microhylidae

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Truncate-snouted Burrowing Frog - Glyphoglossus molossus 

This bizarre frog is known by several common names, such as Balloon Frog, Blunt-headed Burrowing Frog, Truncate-snouted Burrowing Frog, and Broad-lipped Frog. Its scientific name is Glyphoglossus molossus and belongs to the Microhylidae Family. 

These frogs spend the majority of their time underground but emerge with seasonal rains to breed. The species occurs in north-central Myanmar through most of mainland Thailand through Laos to southern Vietnam.

References: [1]

Photo credit: ©Apisit Wilaijit | Locality: Chian Mai, Thailand (2014) | [Top] - [Bottom]

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Paedophryne amauensis

..a small species of microhylid frog that its native to Papua New Guinea. P. amauensis was discovered recently (2009) and was described in 2012. Paedophryne amaeuensis is largely considered to one of the smallest known vertebrates with adults only growing to 7.7 mm in length. Interestingly P. amauensis lives its entire live on land and goes not have a tadpole stage, instead they hatch as miniature adults. Due to their small size their skeleton is reduced and only seven presacral vertebrae are present. Like other members of Paedophryne, P. amauensis is crepuscular and lives in leaf litter and likely feeds on small insects and springtails. 

Classification

Animalia-Chordata-Amphibia-Anura-Microhylidae-Asterophryinae-Paedophryne-P. amauensis

Image: Rittmeyer EN, Allison A, Gründler MC, Thompson DK, Austin CC

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Malagasay Rainbow Frog (Scaphiophryne gottlebei)

AKA Ornate Burring frog or Gottleib’s Rainbow Frog. This small burrowing frog is endemic to the Isalo Massif region of central Southern Madagascar, living in canyons along freshwater streams with sandy soils. They only reach a snout vent length (SVL) of up to Isalo 4 cm (1.6 inches). Like other frogs in the family Microhylidae, they feed mainly on ants, termites, and other small invertebrate prey. Their broad toe pads help them climb over rocky terrain.

photograph by Franco Andreone and Dick Bartlett

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Spotted narrow-mouthed frog (Kalophrynus interlineatus) 

Picture by cowyeow, taken in Tai Mo Shan, Hong Kong

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Tiny frogs and giant spiders: the best of friends
by Darren Naish, July 3, 2009, Tetrapod Zoology Science Blog

The recent discovery that some Asian microhylid frogs frequent the dung piles of elephants has gotten these obscure little anurans into the news, possibly for the first time ever. Microhylids – or narrow-mouthed frogs – are not exactly the superstars of the frog world: they’re only really familiar to specialists, despite the fact that (as of June 2009) they contain over 450 species distributed across Africa, Madagascar, the Americas, and Asia. However, some more recent research on the group shows that, like so many animals, they’re really quite interesting once you get to know them…

You might be surprised to learn that microhylids in Peru, India, Sri Lanka and perhaps elsewhere have developed close relationships with large spiders. One of the first published discussions of this phenomenon was produced by Crocraft & Hambler (1989). Noting a close association between individuals of the Dotted humming frog Chiasmocleis ventrimaculata and the burrowing theraphosid tarantula Xenesthis immanis in southeastern Peru (but read on), they suggested that the spider – well capable of killing and eating a frog of this size – used chemical cues to recognise the frogs. Young spiders have sometimes been observed to grab the frogs, examine them with their mouthparts, and then release them unharmed.

Continue Reading…

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Frogs Species Discovered Living in Elephant Dung in Sri Lanka  (2009)

by Jeremy Hance

Three different species of frogs have been discovered living in the dung of the Asian elephant in southeastern Sri Lanka. The discovery—the first time anyone has recorded frogs living in elephant droppings—has widespread conservation implications both for frogs and Asian elephants, which are in decline.

Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, a research fellow from the National University of Singapore examined 290 elephant dung piles and found six frog individuals in five dung piles, representing three species: the ornate narrow-mouthed frog Microhyla ornata, another narrow-mouthed species Microhyla rubra, and a frog species in the Sphaerotheca genus.

While Campos-Arceiz is uncertain why the frogs were residing in the elephant dung, he speculates that “elephant dung provides a good shelter. I found the frogs in an arid area during the dry season. Under such conditions and in the absence of litter, elephant dung is probably a good alternative in which to spend the day…

(read more: Monga Bay)

photographs by Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz

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I’m sorry but. ;~; I want to be his best friend.

