meteoric impact

A Softer Love
  • “There are two types of love. True love, and the love we actually get.”
  • “I would love you more if you were someone who could love me.”
  • “Our love was doomed, a burning building, a broken neck. But nothing since you and me even feels like love.”
  • “I want everyone to love me and I’m pretty sure the trick is to just be myself, but with money.”
  • “I can only infer that love exists from its effects on others.”
  • “I will always love you, or anyway I will always have loved you now.”
  • “You are the love of my life so far.”
  • “Will you still love me when I am a spooky ghost?”
  • “I’m in love with the you I wish you were. I only stay with you because you look like him.”
  • “Sometimes even love isn’t enough. So what chance do WE have?”
  • “I wish being in love was enough. I wish it counted for anything at all.”
  • “I hate it when you leave but I love to look at your butt while you walk away.”
  • “Yeah, maybe we all die alone. I masturbate alone, too. Sometimes.”
  • “Sometimes when two people love each other it’s really unfortunate.”
  • “I don’t believe each person has just one true love, but sometimes we don’t have enough time to find another.”
  • “If love lasted forever, we’d only ever get one.”
  • “Just once I’d like to fall in love with someone? who will ruin things before I do.”
  • “Ah, unrequited love. When your best isn’t enough.”
  • “I am terrified I will never find another love like ours.”
  • “I want to carve our initials in the bark of everyone who ever hurt you.”
  • “I love the way your face lights up when someone says, "It might be dangerous.”“
  • "All I ever wanted was love, until you loved me.”
  • “Our love is like an animatronic pigeon. No! It’s like a sex party on the moon! Also I am a bit drunk.”
  • “I want people to tell their children terrifying stories about the things we did for love.”
  • “When you get that look, nobody is safe. It’s why I first fell in love with you.”
  • “You are a good person and I love you. This just isn’t the life I hoped I’d have.”
  • “Marriage isn’t just between a man and a woman, it’s between any two people who love each other and want to ruin their lives.”
  • “Our love is a forest fire and we are the little things that live in the trees.”
  • “Sometimes I think you might fall in love with someone else and all my problems will be solved.”
  • “I keep all my old love letters, but to be honest I just skim them for the dirty bits.”
  • “It would be easier to deal with falling out of love if it hadn’t somehow made the sex exciting again.”
  • “Unrequited love is a waste of time. Just walk it off. There. I said it.”
  • “If our love lasts forever it’s gonna get real awkward when one of us dies.”
  • “There are just two things that make life worth living. The people you love, and sweet pranks.”
  • “I love those quiet moments in the dark where you can stop pretending.”
  • “I don’t know what the fuck true love even is but I do want to hang out with you for basically the rest of my life.”
  • “I said I’d love you forever, and really meant it at the time. I guess that’s my problem. A failure of imagination.”
  • “I know I can’t make you love me. But I wish I could make you shut up about not loving me.”
  • “Our love is a meteor impact, a super volcano erupting. We won’t survive but we won’t die bored.”
  • “At first I was angry you had fallen in love with someone else, but you seem so happy now I didn’t even know you were sad.”
  • “You don’t love me, but you used to. I wanted to say thank you for that.”
  • “You and I will never be a great love story. That’s ok! Let’s see what kind of story we’ll be.”
  • “When I picture you with your new lover I get angry, and then sad, then kind of horny.”
  • “I lost the woman I loved and now all I have are my father’s well-meaning words, "Maybe now you can meet a nice man.”“
  • "I have loved since you. But when the new paint gets scratched, there you are underneath.”
  • “She’s like an angel. My family loves her but I just don’t believe anymore." 

Now if you were like me, this might come to you as a huge surprise because whenever one thinks about Jupiter one is not used to visualizing it with rings around it, but rather as a huge gas giant.


The rings are not prominent

Unlike Saturn’ rings which are bright, the discovery of Jupiter’s wings had to wait till 1979.

This is so because the rings are faint and are only visible only when viewed behind Jupiter and lit up by the sun.


How are they formed ?

Jupiter’s rings are formed from dust particles hurled up by micro-meteor impacts on Jupiter’s small inner moons and captured into orbit.

If the impacts on the moons were any larger, then the larger dust thrown up would be pulled back down to the moon’s surface by gravity (meaning that the dust would not have enough velocity to escape the surface).

The main and halo rings consist of dust ejected from the moons Metis, Adrastea, and other unobserved parent bodies as the result of high-velocity impacts

The rings must constantly be replenished with new dust from the moons to exist.

Actually, there are quite a bit about these rings that we are still in the dark about. And hopefully these would become clearer in the upcoming years.


Have a great day!

A Guide to Moldavite

What is a Tektite?
Moldavite is classified as a Tektite, or a natural impact glass. It comes from the Greek tektos, which means “molten” or “fused.” Basically, a meteoric impact produces pure silica molten glass (all soil impurities are burned away) because of the pressure and heat, and the cooling glass is launched by the force of the impact as it forms. It lands back on the ground as a hardened piece of silica glass.

What is Moldavite?
Moldavite (Vltavin) is a green Tektite found primarily in Czech Republic, and only very rarely in other parts of Central Europe. After the impact of the Ries Meteor, Moldavite literally rained from the sky across fields of Czech Republic, where it is now mined from the sandy soil. It’s known for being a high vibration metaphysical crystal and a tool in awakening consciousness, because of it’s partially “extraterrestrial” origins. Some people feel energy from Moldavite so powerfully, they can only wear it in small doses. 

