immediately encouraged. He managed to get the last shot and got his team the win, all thanks to you. However when you ran up to him to congratulate him, little smol mode was activated and he became flustered af.

’… Um Y/N…. I’m err so happy you came, thank you…’

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Okay I did try to put gifs on but for some reason it wouldn’t work, so sorry guys~ Anyway, I hope you all enjoyed this reaction and feel free to request more! Also my dumb ass forgot to allow submissions, but that’s sorted now. I’m sorry that I didn’t include Jaemin in this one, I didn’t know if it was a good idea to or nah, if you want a Jaemin scenario please just request! Byeeee I love you all~

pokemonbossh8mondays  asked:

hey! i really love your acc and i was wondering if you could give me some tipps( or tags) on being a beginner witch:) and also i have some questions: how many potions can i make or use at once? how love potions work? what dreamcatchers do and are they really dangerous? can mirrors be dangerous when you sleep (or any time)? thanks!! have a good day! :))))

1. Meditate daily. Start doing breathing exercises that get you ready to enter a state of trance. Try to meditate without thinking about anything, and try to do this for as long as you can. Doing this will clear your mind and increase your concentration. Then meditate and try to form phantasms of geometric shapes, and view them 360 degrees. Try to visualise them in all colours possible. Try seeing them in colours that don’t exist. Practice forming and destroying these phantasms. Learn how to ground and centre yourself. Learn how to shield. Much later, try doing guided meditations to cleanse your energy and meet your spirit guides.

2. Try doing simple spells, such as herb jars or bottles. Practice picking up energy on herbs, feel them in your hand and what kind of vibration they give off. Once you’ve done these, try making sigils or doing candle magick. Don’t get too complicated until you feel confident in your power to manifest.

3. To strengthen your intuition, take two pieces of paper and write “yes” and “no” on them, separately. Turn them the other way around and mix them so you do not know what order they are in. Ask yourself a yes or no question, and then place your hand on each paper and feel which one gives you that “sting” of energy, letting you know which one to pick up. Ask simple questions you already know the answer to first, before asking questions you are unsure of. After this, practice using either a pendulum, tarot cards, or a crystal ball/black mirror.

4. Get crystals. These can aid you in magick, raise your vibration, and spiritually protect you. I recommend Black Tourmaline (protection), Moonstone (psychic power), Rose Quartz (love), and Selenite (cleansing).

5. Start keeping a Book of Shadows or a journal where you can record your experiences and spells in.

As for potions, I would advise only using one at a time. You can make as many as you like, just don’t mix and match since the ingredients may not go well together or the energies will become confusing. Love potions can be used to strengthen love (consensually), cause love (no consent), increase lust (like an aphrodisiac), or stir lust (can be non consensual). You can also make potions for self-love. Just please don’t use love potions on other people without their consent because this is stripping away their free will.

Dreamcatchers are Native American in origin and were used to filter out negative dreams whilst allowing positive ones in. Some of them have sacred objects interweaved with the web or hung onto the hoop. I think that they are supposed to be blessed before being used, but I am unsure.

And yes, if there is a mirror in your room where you sleep you are supposed to cover it before bed. If you do not, you can leave open a gateway for spiritual entities or energy to travel back and forth in. I know that whenever I sleep with an open mirror near me I get even more vivid dreams or spirit visitations than usual. If you have a black mirror you are always supposed to cover it unless you are using it.

anonymous asked:

Interested in paganism but don't have a clue where to start. Any recommendations?

Let’s start by exploring what paganism is. Remember that paganism is an umbrella term with a definition that varies from person to person. Some individuals may practice a religion you commonly consider to be a pagan religion, but they may not call themselves pagan and vise versa. The moment you decide to call yourself pagan you are pagan.That determined I would then recommend considering your theistic beliefs.

atheism — the opposite of theism; not believing in any gods or deities
deism — believing that god(s) exist, but that they do not take part in our lives.
agnosticism — believing we cannot know whether god(s) exist
gnosticism — believing that we can know for certain whether a god(s) exist.
Gnosticism and agnosticism can be combined with other forms of theism. For example, it is possible to be an agnostic atheist, or a gnostic theist. In common usage, some people group atheism and agnosticism together under the group of nontheism — absence of clear belief in any deity.

The main types of theism are:
polytheism — believing that many gods or goddesses exist (sometimes known as paganism)
monotheism — belief that only one god exists (Christians, Muslims and Jews believe in monotheism.)
ditheism — belief that two gods exist and they are both equal (Wiccans believe in a God and Goddess, or Lord and Lady, who have equal control/power.)

This is another way to group different theisms, based on the nature of the gods.
pantheism — god and the universe are the same[1]
panentheism — the universe is part of god
dystheism or maltheism — that god or the gods are evil.