The Desert Rain Frog, a member of the family Microhylidae, can be found along the western coast of Namibia and South Africa, in the region of Namaqualand. 

Black Narrow-Mouthed Frog - Nelsonophryne aterrima

Nelsonophryne aterrima (Microhylidae) is a secretive, nocturnal leaf-litter microhylid frog native to Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Panama. It is distinguished by the uniform, dark, glossy coloration of the upper surface and a short, narrow head on a rather globlike body, as well as a transverse skin fold directly behind the eyes. 

It is a rarely seen frog, since it spends most of the time under leaf litter and surface debris. It is also sometimes fossorial, as it has been found up to 80 cm below the surface.

Synonym: Ctenophryne aterrima

References: [1] - [2]

Photo credit: ©ProAves Colombia | Locality: Reserva Natural de las Aves El Pangan, ProAves Colombia, Barbacoas, Nariño, Colombia (2006)

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New frog species discovered in “India’s wastelands”

Amphibian named after its habitat of laterite rock formations to draw attention to the ecological importance of the area

via: National University of Singapore

A team of researchers from India and the National University of Singapore (NUS) has discovered a new species of narrow-mouthed frog in the laterite rock formations of India’s coastal plains. The frog, which is the size of a thumbnail, was named Microhyla laterite after its natural habitat.

The discovery by the research team, led by Mr Seshadri K S, a PhD student from the Department of Biological Sciences at the NUS Faculty of Science, was published in the prestigious journal PLOS ONE on 9 March 2016.

The frog, which measures around 1.6 centimetres, is pale brown with prominent black markings on its dorsum, hands, feet and flanks. It has a call that can be easily mistaken for that of a cricket…

(read more: EurekaAlert!)

photograph by Ramit Singal

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Black-spotted sticky frog (Kalophrynus pleurostigma) 

Picture by Kurt G (Orionmystery) , taken in Selangor, Malaysia.

Borneo Tree-hole frog - A frog that exploits resonance effects

The Borneo Tree-hole frog, Metaphrynella sundana (Microhylidae),a small Asian frog with just 22 mm length, actively exploit the acoustic properties of cavities in tree trunks that are partially filled with water and which are primarily used as egg-deposition sites.

By tuning their vocalizations to the resonant frequency of the hole, which varies with the amount of water that it contains, these frogs enhance their chances of attracting females.

This species occurs in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia and Malaysia.

References: [1] - [2] - [3]

Photo credit: ©Jeremy Holden

Locality: Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia

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Tomato Frog - Dyscophus antongilii

Dyscophus antongilii (Microhylidae), is a Near Threatened species endemic to north-eastern Madagascar. Commonly named Tomato Frogs due to their red coloration and robust body, the males can reach up to 65 mm, and the females 105 mm.  

The Tomato Frog is currently listed in the Appendix I of the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species, CITES, which implies a complete ban on trade. The placement of this frog in Appendix I was based on the fact that several decades ago large quantities of specimens were exported from Madagascar for the pet trade.

References: [1] - [2] - [3] - [4]

Photo credit: [Top: ©Frank Vassen | Locality: Maroantsetra, Toamasina, Madagascar, 2008] - [Bottom: ©Francesco Veronesi | Locality: Masoala, Madagascar, 2014]

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Calluella guttulata

Calluella guttulata (Microhylidae) is a species of frog commonly known as Burmese Squat Frog, Orange Burrowing Frog, Blotched Burrowing Frog, and Striped Spadefoot Frog.

This species is a rotund frog with very short legs and a short, blunt head. As all species in the genus, C. guttulata is fossorial, spending most of their lives in burrows.

Calluella guttulata ranges from Myanmar and Thailand, to Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. It is a cryptic species, but emerges in substantial numbers to breed.

The Striped Spadefoot Frog is collected for consumption in Laos and parts of Thailand.

References: [1] - [2] - [3]

Photo credit: ©Jeremy Holden

Locality: Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia.

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Spotted Narrow-mouthed Frog (Kalophrynus interlineatus)

Picture by Thomas Brown, taken in Wu Kau Tang, Hong Kong.