So, what type of energy is associated with Moldavite?
Moldavite can help calm the mind for some, but for others, it speeds up intention and manifestation and must be used with care. It is best used during meditation, as one of it’s many spiritual uses is discovering inner truths. You may feel an awakening and an awareness of your own intention and power of manifestation, and may have powerful thoughts of “Why am I here?”, “Who am I?” or “What is my purpose here?” which is all very normal. Another effect you may notice is increased empathy, or perceiving feelings of others within yourself. This is important for anyone who does healing work, and Moldavite can be a great amplifier for that as well.

How do I know if my Moldavite is real?
Moldavite is usually sold in its raw natural free-form state, and has very distinct textures, patterns, waves, and bubbles, as you can see in the below photo, taken with a smartphone microscope looking at the surface texture of Moldavite. The colors range from deep green, to bright vibrant green, even olive colored and some have brownish hues, but if you see a piece of Moldavite and you don’t trust the color, hold it up to the light and look for waves, bubbles, or other irregular textures that may be authentic. Some fakes may look very real, and if you ever personally have a question about a specific piece of Moldavite’s authenticity, contact mike@innervisioncrystals.net with some photos and we will try to help you figure it out! The popularity of Moldavite has grown as people are becoming more conscious and spiritually aware, and it’s important to buy Moldavite from trusted sources whenever possible.

FOLLOW US FOR MORE CRYSTALS
Michael Bay Announces Retirement From Directing

Action director Michael Bay took to the news microphones today to announce that he would no longer direct movies. Bay had just released his fifth Transformers film and was about to state that he felt it couldn’t be topped, when suddenly his podium exploded, blowing him across the room as ten men in body armor opened fire. Bay returned fire with an M2 50 caliber machine gun that he kept in his watch pocket, killing six of them and blowing up two of their vehicles.

Bay ran as the attackers’ explosives carrier caught fire and the entire press symposium exploded behind him, throwing fire high into the air and scraping an F-35 that took damage and screamed to the ground, blowing up a gas-tanker truck. The remaining covert soldiers ran for Bay, but the retiring director evaded them by stealing a motorcycle from a woman in incredibly short shorts and taking off across a busy highway.

Speeding away from the mayhem, Bay was almost rammed by a truck carrying rolls of aluminum. Bay responded with a grenade, destroying the driver (who was also shooting at him) and letting the metal rolls loose. As they crashed into every oncoming car and smashed their engines to massive ignitions of fireballs and shrapnel, Bay jumped the motorcycle off a bridge and leapt from it, landing unharmed as the bike flew down to the fireworks sale below, setting off a chain reaction of blasts that blew up so much stuff so bad and there was fire everywhere and the military sent in everything they had to stop the carnage with American flags waving over their Humvees. They in turn were blown up by a meteor impact which caused an even bigger explosion, which Bay turned his back to and walked away from in slow motion.

Bay later retracted his retirement, stating that he’d just come up with a new idea for a movie.

and what a way to go

Note: written for @jeonalis because i love my college girl <3 Based on THIS THING. Names of gadgets and widgets and places and things cheerfully borrowed from all the nerd stuff I used to love many years ago. Mostly Ratchet and Clank though. I think there was also an unintentional fight club reference, but i’ve never seen the movie and have no desire to do so either. Points if you spot all the random nerd stuff I put in there.

Pairing: Jungkook x Reader
Genre: Crack, Sci-Fi, Smut Lite (Diet Smut a.k.a. Lazy Smut)
Warnings: it’s crack. it’s (bad, lazy) porn. Ah, actually there’s some physical violence.
Word Count: 4225
Rating: BC, for bad crack.

*

I want you to hit me as hard as you can,” you tell Jungkook.

“Excuse me?” he splutters.

“You heard the woman,” Jimin eggs him on.

“Hit me,” you dare.

*

Keep reading

What created this unusual hole in Mars? Actually, there are numerous holes pictured in this Swiss cheese-like landscape, with all-but-one of them showing a dusty, dark, Martian terrain beneath evaporating, light, carbon-dioxide ice. The most unusual hole is on the upper right, spans about 100-meters, and seems to punch through to a lower level. Why this hole exists and why it is surrounded by a circular crater remains a topic of speculation, although a leading hypothesis is that it was created by a meteor impact. Holes such as this are of particular interest because they might be portals to lower levels that extend into expansive underground caves. If so, these naturally-occurring tunnels are relatively protected from the harsh surface of Mars, making them relatively good candidates to contain Martian life. These pits are therefore prime targets for possible future spacecraft, robots, and even human interplanetary explorers.

Image Credit: NASA, MRO, HiRISE, JPL, U. Arizona

You never understood what the point of this thing was. It’s old and damaged. Whatever is supposed to show up on the screens is blacked out, either due to the damage, or due to this voidey blackout bullshit that seems to follow you wherever you go.

If I recall correctly, this was the screen that showed the map of meteor impacts when Rose was in her version of the lab.

anonymous asked:

Truth hurts, but secrets kill

You learned that lesson like a meteoric impact- fast and destructive, and you ran like nothing before with the sharp guilt of a dead brother-in-arms imbedded in your feet because you can’t trust anybody honestly, who would let such a liar into their heart, who would carry you long enough that the remnants of D– fall out of your feet, nobody that’s who, so you paint yourself gold and settle into a city like you were meant to be there.
And maybe, in some twist of destiny, you were.

NASA’s Next Mars Mission to Investigate Interior of Red Planet

Preparation of NASA’s next spacecraft to Mars, InSight, has ramped up this summer, on course for launch next May from Vandenberg Air Force Base in central California – the first interplanetary launch in history from America’s West Coast.