There is also these types:
Animism: believing that everything is alive and spirits are in all things, and that all things have souls.
Monolatry: there is (or may be) more than one god, but they are all expressions of the supreme god.
Henotheism: there is (or may be) more than one god, but only one is the supreme.
Kathenotheism: there is more than one god, but only one at a time should be worshipped. Each is supreme in turn. [source]

Many of these can be mixed and matched. I call myself an eclectic pantheistic polytheist. From there would be the terms that fall under the pagan umbrella and you can check out this infographic that gives you a brief listing of some paths that may fall under the term. [original]

This is only a very brief idea of where to start. If you can narrow down these beliefs and interests, it’ll help give you directions to go for further information. Do not worry if it seems overwhelming and/or you aren’t sure what you believe and/or you are worried about changing your mind in the near to distant future. Just like many many other aspects in our lives, spirituality is fluid and ever-changing. You are allowed to change your mind as you discover yourself, learn, and grow.

For further reading check out these links picked up from

PSG

.


anonymous asked:

Hey, can you talk about why some birds mate for life? What are the evolutionary advantages of that? Do they feel what us humans call "love"?

While albatross are hailed as truly monogamous birds, we now know they they are guilty of extra-pair mating and forced copulation.

What an excellent question! It is true that the proportion of monogamous bird species is far greater than that of any other vertebrate taxonomic class. To address this, we’ll have to address two causes of monogamous behavior: proximate (”how does this happen, mechanistically, within an individual animal?”) and ultimate (”why does this happen, evolutionarily?”).

However, I have the sad and curmudgeonly duty of imparting one important note: generally, birds do not “mate for life”.

There are always exceptions to the rule– stories of a lonely swan or seabird waiting for its mate to return even though it has died, and so forth. But these are remarkable, rare instances. The appropriate term to describe the mating system seen in many birds is monogamy: having one mate at a time.

Loons are among the many waterbirds that structure their life history around successful rearing of a few precocial chicks.

Why monogamy? Parental care.

The evolutionary “decision” to stick with one mate, rather than trying to mate with as many females as possible (as is typical in many mammal societies), is part of a large host of animal traits we call life history. Life history traits are all of the different “choices” made by a species: how long will it take to reach maturity? How long to wait for reproduction? To mate with one, or many? Lay one egg, or many? Invest time and energy in the offspring, or hope for the best?

Birds provide a classic example of a high-investment life history strategy, where considerable time and energy is spent into ensuring that relatively few offspring survive. Compare this to, say, a sea turtle. A female sea turtle will lay hundreds of eggs, and then head back to the sea. She lays way more eggs than your average bird, but also provides no parental care whatsoever. She gets a free pass on parenting duties, but only a tiny fraction of her hatchlings will actually reach the sea– much less adulthood.

The kiwi is a classic example of extreme parental investment, laying an egg that weighs up to 25% of its body mass.

…What does parental care have to do with anything?

Okay, let’s think back to how evolution by natural and sexual selection works: there is inherent variation between individual organisms. Because this variation is heritable via our DNA, traits are passed to offspring. Therefore, if a gene is going to persist, the individual carrying that gene must 1) survive to adulthood, 2) produce offspring that then survive to reproduce themselves.

Monogamy is one way to increase the probability of offspring survival. What’s better than one hardworking parent feeding the offspring? Two hardworking parents feeding the offspring! And thus: the concept of the social mate.

Okay. So monogamy can increase offspring survival. Why does this mean birds don’t mate for life?

This is where the harsh reality of life comes in. Remember that natural and sexual selection favor the persistence of traits that result in greater numbers of offspring being produced for future generations. It turns out that one of the best strategies for this is infidelity. 

Many birds– both male and female!– will essentially maintain a “social mate” while still seeking out extra-pair matings with a “genetic mate”. It’s like a heterosexual household where husband and wife have children together and mutually acknowledge the importance of raising their children, but they’re also both cheating on each other.

“M-Marcie? I thought you said you were fishing for the kids…”

The more we research birds and social mating systems, the more we realize that things are not as clear-cut as they may sound. It used to be that you could label any species as monogamous, polygynous, polyandrous, etc.– but it turns out that so many species mix and match characteristics from all different social mating systems.

How does monogamy work on an individual bird’s timescale?

Now, to your last point. This is the proximate causation side of things. Unfortunately, it turns out that there isn’t a lot of research on hormonal mechanisms of monogamy in birds, but we know that in mammals the entire reason we feel the ridiculous sensation of “love” is because of such wily beasts as oxytocin, estrogen, and testosterone. Yes, it is all hormones.

You can think of hormones as messengers between brain and body. Your brain is working to perceive information and then convey that information to different tissues through various signaling mechanisms. While the nervous system sends short electrical messages (e.g. “TWITCH!” to a muscle), the endocrine system works much more slowly, and has drastic and potent effects.

If it weren’t for steroid hormones, there would be no parental care in mammals. Imagine you’ve just given birth to a squalling baby: you’ve lost a lot of blood, felt nauseous for nine months, and now you’re expected to give away your life to this screaming parasite? No thank you.

