Bacteria produce the chemical N-formyl-methionine serving as a powerful attractant to neutrophils and macrophages within the body. Through chemotaxis, neutrophils will enter through the blood vessels via diapedesis, going across the intact vascular wall by squeezing themselves and elongation to go at the site of inflammation. Once the neutrophils recognized the receptor in the bacteria, attachment will proceed. Ingested bacteria will be enclosed in a phagosome via phagosome formation then phagolysosome will ensue. This will activate the respiratory burst necessary for microbicidal activities within the cell. Two modes of intracellular killing occurs: oxygen-independent killing without the requirement of respiratory burst and oxygen-dependent killing catalyzed by myeloperoxidase. Once the cell has finished digestion, excretion of residual bodies and waste materials will proceed via exocytosis.


Treatment News: HIV Researchers are Now Using Tobacco To Cultivate a New Microbicide

As is typically the case when a widely available consumer product finds its way into HIV research headlines, confusion may arise as to whether tobacco itself is the next antiretroviral, vaccine or microbicide. In this research, tobacco is just being used as a breeding ground for an HIV-fighting agent that is not itself related to the plant.

Tobacco products have not been shown to prevent or treat HIV.

Tenofovir Microbicide Gel Falters in Major HIV Prevention Study

HIV prevention efforts have suffered a major setback following a Microbicide Trials Network (MTN) announcement that a vaginal gel containing the antiretroviral tenofovir has been dropped from a large ongoing clinical trial because of lackluster effectiveness. The decision to discontinue the microbicide in the Vaginal and Oral Interventions to Control the Epidemic (VOICE) study was unexpected and contradicts the optimistic results of an earlier study of the same tenofovir-based gel. Click here for more.