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Molecule of the Day: Cinnamaldehyde

Cinnamaldehyde (C9H8O) is a yellowish, oily liquid found in the bark of cinnamon trees, and is a major component of the corresponding essential oil. It has the distinct scent of cinnamon, and is used in many foods as a flavouring agent, such as confectioneries and sweets. 

Cinnamaldehyde has been shown to have antimicrobial effects, and has been used to produce antimicrobial paper in conjunction with carvacrol. It is also a fungicide, insecticide, and a repellent for many animals.

It is also a key precursor and parent compound to many aroma compounds used in perfumery, such as alpha-alkyl cinnamaldehydes (shown below), and dihydrocinnamaldehyde.

Cinnamaldehyde is biosynthesised from phenylalanine through several steps:

In the laboratory, it can also be synthesised from benzaldehyde (Day 2) and acetaldehyde (ethanal) via an acid- or base-catalysed aldol condensation reaction, which produces water as a side product:

However, it is more economically efficient to produce it via extraction from cinnamon bark, which is thus the major industrial method for cinnamaldehyde production.

Originally posted by the-beauty-of-the-seasons

Requested by anonymous

If companies don't test on animals, what do they test on? 💉

In our modern day society we need to understand that there are over 240 alternative methods of product testing that do not involve animals. The only reason animal testing still exists is mostly because of the large amounts of money exchanged between labs and breeders. There’s amazing software that has been developed, that can almost accurately predict the type of reaction that chemicals will have on a human. Synthetic skin has also been invented which is truly incredible as, even though it has no human or animal product in it, it behaves exactly the same way as human skin would when exposed to chemicals. Most importantly, animal testing is inconclusive, and as a result 90% of all test results are discarded anyway. People defend animal testing, because they do not want humans to be the testers themselves but every single product on the market is actually tested on numerous humans before it can be sold to the public. So quite honestly testing on animals doesn’t have much point. Also, medicines and surgical procedures have been delayed in the past for several years due to animals behaving differently to how humans would have. Interestingly enough, if we completely trusted the results of animal tests, we would say that lemon juice is poisonous for human ingestion, while bromine, iodine and hemlock would be safe.

Now I hope you can see that there is no need for animal testing.

100 days of productivity || day 21/100
I’m at home and making mind maps for biology lesson. Make your notes colourful, you will learn better!🌈

15.12.16 // Studying English Literature. Finally. After two intense days. On monday I joined a singing contest and it was awful, they destroyed me as a person so, you see, I didn’t want to study.

Yesterday it was a pretty tiring day. I studied a little bit, but I was not feeling well. In fact today I’m stuck in bed with flu and despite this I’m trying to be productive. I’m trying not to think about bad things that have happened to me in these days and I’m trying to focus on the good things.

Plus I’m starting to worry about exams and if I think about them I get very anxious, but it doesn’t matter. I will do the best I can.

100 days of productivity || day 39/100
I am making flashcards for Turkish literature, there are so many things to memorize 😞


My preferred organization method is my bujo. First, at the start of each month, I make a list of all of the up coming events that I know of for that month (I usually don’t know many events that are going to happen throughout the entire month, at the very beginning; they kind of just pop up so the lists are usually pretty short). On the next page, I draw that month’s calendar. Above is an example of January’s monthly view.

For holidays (such as summer vacation, Christmas break, or spring break), I will make a separate calendar for that. This way I can keep track of how many days are left.

Next, I have my daily/weekly view. It is a list of everything I have to do for that day, and I usually fit an entire week onto the two pages. In the following example, I did not do Monday because it was already Tuesday by the time I was able to make that week’s layout. To make things easier, if there is an extremely big task I will break it into smaller tasks.

⬜- This represents an unfinished task

⬛- This represents a finished task

△- This represents an important event

⚪- This represents a smaller task from an extremely big task that I have had to break down

An empty square ( ⬜ ) with a slash through it means I have started it, and an empty square with an arrow through it means it has been moved.

