methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus

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Penicillin

Penicillin is a widely used antibiotic prescribed to treat staphylococci and streptococci bacterial infections. 

  • beta-lactam family 
  • Gram-positive bacteria = thick cell walls containing high levels of peptidoglycan
  • gram-negative bacteria = thinner cell walls with low levels of peptidoglycan and surrounded by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer that prevents antibiotic entry 
  • penicillin is most effective against gram-positive bacteria where DD-transpeptidase activity is highest.

Examples of penicillins include:

  • amoxicillin
  • ampicillin
  • bacampicillin
  • oxacillin
  • penicillin

Mechanism(s)

  • Penicillin inhibits the bacterial enzyme transpeptidase, responsible for catalysing the final peptidoglycan crosslinking stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis.
  • Cells wall is weakened and cells swell as water enters and then burst (lysis)
  • Becomes permanently covalently bonded to the enzymes’s active site (irreversible)

Alternative theory: penicillin mimics D-Ala D-Ala

Or may act as an umbrella inhibitor

Resistance

  • production of beta-lactamase - destroys the beta-lactam ring of penicillin and makes it ineffective (eg Staphylococcus aureus - most are now resistant)
  • In response, synthetic penicillin that is resistant to beta-lactamase is in use including egdicloxacillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, and methicillin. 
  • Some is resistant to methicillin - methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).  
  • Demonstrating blanket resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics -extremely serious health risk.
mercer/golden staff

I was trying to think of an alternate shipname for Speedy Recovery because the tag makes content hard to find, and I came up with “Mercer” which makes me laugh, because it’s how you say ‘MRSA’ which is Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, aka golden staph: an extremely dangerous infectious bacteria that is difficult to treat and 

like welcome to my ship Mercer/Golden Staff, you’re infected now, there’s no fucking cure you’re stuck with it forever

2

Staphylococcus aureus

S. aureus is a type of bacteria. It stains Gram positive non-motile cocci. It is found in grape-like clusters. This is why it is called Staphylococcus.

Staphylococcus is one of the five most common causes of infections after injury or surgery. It affects around 500,000 patients in American hospitals annually. S. aureus may occur commonly in the environment. S. aureus is transmitted through air droplets or aerosol. Another common method of transmission is through direct contact with objects that are contaminated by the bacteria or by bites from infected persons or animals. Approximately 30% of healthy humans carry S. aureus in their nose, back of the throat and on their skin.

S. aureus has long been recognized as one of the most important bacteria that cause disease in humans. It is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections such as abscesses (boils), furuncles, and cellulitis. Although most staph infections are not serious, S. aureus can cause serious infections such as bloodstream infections, pneumonia, or bone and joint infections.

When S. aureus becomes resistant to many of the antibiotics used to treat ordinary infections we call it Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Key characteristics: catalase(+), oxidase(-), coagulase(+), mannitol(+), beta-hemolysis.

After getting a cut, many Americans will reach for a tube of over-the-counter antibiotic cream to ward off infection. But that widespread habit, a new paper suggests, may be contributing to the rise of one of the most concerning strains of drug-resistant bacteria.

Japanese researchers looked at 261 samples of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including two samples of the USA300 strain, a type of MRSA that has gained attention for its spread, its frequent presence in the community as well as the hospital, and its link to necrotizing fasciitis, also known as flesh-eating disease.

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The Signs as Fatal Diseases

Aries - Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Taurus - Necrotising Fasciitis (Flesh-eating virus)

Gemini - Fatal Familial Insomnia

Cancer - Meningococcal disease / cerebrospinal meningitis

Leo - Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

Virgo - Bubonic plague (Black Death)

Libra - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

Scorpio - Diarrhea

Sagittarius - Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Syndrome 

Capricorn - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

Aquarius - Ebola 

Pisces - Cholera

If you’ve been keeping up with our multi-part series about how some old-timey medicine was just as advanced as medicine is today, you’ll understand why scientists love trying out recipes that they find in historic textbooks. At worst, they’ve ruined several hundred dollars of lab equipment – at best, they might discover the elixir of life.

Case in point: the millennia-old recipe that turned out to be capable of killing the modern-day superbug MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, for the medical nerds out there).