Lockheed Martin Space Systems is assembling and testing the InSight spacecraft in a clean room facility near Denver. “Our team resumed system-level integration and test activities last month,” said Stu Spath, spacecraft program manager at Lockheed Martin. “The lander is completed and instruments have been integrated onto it so that we can complete the final spacecraft testing including acoustics, instrument deployments and thermal balance tests.”

InSight is the first mission to focus on examining the deep interior of Mars. Information gathered will boost understanding of how all rocky planets formed, including Earth.

“Because the interior of Mars has churned much less than Earth’s in the past three billion years, Mars likely preserves evidence about rocky planets’ infancy better than our home planet does,” said InSight Principal Investigator Bruce Banerdt of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. He leads the international team that proposed the mission and won NASA selection in a competition with 27 other proposals for missions throughout the solar system. The long form of InSight’s name is Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.

Whichever day the mission launches during a five-week period beginning May 5, 2018, navigators have charted the flight to reach Mars the Monday after Thanksgiving in 2018.

The mission will place a stationary lander near Mars’ equator. With two solar panels that unfold like paper fans, the lander spans about 20 feet (6 meters). Within weeks after the landing – always a dramatic challenge on Mars – InSight will use a robotic arm to place its two main instruments directly and permanently onto the Martian ground, an unprecedented set of activities on Mars. These two instruments are:
– A seismometer, supplied by France’s space agency, CNES, with collaboration from the United States, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and Germany.

Shielded from wind and with sensitivity fine enough to detect ground movements half the diameter of a hydrogen atom, it will record seismic waves from “marsquakes” or meteor impacts that reveal information about the planet’s interior layers.

– A heat probe, designed to hammer itself to a depth of 10 feet (3 meters) or more and measure the amount of energy coming from the planet’s deep interior. The heat probe is supplied by the German Aerospace Center, DLR, with the self-hammering mechanism from Poland.
A third experiment will use radio transmissions between Mars and Earth to assess perturbations in how Mars rotates on its axis, which are clues about the size of the planet’s core.

The spacecraft’s science payload also is on track for next year’s launch. The mission’s launch was originally planned for March 2016, but was called off due to a leak into a metal container designed to maintain near-vacuum conditions around the seismometer’s main sensors.

A redesigned vacuum vessel for the instrument has been built and tested, then combined with the instrument’s other components and tested again. The full seismometer instrument was delivered to the Lockheed Martin spacecraft assembly facility in Colorado in July and has been installed on the lander.

“We have fixed the problem we had two years ago, and we are eagerly preparing for launch,” said InSight Project Manager Tom Hoffman, of JPL.
The best planetary geometry for launches to Mars occurs during opportunities about 26 months apart and lasting only a few weeks.

JPL, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the InSight Project for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the spacecraft. InSight is part of NASA’s Discovery Program, which is managed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

Together with two active NASA Mars rovers, three NASA Mars orbiters and a Mars rover being built for launch in 2020, InSight is part of a legacy of robotic exploration that is helping to lay the groundwork for sending humans to Mars in the 2030s.

Felcities of Rapid Motion- Chekov x Reader

A/N: I’ve survived two 8am lectures and I’ve got another two to go. Also, archaeology is the bastard lovechild of Science and History, pass it on. I’m so sorry it took so long, anon, I got a little stuck but then I figured it out. Also, thanks to everyone for sending in prompts, they should all be finished very soon :) I’m still open for all sorts of things though :)))))))

This is just a little Jane Austen inspired, but like not really, I decided Regency AU was a terrible idea unless you wanna 60k fic it. Also feat Bond!Karl Urban (hehehehe). Also, I wanted to try something a little new with romance that isn’t as IN YOUR FACE is kinda just starting out and blossoming, hopefully it’s still good???

Title: Felicities of Rapid Motion
Tags: Chekov x Reader, Blatant Archaeology, Bones’ southerness
Ratings: T (I really should wash my mouth out with soap)
Words:1,300+
Prompt: “You look… You like you should; eyes filled with stars and a smile that could make a goddess jealous.”
Prompt List: here (x)
Master List: here (x)


The Felicities of Rapid Motion

It is a truth universally acknowledged that a Vulcan High Councillor and a Star Fleet Captain in possession of mutually beneficial intentions must be in want of a ball.

It was a rare occasion aboard the Enterprise, and rarer still back in the Academy. But the thought of a Ball wile drifting in the endless stars and galaxies of the universe was enough for every crewmate aboard the scientific vessel to fucking wet themselves.

“And you, missy? You got a date?” You rolled your eyes at Bones and returned your eyes to the fragments of stone you had been gently scraping away at. Perhaps if you were lucky, there would be traces of the ancient civilisation’s DNA left in it, before it was severely affected by the meteor impact.

“I don’t know, Bones. I mean, I’m so close to figuring out this little detail. You know, it could completely re-write Xenoarchaeology’s interpretation of the fall of-“

“Okay Ensign Y/L/N, we get it, you’re gonna conquer the universe with your historical mumbo-jumbo.” Bones gently rolled his eyes before leaning on the bench, a little concerned. “But you gotta have a break, kiddo, can’t have you fallin’ asleep in the labs and on equipment.”

“No, I mean I can’t even find a date!” You laughed a little, though really not minding the fact. Or at least you thought you didn’t… never mind. “And besides, as if I have a ballgown or something to wear.”

“Well unfortunately for you, I’m a doctor not a fairy godmother.” Bones twirled a stirring rod that you had left beside a couple of beakers and test tubes. “Well, about dates, you can’t ask the people you have lunch with, can you?”

“Well, I tried setting up Montez with Fonteyn and that absolutely failed because Montez it turned out just wanted to get into my pants,” You began ticking off people in your little dining hall group. “And, well, It just doesn’t bother me as much as I thought it would-“

“What about Russian Whiz kid?” Bones tried with a raised brow.

