michigan governor



Man-eating tree can refer to any of the variouslegendary carnivorous plants large enough to kill and consume a person or other large animal. The carnivorous plant with the largest known traps is probably Nepenthes rajah, which produces pitchers up to 41 cm (16 in) tall with a volume up to 3.5 litres (0.77 imp gal; 0.92 US gal).The pitcher of this species are designed to trap arthropods. However, the same bait may also attract rodents like thesummit rat (Rattus baluensis) and the Mountain treeshrew (Tupaia montana). Only very rarely will the rodents fall into the large pitchers of this species. Other large carnivorous plants that have similar properties include Nepenthes robcantleyi andNepenthes attenboroughi.

Man-eating tree

Depiction of a native being consumed by a ya-te-veo (“I see you”) carnivorous tree found in both Africa and Central America, from Sea and Land by J. W. Buel, 1887

GroupingCryptidRegionAfrica and Central AmericaHabitatAfrican and Central-American forests

The Madagascar tree

The earliest well-known report of a man-eating tree originated as a literary fabrication written by Edmund Spencer for the New York World. Spencer’s article first appeared in the daily edition of the New York World on 26 April 1874, and appeared again in the weekly edition of the newspaper two days later. In the article, a letter was published by a purported German explorer named “Karl Liche” (also spelled as Carl Liche in later accounts), who provided a report of encountering a sacrifice performed by the “Mkodo tribe” of Madagascar: This story was picked up by many other newspapers of the day, including theSouth Australian Register of 27 October 1874, where it gained even greater notoriety. Describing the tree, the account related:

The slender delicate palpi, with the fury of starved serpents, quivered a moment over her head, then as if instinct with demoniac intelligence fastened upon her in sudden coils round and round her neck and arms; then while her awful screams and yet more awful laughter rose wildly to be instantly strangled down again into a gurgling moan, the tendrils one after another, like great green serpents, with brutal energy and infernal rapidity, rose, retracted themselves, and wrapped her about in fold after fold, ever tightening with cruel swiftness and savage tenacity of anacondas fastening upon their prey.

The tree was given further publicity by Madagascar, Land of the Man-eating Tree, a book by Chase Osborn, who had been a Governor of Michigan. Osborn claimed that both the tribes and missionaries on Madagascar knew about the hideous tree, and also repeated the above Liche account.

In his 1955 book, Salamanders and other Wonders, science author Willy Ley determined that the Mkodo tribe, Carl Liche, and the Madagascar man-eating tree all appeared to be fabrications.

The Nubian tree

Phil Robinson, writing in Under the Punkah (1881), related the tales of his “uncle’s” travels throughout the world. He described a “man-eating tree” that was to be found in “Nubia”. In the tale, Robinson’s uncle describes the tree:

This awful plant, that rears its splendid death-shade in the central solitude of a Nubian fern forest, sickens by its unwholesome humours all vegetation from its immediate vicinity, and feeds upon the wild beasts that, in the terror of the chase, or the heat of noon, seek the thick shelter of its boughs ; upon the birds that, flitting across the open space, come within the charmed circle of its power, or innocently refresh themselves from the cups of its great waxen flowers ; upon even man himself when, an infrequent prey, the savage seeks its asylum in the storm, or turns from the harsh foot-wounding sword-grass of the glade, to pluck the wondrous fruit that hang plumb down among the wondrous foliage. And such fruit ! Glorious golden ovals, great honey drops, swelling by their own weight into pear-shaped translucencies. The foliage glistens with a strange dew, that all day long drips on to the ground below, nurturing a rank growth of grasses, which shoot up in places so high that their spikes of fierce blood-fed green show far up among the deep-tinted foliage of the terrible tree, and, like a jealous body-guard, keep concealed the fearful secret of the charnel-house within, and draw round the black roots of the murderous plant a decent screen of living green.

The story continues in describing how the tree captured and ate one of the uncle’s native companions, and how the uncle proceeded to shoot at the tree. When his ammunition was finally exhausted, the uncle continued his work using a knife to destroy the tree, as the tree fought back with its blood-sucking leaves, and entangling limbs.

The ya-te-veo

In J. W. Buel's Sea and Land (1887), the ya-te-veo(“I-see-you”) plant is described as being native to Africa and Central America, and having “stems” that resemble “many huge serpents in an angry discussion, occasionally darting from side to side as if striking at an imaginary foe,” while attempting to consume humans.