It all began after the wacky future-sitcom pairing of Freya Harrison, a microbiologist, and Christina Lee, a historian, who tried their hand at experimenting with a recipe from the Anglo-Saxon medical textbookBald’s Leechbook, which as of this writing isn’t available in an eBook format. After gathering the necessary ingredients (and trying to find those that most closely matched their historic counterparts), they created their brew and let it stand for the nine days dictated by the recipe (which we can’t help but read with a witchy tone of voice).

Testing their concoction on several scraps of MRSA-infected skin, they found that it killed 90 percent of the bacteria, making it equally as strong as the modern-day antibiotic currently used to treat the disease. 

Hitler’s Super Jet: 6 Lost Historical Secrets We’ve Dug Up

kayla-bird  asked:

writing research question: if an unscrupulous surgeon wanted to make absolutely sure a wound became infected, what might he put in it?

Honestly, almost anything. Dirt from outside, fecal matter, or even just spitting in it…surgical wounds are incredibly easy to infect. In fact, improper preparation prior to surgery can lead to infection by your own native flora that is just endemic to your skin and mucous membranes. This is why you always see people being swabbed down prior to incision.

Anyway, most surgeries have prophylactic antibiotics administered before/after, and I’m assuming your unscrupulous surgeon isn’t on a team of scumbags and would want to be discrete. Bacteria could make sure a wound would become infected, but it’s usually killed off if proper procedure is followed by other hospital personnel - if it’s not antibiotic-resistant, at least. Viral and fungal infections of wounds are more difficult, and lead to long-term disability and possible death, and it would be quite difficult to introduce a lethal virus into a patient without also contracting it.

————————–

Is this doctor intending to kill, or simply maim/disable? If they have access to specific pathogens (and aren’t looking to just shit in someone’s abdomen…or “accidentally” nick the patient’s colon while doing intra-abdominal surgery), Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriacae (specifically carbapenem-resistent Klebsiella pneumoniae - commonly shortened to CRKp) are actually present in many places throughout hospitals, but if one wanted to make sure it was introduced, a hospital growing an agar culture from another patient who already had it would be an easy source.

Another bacteria that is common enough to find in a culture lab is MRSA - methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. This one has a much higher rate of death when it’s contracted from a hospital (nosocomial infection) than from a source in the community. These days, there’s also vancomycin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) which is resistant to the primary antibiotic used to treat MRSA, as well as methicillin. That’s thankfully not as common - yet.

And, of course, there’s always Clostridium difficile. Not so much deadly as it is debilitating, at least among the non-infant/elderly/immunologically-impaired sector.

A 1,000-year-old treatment for eye infections could hold the key to killing antibiotic-resistant superbugs, experts have said. Scientists recreated a 9th Century Anglo-Saxon remedy using onion, garlic and part of a cow’s stomach. They were “astonished” to find it almost completely wiped out methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, otherwise known as MRSA. Their findings will be presented at a national microbiology conference. The remedy was found in Bald’s Leechbook – an old English manuscript containing instructions on various treatments held in the British Library. Anglo-Saxon expert Dr Christina Lee, from the University of Nottingham, translated the recipe for an “eye salve”, which includes garlic, onion or leeks, wine and cow bile. Experts from the university’s microbiology team recreated the remedy and then tested it on large cultures of MRSA. http://www.cryptogon.com/?p=46313

A 1,000-year-old treatment for eye infections could hold the key to killing antibiotic-resistant superbugs, experts have said.

Scientists recreated a 9th Century Anglo-Saxon remedy using onion, garlic and part of a cow’s stomach.

They were “astonished” to find it almost completely wiped out methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, otherwise known as MRSA.

Their findings will be presented at a national microbiology conference.

The remedy was found in Bald’s Leechbook – an old English manuscript containing instructions on various treatments held in the British Library.

Anglo-Saxon expert Dr Christina Lee, from the University of Nottingham, translated the recipe for an “eye salve”, which includes garlic, onion or leeks, wine and cow bile.

Experts from the university’s microbiology team recreated the remedy and then tested it on large cultures of MRSA.