“God no, I turned him down because I thought it was a joke. Turns out it was a real date.” You shuddered a little at the memory. There was no way that Ensign Chekov was serious, or so you had thought. You’d scoffed a little in the turbo lift, unable to believe what it was you were hearing. But it turned out he’d been in earnest.

And then the guilt began to eat at you, your heart sinking in complete and utter terror, unable to believe how callously you’d just turned Chekov down.

You thought for the briefest glimmer of a second that you’d seen the hurt pass before his hazel eyes. But in an instant they glimmered mischievously once again, a puppyish grin pulling at his mouth and his fingers raking through curls.

You’d fucked up. You’d done fucked up.

So you did whatever was humanely possible to avoid Chekov until the whole fiasco had blown over.

So pretty much until the galaxy collapsed in on itself.


Chekov realised that in retrospect, using the phrase “Did you know that the phrase cinePADD and chill was actually inwented in Russia?” to pick up a girl, was a terrible mistake. Especially if the intention to date said girl was rather serious.

But now, sweating in his rarely-worn tuxedo, he was genuinely worried. Ensign Y/L/N didn’t have a date as far as he knew (Bones told Uhura who told Sulu who told Kirk who told Spock who told quite literally the entirety of the Bridge), and while not everyone was required to have a date, he hadn’t seen her all night. Well, the night was still young.

Perhaps he just hadn’t seen her amidst rich silks and sumptuous velvets. Perhaps he’d just missed her, wearing a thin waft of chiffon and dissipating like autumn fog.

But as the gala drew on and the band played more songs, it became apparent to Pavel that she simply wasn’t there. She wasn’t mingling with remaining members of Vulcan council, trying glean pieces of history, or with Star Fleet officials, trying to find a post to some undiscovered planet.

“She’s not here,” Bones raised a ridiculously well-groomed brow, taking a sip of whiskey. It was rather difficult for Pavel to get a word in with the doctor as he had been besieged with various members of the crew, attempting to get laid, preferably with Bones still in the suit. “Decided to stay behind in the labs,”

“Oh,”

“Don’t worry Chekov, you had nothing to do with it,” Bones clapped him hard enough on his shoulder blade for his grimace to give way to a slight wince of pain.

“Do you zink she’s lonely down zere?” Pavel hazarded a question, sure that Bones probably wouldn’t cuff him behind the head. The gentle implications of his statement said that it was definitely his fault that she was spending her time alone. Probably enjoying her time alone as it meant a certain escape from him or anyone else.

“Probably not, son, she’s got millennia-old bits of dead bastards.” Bones replied before swiftly walking away at the sight of an engineering lieutenant who seemed to have her feelers wrapped tightly around Bones whenever in the vicinity.

It seemed rather rude, Pavel finally decided; to simply leave her alone without at least saying sorry. Perhaps she had just panicked? Or perhaps she really did not like him, either way it warranted a proper apology. And someone had to be concerned for her wellbeing.

It soon dawned upon him, after several minutes she was not in any of the labs. He couldn’t spy her studious form in any of the reflective, sanitised surfaces- the sharp, alcoholic smell assaulting his nose.

Eventually he found himself wandering to the emptied mess hall, hoping that perhaps she was helping herself to a serving of synthesised ice-cream.

And there she was, sitting cross-legged upon the floor, still dressed in her uniform and her hair in it’s usual carefree style. She stared out quietly, head resting in her hands, seemingly unaware of the distant noises around her as her eyes glittered with the colourful glow of the nebula.

“Y/N?” Pavel hesitated a little as he slowly drew nearer and nearer, locked in her gravitational pull and unable to leave- not that he would want to. “Are you alright?”

“Hm? Oh, it’s nothing. I never really liked galas that much anyway.” She shrugged slightly before turning to face him, her cheeks dampened with slight tears. “I’m- I’m sorry about the whole… shitfest,”

“Eets’s alright, I vas terrible,” He laughed, deciding that it would be for the best to join her on the cold floor tucking his legs and wrapping his arms around them. “What?”

“The tuxedo suits you,” She smiled, reaching out to tap the bow-tie Sulu had painstakingly knotted for him as he fidgeted, Kirk adjusting Chekov’s insignia cufflinks. “Did everyone look lovely?”

“Qvite,” He nodded enthusiastically in memory of what could only be described as a blur of fabric and spilled drinks. “Bones vas running avay from everyone, Uhura vas dancing, Kirk vas singing. You’d look lovely with them,” he added as an after-thought.

“Me? No, no…” She protested quietly, turning her head away from his gaze and facing the nebula once again, the now golden glow casting swirling patterns of light, dancing upon her beautiful face. “I look terrible-“

“No. You look… you look as you should,” Chekov refuted in all earnest before softening, realising how much he was telling the truth. She did look at home, at peace with the uniform, wearing it with pride. “Mesmerising, vith eyes filled vith stars and a smile zat could make a goddess jealous.”

“That was… poetic.” She admitted, shaking her head but her dazzling smile gracing her face, wiping away the now drying tears. “Was it true?”

“Of course,” He answered. “Are you lonely? Vould you rather be at ze party?”

“No, no. I’ve got you, haven’t I?”

She was right, Chekov thought. He was incandescently happy by her side, simply sitting back and watching the nebula, the gala drowned out in the stillness and her presence.

Rescued pt 2

Captain’s Log: Day 52 out of 854

  We were rescued today.

We are healing in the medical area aboard the ship. It seems that the humans in our crew have been looking for us since we ran away. Tracking us part of the way and then splitting up in teams to search around the spot we fell. When we were found we had started fading, Tiny’s barking alerted the crew to our location. We have been told about the search by various crew members.