The vampire vine

William Thomas Stead, editor of Review of Reviews,published a brief article that discussed a story purportedly found in Lucifer magazine, describing a plant in Nicaragua called by the natives the devil’s snare. This plant had the capability “to drain the blood of any living thing which comes within its death-dealing touch.” According to the article:

Mr. Dunstan, naturalist, who has recently returned from Central America, where he spent nearly two years in the study of the flora and the fauna of the country, relates the finding of a singular growth in one of the swamps which surround the great lakes of Nicaragua. He was engaged in hunting for botanical and entomological specimens, when he heard his dog cry out, as if in agony, from a distance. Running to the spot whence the animal’s cries came. Mr. Dunstan found him enveloped in a perfect network of what seemed to be a fine rope-like tissue of roots and fibres… The native servants who accompanied Mr. Dunstan manifested the greatest horror of the vine, which they call “the devil’s snare”, and were full of stories of its death-dealing powers. He was able to discover very little about the nature of the plant, owing to the difficulty of handling it, for its grasp can only be torn away with the loss of skin and even of flesh; but, as near as Mr. Dunstan could ascertain, its power of suction is contained in a number of infinitesimal mouths or little suckers, which, ordinarily closed, open for the reception of food. If the substance is animal, the blood is drawn off and the carcass or refuse then dropped.

An investigation of Stead’s “review” determined no article was published in Lucifer magazine about such a subject, and the story in Review of Reviewsappeared to be a fabrication by the editor.


“The Purple Terror” (1899) by Fred M. White is a man-eating tree and the story was collected with the relevant section of Phil Robinson’s book, The Man-Eating Tree (1881), in Flora Curiosa: Cryptobotany, Mysterious Fungi, Sentient Trees, and Deadly Plants in Classic Science Fiction and Fantasy. This anthology also includes H. G. Wells’ “The Flowering of the Strange Orchid” (1894) about an orchid capable of consuming a human.

In Francis Stevens’ story “The Nightmare” (1917), the flora on the mysterious island includes man-eating plants.

Edward Gorey’s 1966 illustrated work The Evil Garden features hapless guests trapped in a garden, with some of its members attacked and eaten by, among other things, giant carnivorous plants.

Piers Anthony’s fantasy novels of Xanth (1977 onward) has stories of carnivorous “tangle trees” (or “tanglers”). The trees magically create easy, open paths leading to them; their tentacles then catch animals (and people) that approach too closely.

In the fantasy novel Beyond the Deepwoods (1998), the first story in Paul Stewart and Chris Riddell's The Edge Chronicles series, the protagonist Twig encounters a man-eating tree called a bloodoak. A parasitic symbiotic plant, known as the tarryvine, snares victims and then drags them to the bloodoak, where they are devoured.

In the fantasy adventure novel Life of Pi (2001), a shipwrecked boy lands on an island inhabited bymeerkats, but notices that every night all the animals climb atop the trees. He later discovers that the entire island is carnivorous.

In “The Sagebrush Kid”, a short story in Annie Proulx's Fine Just the Way It Is (2008), a childlessWyoming couple transfers their affections first to a piglet, then a chicken, and finally to a sagebrush they fancy has the appearance of a child. They tend and protect it, and even feed it bones and stray scraps of meat from their dinner table. Even after the couples’ deaths, the shrub - now grown to the height of a fair-sized tree - is accustomed to human attention, and meat. It consumes livestock, then soldiers, then a local medico, railroad men, surveyors, and most lately a botanist come to investigate its unusual height and luxuriance.

In the dystopian novel Shades of Grey 1: The Road to High Saffron (2009), the first book in Jasper Fforde's Shades of Grey series, carnivorous trees are mentioned.

In the Star Trek novel Planet of Judgment by Joe Haldeman, the flora on a planet includes a carnivorous plant capable of engulfing and digesting an adult human. After a crewman (named Hevelin) is attacked, the rest of the away team tries to cut him out of the plant, but is too late. The description of the aftermath reads “Hevelin’s body looked like a botched autopsy.”

In the 2005 film The Brothers Grimm, there are Man Eating Trees lurking in the Forest of Marbaden.