9/100 | Sunday 22 November 2015

  • Spent the morning planning next week using this year’s Hobonichi for rough to dos, sketches & notes. The orange sheet is Behance’s Action Method pad, which I use to plan small projects for either school or work.
  • Went over Japanese notes from the last two semesters.
  • Intend on finalizing some images for the next magazine issue later today.
  • About to get in a few episodes of Jessica Jones.

dude would most of the characters in dishonored be lactose intolerant? like….iirc you never see evidence of them having pasturized milk products or methods of refrigeration. they wouldn’t be eating milk products past weaning, which means they wouldn’t have like, the gut fauna cultivated to even break down lactose



Hitting it hard and early this Saturday morning with some revision for psychology! Starting to experiment with adding post-it notes to my mind maps, they’re great for adding more info and look pretty nice 😜

By far, the most valuable toys are the ones that were recalled because of a change in production method, error/misprint, or potential to kill your child<. One particular Jawa figure is heralded as the “holy grail” of collectibles because, we shit you not, its cape is made from vinyl instead of cloth. It’s the same with some early models of Luke, Obi-Wan, and Darth Vader, which came packaged with flimsy-looking lightsabers. As a result of complaints, the lightsabers were switched out and the shitty versions became ultra-rare.

They’re the same figures, but produced in different ways. One will make you rich. The other won’t. And there’s no way that you can tell what valuable treasures are going to be recalled until after they’ve been thrown into a furnace, ala Toy Story 3.

If there’s any Force Awakens toy that’ll earn you big bucks, it’ll be this figure of Kylo, which was accidentally packaged into a Captain Phasma box.

If you think that’s a dumb thing to cherish and one day pay fistfuls of galactic credits for, welcome to the exciting and fickle world of collecting Star Wars toys.

Why Modern ‘Collectible’ Toys Are A Total Scam


I’ve found a new love in philosophy :-)

anonymous asked:

hello! i've been following you for a bit and desperately want to do some self-study for film production and theory. are there any books you would recommend?

General advice: Don’t desperately want to study film theory for yourself. It’s not healthy. & lmao who are you? It’d be easier to talk off anon.

For production I made a list already:

As for theory. Like. I don’t know. Bc my thoughts on theory/criticism/history are this: 90% of it has no relevancy to 21st century film culture & filmmaking. Bc 20th century people applied 20th century outlooks/concepts to film (ie industrial era production methods/psychoanalytical film analysis). That makes sense of course. But the problem is that 21st Century filmmakers/commentators are still applying those outdated concepts to 21st Century film. So I’m not gonna give you a list of dusty ass irrelevant theory (ex Auteur Theory). Bc the task of 21st Century filmmakers & commentators is to re-organize the entire apparatus of film & film culture (from making to theory) for a digital/internet era.

With that said the 20th Century is obviously important to film. So here are 20th century filmmakers/commentators who have a 21st Century understanding of film:

1. Sergei Eisenstein: my theory babe

2. Dziga Vertov: bc editing on a train and projecting onto a boxcar makes him the GOAT

3. Alvarez, Rocha, Solanas & Getino, Espinosa, etc: The primary sources of Third Cinema (stay away from analysis. esp. from my former prof. Guneratne & anyone who equates Third World Cinema with Third Cinema hasn’t read the defining text)

4. Tom Gunning: Hands down the best film historian. Fuck Bordwell & Thompson. Pay attention to “Cinema of Attractions” & “Primitive Cinema”

5. John Berger (RIP): bc we need a comprehensive media literacy program & “Ways of Seeing” is central to that.

6. DeeDee Halleck: Public Access TV Goddess, Queen Fairy Mother of Alternative Media. Her book “Hand Held Visions” is a wonder. I love ha!

And newer people to check out:

Svllywood/Rooney/CommunistCoppola: Bc she did that. The first issue of her mag is a big fuck you to feminist psychoanalysis (ie the central way feminist have read films since Mulvey wrote that peice)? Son.

Kinet Media: I don’t think they do theory/criticism but the way Kurt, JP, Andrew, Isiah et al are making & exhibiting films is #TheWave