The humans had apparently picked up branches and other items to be use as weapons. They also used flash lights to continue searching after the darkness came, and radios to relay location and updates. They determined that whom ever hacked the camera and logs when the ship was first vandalized were also able to hack into my private logs, like this one now. They used the information to try to find locations we reported. It is still unknown to us who this individual is but they may have saved us. We will note that the humans reported that they attempted to go through proper channels to get the information released to the crew but they were told all information is classified and first had to be reviewed by our commanding officer before being released to the crew. As she is currently in hibernation on her home planet and not expected to return for another 2 months, we have stated that we wish to pardon this individual from all crimes due to the emergency situation. 

After we were rescued, on the other side of camp from where we ran, it was found that when we could not climb up the hill, we followed the gully that curved nearly 180 degrees. Due to the thick jungle, we could not see that our camp was in a meteor impact zone that has been filled in over eons of the jungle growing and decaying. 

We have not been release from med bay. they have stitched my arm from the blood spurt or as the doctor said, “blood explosion.” We did have minor fractures in our right leg and are now in a cast. This is not out first broken bone but we hope it is the last. We thought being a captain on a science ship was a safe job. 

End Log

Moon’s magnetic field lasted far longer than once believed

Rutgers and MIT experts lead lunar rock study with implications for life and habitability on other moons and planetary bodies


The moon’s magnetic field lasted 1 billion to 2.5 billion years longer than once thought - a finding with important implications for habitability on other moons and planets throughout the universe, a Rutgers University-New Brunswick professor says.

“The Earth’s magnetic field is a shield that protects us from dangerous solar wind particles and ionizing radiation, so magnetic fields play a key role in the habitability of planets and, possibly, moons,” said Sonia Tikoo, lead author of a study published online today in Science Advances and an assistant professor in Rutgers’ Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences.

“Without this shield, we’d have more radiation, we’d have lots of mutations and who knows how life would respond in an unstable environment like that,” said Tikoo, who began working on the study in 2013 while she was a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and who has examined more than 10 moon rocks. “It would be a harsher place to survive in.”

In their study, the researchers – for the first time – successfully heated a lunar rock brought to Earth during an Apollo space mission to retrieve an accurate intensity for the lunar magnetic field, she said. The energetic cores of planets and moons generate magnetic fields, and rocks can record magnetic fields to which they were exposed.

Tikoo reanalyzed a moon rock collected by the Apollo 15 crew on Aug. 1, 1971, on the southern rim of Dune Crater within eastern Mare Imbrium. The small, young rock – partially coated with melted glass – likely formed during a meteor impact on the lunar surface.

Tikoo used a rock magnetometer to analyze the lunar rock. The device measures the strength and direction of magnetic fields in rocks. She slowly demagnetized the rock to reveal its original magnetization, heating it to 1,436 degrees Fahrenheit in a controlled atmosphere chamber at MIT to keep the heat from altering the rock.

The researchers think the moon’s magnetic field declined by about 90 percent from its high point 3.56 billion years ago or earlier. That’s when the moon’s magnetic field was about the same strength as the Earth’s is today – an average of about 50 microtesla, a measure of magnetism. The lunar rock Tikoo tested, which is about 1 billion to 2.5 billion years old, recorded 5 microtesla.

The moon has no core-generated magnetic field today, and scientists don’t know when it turned off. Lingering questions include trying to figure out when the field ceased and what the field was like between 3.56 billion and 2.5 billion years ago, she said.

“We didn’t think that small planetary bodies could generate magnetic fields for a very long time because they have smaller cores that would cool quickly and crystallize early in their lifetimes,” she said.

“Because the rate of crystallization depends on the core composition, our finding may challenge what we think the lunar core is made of. It’s mostly made of iron, but something must be mixed in with it: sulfur, carbon or another element.”

When a planet’s magnetic field dies, ionizing particles from its sun can lead to the loss of its water over hundreds of millions of years, Tikoo said. “That’s a big deal in terms of habitability,” she said, adding that Mars once had lots of water but lost nearly all of it after its magnetic field died about 4 billion years ago.

“Whenever we look at exoplanets or the moons of exoplanets that could be in the habitable zone, we can consider the magnetic field as an important player in habitability,” she said. “Then the question becomes what size planets and moons should we be considering as possibly habitable worlds.”


IMAGE….The Apollo 15 breccia (rock) sample 15498 analyzed by Professor Sonia Tikoo of Rutgers University-New Brunswick. The rock consists of basalt fragments welded together by a dark glassy matrix that was produced by melting from a meteorite impact. The black scale cube is 1 centimeter across. Credit NASA

Gem Names: A Method to the Madness?

Today we’re going to take a look at the names of the currently unveiled Gems and see if they have any correlation to their personality and abilities. We’ll be looking at both Gemology, and miscellaneous properties. Check out this post’s sister article, “Crystal Music: Gem Musical Motifs” to learn about each Gem’s musical and dance themes! If you’re interested in some pretty convincing theories on who the Gem Monsters used to be, check out “Gem Monsters: Who Did They Used To Be?”

EDIT: I updated this post to contain Ruby and Sapphire. I also updated Jasper’s entry.

EDIT2: Added Desert Glass

EDIT3: Turns out the Centipeetle is Chrysoberly was false, and she has been moved to the Gem Monsters post. Sorry about that.

WARNING: Spoilers for ALL gems are below! Don’t read if you want to be surprised!