The Man Eating Trees of Madagascar

The tree itself was described as being around 8 feet in height, and having an appearance with eight long, pointed leaves that hung down from its top to the ground. The trunk of the tree was topped with a sort of receptacle that contained a thick liquid said to have soporific qualities that drugged potential prey and was believed to be highly addictive. Surrounding this receptacle were long, hairy tendrils with six white palpi resembling tentacles. The tree possessed white, transparent leaves that reminded Liche of the quivering mouthparts of an insect.

The slender delicate palpi, with the fury of starved serpents, quivered a moment over her head, then as if instinct with demoniac intelligence fastened upon her in sudden coils round and round her neck and arms; then while her awful screams and yet more awful laughter rose wildly to be instantly strangled down again into a gurgling moan, the tendrils one after another, like great green serpents, with brutal energy and infernal rapidity, rose, retracted themselves, and wrapped her about in fold after fold, ever tightening with cruel swiftness and savage tenacity of anacondas fastening upon their prey.

This scary account has inspired several expeditions to Madagascar in search of the tree. One such expedition was undertaken by Chase Salmon Osborne, the governor of Michigan from 1911 to 1913, who went to the jungles of Madagascar to search for the man-eating tree. Although he was unsuccessful in his efforts to locate it, he did find both natives and Western missionaries that claimed to have seen it and that it did in fact exist.

An expedition was launched in 1998, this time by Czech explorer Ivan Mackerle. This expedition could not locate the elusive tree either, but during his travels Mackerle learned of yet another carnivorous tree on the island referred to as the Kumanga Killer Tree. Natives claimed that this particular tree was found on only one part of the island and was said to have flowers that exuded an extremely poisonous gas. The natives claimed to know where such a tree was and guided Mackerle to its location.

During the trek, the expedition members were so concerned about the poisonous nature of the plant that they actually wore gas masks. When they arrived at the alleged Kumanga Killer Tree, they found no gas spewing flowers, but did find several animal skeletons under the tree. The lack of flowers, the natives explained, was due to the tree not being in bloom.

Mackerle also uncovered a story of a former British army officer who allegedly took photographs of a tree on the island that had various animal skeletons strewn about its base. Whether this particular tree was either one of the aforementioned carnivorous trees or something new is uncertain. It is also unknown what became of these photographs, or if indeed they ever existed at all.


Wondering what a call to your elected official actually sounds like? We got you.

If you’re on this website (or a human alive today) there’s a really good chance you’re afraid to call your Senator/Representative/Governor because you don’t know how the phone call will go. We’re trying to remove some of the mystery around calling your elected representative to show you a few different examples of first time callers leaving a comment with a government official. It’s so easy!

In this call we see Nneka calling Governor Snyder of Michigan about water quality in Flint. She made a complaint about the Governor, but says she didn’t feel like her opinion was particularly heard. On the other hand, she also used specific information, like the fact that Kwame Kilpatrick had been arrested, to bolster her argument. This is a great strategy! When you call someone in office, don’t worry, you won’t seem stupid (and trust us, they’ve heard worse). But it’s always helpful to be prepared with facts and know what people in the office you’re calling have already done to solve a problem. In this case, Nneka did a fantastic job, but might have been even more effective if she asked the Governor for a specific action.

Read more about how to call your congressional representative here.

The History of The Flint Water Crisis.

Let me start this rant off by saying I’m from Flint. I grew up there. I went to their schools. My family still lives there and so do I. I’ve known about and have been speaking out about the Flint water crisis for over two years. I know this issue like the back of my hand.

Some people are saying the Flint water crisis was caused by racism and they pull the demographic that Flint is almost 60% black. I’ve seen so many goddamn posts here that’s just a picture of Flint’s race demographics as if that was explanation enough as to why this has happened to us, and that annoys the FUCK out of me. It annoys me because the entire root of the problem, the entire issue that’s been going on for years, gets simplified by people who’ve known of Flint’s existence for less than a half an hour to just “racism”. This was never a race thing, the water crisis and Flint’s demographics have literally nothing to do with each other.

This began in the early 1990s. Flint was a factory town, much like Detroit. In the 90′s, factories started to outsource their work to other countries. Nearly every factory in Flint shut down. 90% of Flint’s jobs had disappeared in less than 20 years. Over 100,000 people left. Because of this, the entire economy destabilized. Thousands of people were laid off, including most notably, teachers and law enforcement. This became one of the reasons why Flint has one of the highest crime rates per capita in the United States.