And yet, mothers and fathers everywhere dote on their children. The reason for this is all in hormone action, which literally alters the way we perceive the world. For mothers, it’s a combination of prolactin, oxytocin, and estrogen. For fathers, it’s decreased production of testosterone and increased conversion of testosterone to estrogen.

We know, vaguely, that there are similar mechanisms present in birds. Without these hormonal mechanisms, there would be no parental care instinct, and there would certainly be no pair bond between mates

Try and tell me this southern giant-petrel doesn’t love her chick.

Do birds feel love?

There’s no way of knowing, truly. As a scientific community, we’re not even positive what love is to humans! The perceptual experience of every species and every individual is completely unique, so anything I state here is pure guesswork.

What we do know is this: birds and mammals have similar hormonal mechanisms in place to regulate their behavior. It is entirely possible that this is translated into a sapient, perceptual experience similar to what humans have. But, as for if they feel “proper” human love? There’s really no way of knowing.

anonymous asked:

A lot of the sky downloads are confusing me. Can you help because there are so many out there and I have a bunch of them. So should I just delete nim's skies and replace them with the ones you created? Or what is the same and what isn't? Is there a master list somewhere? Plus I have the ones that lowdeus made and the ones greatcheesecakepersona made plus the lot versions of nim's skies and the ones 13pumpkin made and the ones poppet-sims made. I need to delete some stuff.

It can be confusing, I know! :) The main confusion, I think, is that each successive new sky is a similar but different mesh, although all of them are globes/domes that sit on top of and/or below your neighborhood’s terrain. Think of them like bubbles with pictures painted on the insides of them. Your neighborhood floats inside the bubble, like the Earth inside of its atmosphere. Because the various skies are (for the most part) neighborhood deco objects and so cannot, for instance, share textures between them, each one is a completely separate and independent entity from the others, and they don’t conflict with each other. So, if you want to and have a use for them, you can have every single sky that exists in your game at once, if you wish.

The issue, however, is that some of them you can use together in a given neighborhood and some of them you can’t. The limiting factor is the size of the bubble. @lowedeus’s mesh (and @greatcheesecakepersona’s, for the skylines), as the newest of them, is also the largest in physical size. The older ones are smaller and so cannot be used with Lowedeus’s skies and its clones because, if you place them on the same terrain together, the older one becomes like a smaller bubble inside of the larger bubble that is Lowedeus’s sky, and you can’t see Lowedeus’s bubble through the smaller one. So, while you can have every single sky out there in your game, you can’t use all of them together. So, you might want to decide which sets you like best for your game and its aesthetic and keep only those.

As for a “master list” sort of thing…Well, I certainly don’t have comprehensive knowledge about all of them that might be out there, and I may have some details incorrect, but…A “Brief” History of Skies. :)

Keep reading

starlight-student  asked:

hey!! i was wondering if you have any tips on language learning? I love linguistics but learning can be slow. thanks!!

Hey! Sorry for the late respond, guess my first answer never went through? So here are my basic motivation tips, learning tips etc.

Motivation

Remind yourself why you want to learn the language; is it to impress your friends at a French cafe by ordering in French? Or to be able to speak with family in another country? Maybe because you want to speak like that stranger did at the book store? Just keep reminding yourself how worth it will be in the end, and how the hard work will pay off in the long run. If you don’t have a real reason, then find one! It’ll help you stay dedicated, or even find a friend to learn with! If you’re using Duolingo, then you’re able to create a club with others (there’s more but I haven’t tried it yet!) 

Major tip: Remember it is okay to take breaks from learning a language

Learning Tips

Now say it with me “YOU CAN’T LEARN A LANGUAGE IN A MONTH!” No matter those websites say, it won’t happen! However, using the proper learning tools can help make the process go smoother; for example,

Visual Leaner / Read and Write

Tiny Cards (perfect if you prefer using flash cards to learn vocab)

Duolingo (has a variety of exercises including mix and match, translating etc)

Readlang (includes many types of text you can read in your target language)

Auditory

Audible (listen to a book in your target language)

Youtube and FluentU (watch videos or listen to music in your language)

Foreign Service Institute (has a section of audios in many languages)

Kinesthetic

FlashSticks (use to identify object in target language, can turn into a game!)

Lang-8  (use to write sentences and let native speakers fix your grammar)

Meetup (Meet up with people to do activities and practice your language)

Conclusion

I am not an expert, I can barely master any language; but using these tips can hopefully help you learn whatever language you’re interested in. In all honesty the most important thing to remember is to not get discouraged when the process isn’t going as planned and to try and keep going. 

Good luck Love! There’s many posts to find more advice, and I hope mine helped at least a little bit :)

anonymous asked:

Who do you think is the most saltiest of the saltiest in the wwe? But not just salty like a cracker, but cheap movie critic salty? And who are your purest of pure cinnamon rolls?

Kevin is allergic to happiness, sunshine, cookies and friendship.