CRYSTAL GEMS

Ruby

Ruby is an extremely common, but valued, gemstone. Rubies were very popular in Asian countries, where they were often fit into sword scabbards, armor, helmets, and other war-related items due to the belief that their blood-red color would help people fight. Our Ruby is shown to be very aggressive and seems to be a fighter at heart. Rubies are created from the chemical formula Al2O3:Cr (Aluminum Oxide with Chromium), and are actually the same species of gem as Sapphire and Garnet, except Rubies are red due to increased amounts of Aluminum. This may be why Sapphire and Ruby can fuse to well, they’re the same gem species just different colors (both have the exact same chemical formula, Al2O3:Cr).

Sapphire

Sapphires are used in electronics such as watches and infrared optics. Their use in optics is very important to the military of all countries, since many sight-based machines (such as telescopes and infrared cameras), would not operate without Sapphire inside them. Our Sapphire in SU has “Future Vision” (which her fusion Garnet inherits), so obviously she gains her ability to see into the future from her real-life Sapphire’s vision-enhancing properties. Sapphire also has the same chemical formula as Ruby (Al2O3:Cr), which may be why they can fuse to well and for so long.

Garnet

The name “Garnet” actually refers to a group of precious stones rather than a specific species. The Garnet in the show might actually be “Mozambique Garnet”, which carries a deep red hue instead of the orange-brown most species of Garnet exhibit. In fact, deep red Ruby and Garnet is still called “Sunset Sapphire”, just to make things even more confusing. The chemical formula for Garnet is  Fe3Al2(SiO4)3 (corrected by r4nd0mn355).

Amethyst

Amethyst is a type of quartz, one of the most common minerals on Earth. Amethyst was created from a Kindergarten, so her being a type of quartz could reflect her Earthly origins. Amethyst also gets its distinct purple hue from irradiation or iron impurities. 

One of my main theories is this: Amethyst, the stone, can be exposed to radiation to artificially deepen its color. Jasper in “Jail Break” referred to Amethyst as an “over-cooked runt”, so perhaps her species of Gem can be incubated for longer to increase their destructive power, but leaving them for too long can cause them to defect.

Pearl

Pearls are organic minerals formed by animals in the mollusk family in response to irritants that get lodged in their mouths. Pearl as a character is very easy to become neurotic and agitated and loves to keep things neat and tidy, so it makes sense that her gem in nature removes irritants. Pearl also has limited control over sand (as seen in “Giant Woman”), and sand is the most common core irritant that Pearls are created from.

Rose Quartz

Quartz is the most common mineral on Earth, while Rose Quartz is the most common subspecies of Quartz. This fits with Rose’s desire to protect Earth and how she feels deeply for the planet.

HOMEWORLD GEMS

Peridot

Peridot is a mineral that is common in meteorites or other extraterrestrial rocks, which makes sense when you think about how Peridot acts in-show. Peridot is also extremely rich in iron, which may account for our Peridot’s magnetic fingers and wall-running ability (as seen in “Keeping it Together”). Peridot is usually formed by meteorites as they impact the Earth’s surface, but pure Peridot is extremely rare due to how unstable it becomes when exposed to the Earth’s environment.

Jasper

This name means “striped/spotted stone”, derived from the Old French word jaspre. Jasper herself indeed is striped with the stones characteristic bands of yellow and orange. Funny to note is that the gem on Jasper’s face appears to be Jasper cut into a pyramid-like shape, however real-life Jasper is almost impossible to cut into any standard crystal shapes so it is instead tumbled for smoothness and clarity (as seen below).

Lapis Lazuli

Lapis Lazuli is a deep blue mineral that is porous and dissolves in water over time. A cousin to Lapis Lazuli, Azurite, forms naturally as a fusion partner to Malachite in mineral veins. Make of that what you will.

FUSIONS

Opal

My personal favorite, Opal is a type of amorphous hydrated mineralloid. It’s created by the fusion of water-based minerals and a silica-quartz foundation. Why does this make sense? Because Opal is a fusion of Pearl (a water-derived stone), and Amethyst (a common subtype of silica-quartz). Conspiracy? I think not!

Sugilite

Really the only thing I can say about Sugilite is that the crystals in nature have a tendency to form huge stalactites and clusters, similar to how the character Sugilite is ridiculously huge. There’s also the obvious pun on the word suggilate, which means to beat until bruised. 

Alexandrite

This species of chrysoberyl changes color depending on what type of light is being shown on it (such as natural or UV light). The stone can change from a strange dark red to a vibrant green and even to blues and yellows depending on each individual stone. Alexandrite in the show definitely has a complex color palette, but if you look at her model sheet, the version of Alexandrite we see in the show is called “Alexandrite: Night Palette”, which means we’ll see a day-colored version in the future.

Malachite

Retaining the characteristic color streaks from her component Jasper, Malachite’s color scheme is actually extremely close to natural malachite. However, Malachite gives off toxic fumes when submerged in water. Obviously this fits with her toxic nature.

Rainbow Quartz

Rainbow Quartz is a metal-coated mineral, designed for maximum luminosity and color. It’s creation is mostly artificial, and is meant only for jewelry purposes. As far as we know so far, Rainbow Quartz in the show seems to be the only Gem Fusion that doesn’t have any real combat prowess, and was created by Pearl and Rose Quartz simply to make Greg jealous and give him a cool shot for his music video, respectively.

Sardonyx

Normally, Sardonyx is a combination of the two minerals Sard and Onyx (creative, right?), however in this case she is named after the blending of Garnet and Pearl’s characteristic colors (orange-red and cream), which the real-life Sardonyx shares. Both Sardonyx and Peridot are the traditional birthstones of August, and both share the same triangular haircut.

OTHERS

Pufferfish Gem Monster (Watermelon Tourmaline)

Do I even need to explain this one?