By the year 2002, Flint was over $30 million in debt. They went to emergency managers, but to no avail. Mayors and emergency managers have been in and out of the city like you would not believe, rarely serving their full term. 

Flint struggled along through the housing market crash until 2011. That’s when this all started to kick off.  On September 30, 2011, Michigan Governor Rick Snyder appointed a review team to review Flint’s financial state with a request to report back in 30 days (half the legal time for a review). On November 8, the Michigan State review panel declared Flint of to be in the state of a “local government financial emergency” recommending the state again appoint an Emergency Manager. On November 14, the City Council voted 7 to 2 to not appeal the state review with Mayor Walling concurring. Governor Snyder appointed Michael Brown as the city’s Emergency Manager on November 29, effective December 1. December 2, Brown kicked out the almost entire administration. 

On March 20, 2012, days after a lawsuit was filed by labor union AFSCME ( American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees), and a restraining order was issued against Brown, his appointment was found to be in violation of the Michigan Open Meetings Act and Mayor Walling and the City Council had their powers returned. The state immediately filed an emergency appeal, claiming the financial emergency still existed. On March 26, the appeal was granted, putting Brown back in power.

Michael Brown was re-appointed Emergency Manager on June 26, 2013, and returned to work on July 8. Flint had an $11.3 million projected deficit when Brown started as emergency manager in 2011. The city faced a $19.1 million deficit from 2012, with plans to borrow $12 million to cover part of it. Brown resigned from his position in early September 2013. He was succeeded by Saginaw city manager (and former Flint temporary mayor) Darnell Earley.

The Flint Water Crisis

In an attempt to save money, in early 2014, Flint began the undertaking of a water supply switch-over from reliable supplies from the City of Detroit. Initially, the drawing of water from the Flint River was viewed by the City as a temporary fix prior to the City’s ultimate switch to a permanent supply which would be provided after the Karegnondi Water Authority’s construction of a pipeline from Lake Huron, thereby eliminating Flint’s long-time dependence on Detroit City water. By doing this, Flint would no longer have to buy it’s water from Detroit, and it was hoped that it would help to lessen Flint’s deficit. 

After the change in water source, the city’s drinking water had a series of issues that culminated with lead contamination, creating a serious public health danger. The corrosive Flint River water caused lead from aging pipes to leach into the water supply, causing extremely elevated levels of lead. As a result, residents had severely high levels of lead in the blood and experienced a range of serious health problems. The water may also be a possible cause of an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in the county that has killed 10 people and affected another 77.

In January 2015, a public meeting was held, where citizens complained about the bad water. Residents complained about the taste, smell and appearance of the water for 18 months before a Flint physician found highly elevated blood lead levels in the children of Flint while the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality insisted the water was safe to drink.

While the local outcry about Flint water quality was growing in early 2015, Flint’s water officials filed papers with state regulators purporting to show that “tests at Flint’s water treatment plant had detected no lead and testing in homes had registered lead at acceptable levels." The documents falsely claim that the city had tested tap water from homes with lead service lines, and therefore the highest lead-poisoning risks; in reality; the city does not know the locations of lead service lines, which city officials acknowledged in November 2015 after the Flint Journal published an article revealing the practice after obtaining documents through the Michigan Freedom of Information Act. The Journal reported that the city had "disregarded federal rules requiring it to seek out homes with lead plumbing for testing, potentially leading the city and state to underestimate for months the extent of toxic lead leaching into Flint’s tap water." Only after independent research was conducted by Marc Edwards, an engineering professor at Virginia Tech, and a local physician, Dr. Mona Hanna-Attisha, was a public-health emergency declared.

In September 2015, a team working under Edwards published a report finding that Flint water was "very corrosive” and “causing lead contamination in homes” and concluding that “Flint River water leaches more lead from plumbing than does Detroit water. This is creating a public health threat in some Flint homes that have lead pipe or lead solder." Edwards was shocked by the extent of the contamination and by authorities’ inaction in the face of their knowledge of the contamination.