Desert Glass (Tektite)

It is unknown why Desert Glass was trapped in that strange pillow-looking thing, but her ties to real-life Desert Glass are plain to see. Desert Glass is formed by the flash-heating of sand by lightning or meteoric impacts. Desert Glass in the show is indeed found in the desert, and is seen creating large pillars and structures of sand. The scientific name of Desert Glass is Tektite, and like Peridot is commonly found at sites of meteor impacts.

fedorafreak: yes. it is as hoped for beyond hope.
fedorafreak: unusual devices may be used to duplicate fresh, perfectly pressed garments. inexhaustibly, afaik.
fedorafreak: reconstructing complete professional ensemble now - hold.
fedorafreak: pleased to report restoration of dapper visage an overwhelming success.

I think this might be the first time in the entire comic that we’ve heard from other Sburb sessions. Sure, Rose found some incomplete FAQs way back in Act 1, but the fact that they all abruptly ended suggests that those players were killed by a meteor impact before they managed to Enter the game.

Fedorafreak mentions hunting for enemies to obtain grist later on, which means he actually got into the Medium and is making progress in his own session.

EVOLUTION OF THE WHALES

Christmas is almost here, so what better topic to post on than the evolution of the whales!?!?

65 million years ago the earth was devastated by a catastrophic meteor impact that resulted in the death of the dinosaurs. Mammals back then had been slowly evolving but remained small and mostly nocturnal, yet when the dinosaurs perished they quickly took over abandoned niches in the skies, land and water becoming one of the most incredible dynasties the world has ever seen.
Some of the most beautiful of this diverse group are the marine mammals, the cetaceans (whales, dolphins etc). The ancestor of the whales left life on land to make the oceans their home. With over 86 species existing today of whales, dolphins and other marine mammals, they make up the order Cetacea which include the magnificent blue whale reaching a whopping 30 metres in length to the little known porpoise species, Vaquita reaching only 4.5 metres long.
The evolution of the whales is documented in an incredibly rich fossil record dating back to over 50 million years ago…

Pakicetus, 50 million years ago
Pakicetus is regarded as the most basal (earliest) whale. Although Pakicetus primarily lived on land, it is the first of the land mammals to show significant developments towards a future in ruling the oceans. Pakicetus is known from only a few incomplete specimens found in Pakistan but it is predicted to have been about a metre in length. Interestingly, Pakicetus was an artiodactyl (or even-toed ungulate, an order which includes the giraffes, camels, pigs and cows), however, Pakicetus shows some defining characteristics of evolving for life in the water such as elongation of the skull and body and the teeth begin to lose the heterodontus nature. The eyes of Pakicetus were also high on its head suggesting a capability to hunt not only on land but in water too.

Ambulocetus, 49 million years ago
Ambulocetus literally means “walking whale” and shows more extreme divergence towards an aquatic lifestyle. Ambulocetus shows even greater elongation of the skull and simplification of its dental morphology. Unlike the marine reptiles of a bygone era, Ambulocetus would have swam through the water with vertical motion. The morphology of Ambulocetus’ inner ear is also similar to that of modern cetaceans meaning it could probably hear well underwater. Ambulocetus also shares some similarities with modern crocodiles such as high nostrils, pointed teeth and a long skull, making it likely that Ambulocetus was a deadly ambush predator, a far cry from its gentle giant descendants.

Rodhocetus, 46 million years ago

Rodhocetus fossils are also restricted to Pakistan and beautifully depict a familiar whale like skeleton with much shorter limbs and elongated hands and feet (that were most likely webbed). The nasal openings of Rodhocetus has also moved higher up the skull and closer to the eyes. Again, Rodhocetus shows specific morphologies that are characteristic of artiodactyls, they have a double-pulley astralagus (heel bone) found in all modern even toed ungulates.  

Basilosaurus, 37 million years ago
Basilosaurus is probably the earliest skeleton that very closely resembles modern whales, the name means “king lizard” which is highly inaccurate but fits well when considering that Basilosaurus had a long and slender body that could reach an almighty 18 metres in length. Basilosaurus also shows an extraordinary reduction in limb size compared to its ancestors meaning it is in no way adapted to live on the land any longer. At the time of Basilosaurus’ existence it was one of the largest marine animals to have existed since the days of marine reptiles (such as Liopleurodon and Mosasaurs). The teeth of Basilosaurus had similar morphology to modern killer whales indicating they were highly active hunters.

The whales of today are some of the most remarkable creatures to have ever existed. We often stand and stare in awe at the immense sizes of prehistoric marine animals in museums and it is easy to forget that we are living at the same time of the largest animals to have ever existed, past of present, the whales. We then often neglect to appreciate how magnificent these creatures are. Sadly this has led to a massive depletion in their numbers and diversity due to pollution, fishing and hunting. The whales and all other cetaceans have some of the most wonderful social structures known in the animal kingdom as well as incredible intelligence. In the last 50 million years this order has conquered oceans across the world and delighted humans all over. Cetaceans are fast becoming more endangered and if we do not act, in years to come our descendants will wonder how their ancestors let these wonderful creatures slip through their fingers.

4

The Richat Structure or “The Eye of the Sahara” is a mysterious geological formation in Mauritania. Scientists used to think it was the site of a meteor impact or volcanic eruption. Now, the leading theory is that a symmetrical dome of sedimentary rock was eroded away, revealing nested layers.

Top Image: A false color image of the structure from the Landsat 7 sensor, using the infrared and green channels. Credit: NASA/USGS.

GIF: The Richat Structure can be seen from space - a tiny bullseye in the middle of the desert.

Middle image: An exaggerated topographical map of the structure. Brown=bedrock, pale yellow = sand, green = vegetation, blue = salty sediments=blue. Credit: NASA/JPL/NIMA

Bottom image: A true color photo of the eye. Credit: NASA/GSFC/METI/Japan Space Systems,and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

ERAS OF THE EARTH

It wasn’t long ago that our Earth was thought to be only a few thousand years old and having been created in a matter of days. However during the scientific revolution that was taking place in the 18th and 19th centuries, minds like Darwin, Hutton and Lyell were challenging these age old theories. It was Charles Lyell that pioneered the theory that the forces of physics have remained the same throughout history, James Hutton also expressed that we can interpret the ancient past by studying modern day natural processes because the past and present are governed by the same laws. His findings reported that layers of sediment accumulated at around 2cm per year, he deduced that since mountains are sedimentary formations and thousands of metres high that the planet is more than a few thousand years old, but hundreds of millions. 

Our Earth is actually 4600 million years old, this staggeringly long time is almost impossible for the human mind to comprehend. As far as we know, life emerged as single celled organisms around 3800 million years ago, for the next 3 billion years it would remain as these minute unicellular organisms. This is the Precambrian, 4600 - 570 million years ago. 

To help us grasp the immense history of the Earth, a geological timescale was developed with each period marking a milestone in evolution and life.

CAMBRIAN 540 - 488 million years ago
Named after Cambria, an ancient name for Wales where rocks of this age are greatly exposed.
The Cambrian period sees explosive development of multicellular life with all the main modern phyla being established. Complex eyes and food chains evolve as well as active predation. Life is confined to the sea.

See Hallucigenia Opabinia Anomalocaris  

ORDOVICIAN 488 - 440 million years ago
Named for an ancient welsh tribe, the ordovices who lived in areas where rocks of this age are well exposed. Th oceans flourish with huge diversity of jawless fish, trilobites and gastropods and arthropods begin to dominate. The period ends with arthropods taking the first steps onto land. The end of the ordovician is marked by the first of the five major mass extinctions to hit the planet.

See Pterygotus Cameroceras 

SILURIAN 444 - 416 million years ago
Named for another welsh tribe, the silures, who inhabited areas where rocks of this age are abundant. Life in the oceans recovered from extinctions, magnificent coral reefs thrive in warm seas. Small plants begin to colonise the land and jawed fishes evolve.

DEVONIAN 416 - 359 million years ago
Named after the English county of Devon which is rich in Devonian age rocks and fossils. The Devonian period is also known as the age of the fishes. Jawed fish and placoderm fish rule the oceans, trilobites still thrive. Plants move from the coastal areas deep into land and the first forests spring up. Shark species increase in numbers and early forms of amphibian begin to spend more time on land.

See Dunkleosteus 

CARBONIFEROUS 359 - 299 million years ago
Known as the age of amphibians and named for the ancient coal deposits which were laid down during this time. The land is overrun with lush forests and swamps, The two main continents of the time, Eurasia and Gondwana are colliding to form the supercontinent Pangea. Winged insects take over the skies, oxygen content is much higher that today allowing insects to reach great sizes and the first true reptiles evolve, these are the first truly terrestrial vertebrates.

PERMIAN 299 - 251 million years ago
Named after Perm in Russia where rocks of the age are well exposed. Pangea is covered in harsh deserts, the number of species goes into decline, eventually 95% of them are wiped out in the worst mass extinction ever seen. Mammal like reptiles evolve. The first dinosaurs evolve towards the end of the Permian, they start as a few isolated groups and begin to increase rapidly in numbers.

See Scutosaurus Helicoprion Dimetrodon Gorgonops 

TRIASSIC 251 - 200 million years ago
Named after the word “Trias” referring to 3 rock divisions in Germany called bunter, muschelkalk and keuper. The climate of Pangea is warm and dry and dinosaurs have gradually assumed dominance in the land, skies and oceans. Mammals only exist as a few small species. Ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs reign in the sea and reach phenomenal size.

See Proterosuchus Tanystropheus 

JURASSIC 200 - 146 million years ago
Named for the Jura mountains. Dinosaurs still dominate the land and the oceans flourish with marine reptiles and ammonites. The first bird start to appear towards the end of the Jurassic.

See Liopleurodon Megalosaurus 

CRETACEOUS 146 - 65 million years ago
Named for the latin “creta” meaning chalk which is laid down during this period and found widely now. Dinosaurs continue to dominate, the first flowering plants evolve. Sea levels are up to 300m higher than today in some areas, much of the land is covered in shallow seas. Carbon dioxide concentrations rise, slowly choking the atmosphere. The end of the cretaceous is marked by the extinction of the dinosaurs due to possible meteor impact.

See Archelon Deinosuchus Ankylosaurus 

PALEOGENE 65 - 23 million years ago
The world begins to recover, mammals and birds begin to flourish and exploit the vacant niches left behind by the dinosaurs, in doing so they grow to incredible sizes. The climate is gradually cooling and will continue to do so bringing the earth into an ice age. In these cooler conditions the first grasses evolve.

See Gastornis Paraceratherium Entelodon Andrewsarchus Ambulocetus

NEOGENE 23 - 2.5 million years ago
The climate is still cooling, ice sheets begin to spread down from the poles, as a result sea levels slowly drop. The size of forests reduce and grasslands take over resulting in vast open planes. Mammals dominate the earth due to their ability to adapt to changing environments and harsh conditions. Towards the end of the period early hominids begin to appear.

See amphicyon Glyptodonts Megalodon

QUATERNARY 2.5 million years ago to present
With an enduring ice age much of the mammalian megafauna have become extinct. Hominids have continued to evolve, only the homo sapiens survive as they are able to adapt.

See Megatherium