On September 24, 2015, Hurley Medical Center in Flint released a study, led by Hanna-Attisha, the MPH program director for pediatric residency at the Hurley Children’s Hospital, confirming that proportion of infants and children with elevated levels of lead in their blood had nearly doubled since the city switched from the Detroit water system to using the Flint River as its water source. Using hospital records, Hanna-Attisha found that a steep rise in blood-lead levels correlated to the city’s switch in water sources. The study was initially dismissed by Michigan Department of Environmental Quality spokesman Brad Wurfel, who stuck to the claim that: "Repeated testing indicated the water tested within acceptable levels." Later, Wurfel apologized to Hanna-Attisha.

On November 13, 2015, four families filed a federal class action lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan in Detroit against Governor Rick Snyder and thirteen other city and state officials, and three separate people filed a similar suit in state court two months later. Separately, the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Eastern District of Michigan and the Michigan Attorney General’s office opened investigations. On January 5, 2016, the city was declared to be in a state of emergency by the Governor of Michigan, before President Obama declared the crisis as a federal state of emergency, authorizing additional help from the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Department of Homeland Security less than two weeks later.

Three government officials - one from the City of Flint and two from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality - resigned over the mishandling of the crisis, and Snyder issued an apology to citizens.

On January 13, 2016, Snyder said 87 cases of Legionnaires’ disease, a waterborne disease, were reported in Genesee County from June 2014–November 2015, resulting in 10 deaths. Although the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) said that there is no evidence of a clear link between the spike in cases and the water system change, Edwards stated the contaminated Flint water could be linked to the spike, telling reporters, "It’s very possible that, the conditions in the Flint River water contributed. We’ve actually predicted earlier this year, that the conditions present in Flint would increase the likelihood of Legionnaires’ disease. We wrote a proposal on that to the National Science Foundation that was funded and we visited Flint and did two sampling events. The first one, which was focused on single family homes or smaller businesses. We did not find detectable levels of Legionella bacteria that causes disease, in those buildings. But, during our second trip, we looked at large buildings and we found very high levels of Legionella that tends to cause the disease.

That’s what happened in Flint. It wasn’t an act of racism, it was an act of politicians cutting corners to save money, and it’s killing us. They denied any knowledge of the water being poisoned for almost a year, they denied that we were in danger, and they knew we were being poisoned. 

Lead levels fall below federal limits in Flint, Michigan: state
Lead levels in Flint, Michigan's drinking water have receded below federal limits, state officials said on Tuesday, although they cautioned residents to continue using filtered water as work went on to replace the city's old lead pipes.

“Tests showed lead levels in the city’s drinking water were 12 parts per billion (PPB) between July and December, below the federal limit of 15 PPB, Michigan officials said in a statement.

Flint, a predominantly black city of 100,000, was under the control of a state-appointed emergency manager when it switched its water source from Lake Huron to the Flint River in April 2014. The more corrosive river water caused lead to leach from city pipes and go into the drinking water.

Lead can cause various health problems in children, and Flint’s contaminated water has prompted dozens of lawsuits and criminal charges against several former government officials.

Even with the test results, programs that provide water filters and related services will continue, Michigan Governor Rick Snyder said in the statement.

“This is not the end of our work in Flint, but it is one more step along the path toward Flint’s future,” said Snyder, a Republican who has been sharply criticized by Flint residents for his handling of the crisis”

It’s not over yet, but this is good news


Day of Peace and Solidarity: 

– #DumpTrump

– No to hate, racism, war, and Islamophobia 

– Rebuild the city of #Flint

– Defend the #blacklivesmatter movement

On Thursday, March 17th, Michigan Governor Rick Snyder will stand before before Congress and testify that he is working to repair Flint. Yet we know that he has presented a state budget to the state House and Senate that dramatically shortchanges the rebuilding of the community.

Tell Gov. Snyder and #MiLeg to put families first in their #FlintWaterCrisis response! http://thndr.me/9LySUS

If your water is poisoned, it's almost automatic you have a regulation-gutting Republican governor.

Michigan, Louisiana, North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Wisconsin, Ohio.


“An overwhelming majority of Michigan voters, regardless of political affiliation, agree with Governor Snyder that the time has come for a discussion on ending the legally permitted firing of LGBT workers in Michigan. We can only move forward as we finally step up and acknowledge that for Michigan to fully recover, fairness needs to be offered to all people in Michigan. This is an opportunity for the Governor to lead a bipartisan effort addressing a growing threat to our economy and families by amending Michigan’s Elliott-Larsen Civil Rights Act to include equal protections for LGBT workers and families.”

Emily Dievendorf, Equality Michigan managing director