mesolithic period

{PART 22} I Won’t Stop You (M) // Jeon Jungkook, Vampire!AU

Originally posted by jengkook

Pairing: Jungkook x Reader

Genre: Vampire!AU, Fantasy, Angst, Smut

Summary; You hear the great history of Vampires as you have never heard it before. But as the door into Jungkook’s world is opened wide for you - many more open in turn. Jungkook finds himself overwhelmed with anger - and that anger turns into something you least expected.

“His love and protection were both her weapon and shield. She didn’t belong or willingly surrender to anyone; anyone that was, except him.”

I update this series every Tuesday evening, 9pm-10pm (UK Time) 

{Part 1} // {Part 21} {Part 22} {Part 23}

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Isle of Skye, Scotland

Skye, or the Isle of Skye (/skaɪ/; Scottish Gaelic: An t-Eilean Sgitheanach or Eilean a’ Cheò), is the largest and most northerly major island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. The island’s peninsulas radiate from a mountainous centre dominated by the Cuillins, the rocky slopes of which provide some of the most dramatic mountain scenery in the country.Although it has been suggested that the Gaelic Sgitheanach describes a winged shape there is no definitive agreement as to the name’s origins.
The island has been occupied since the Mesolithic period and its history includes a time of Norse rule and a long period of domination by Clan MacLeod and Clan Donald. The 18th-century Jacobite risings led to the breaking up of the clan system and subsequent Clearances that replaced entire communities with sheep farms, some of which also involved forced emigrations to distant lands. Resident numbers declined from over 20,000 in the early 19th century to just under 9,000 by the closing decade of the 20th century. Skye’s population increased by 4 per cent between 1991 and 2001.About a third of the residents were Gaelic speakers in 2001, and although their numbers are in decline, this aspect of island culture remains important.
The main industries are tourism, agriculture, fishing and forestry. Skye is part of the Highland Council local government area. The island’s largest settlement is Portree, known for its picturesque harbour. There are links to various nearby islands by ferry and, since 1995, to the mainland by a road bridge. The climate is mild, wet and windy. The abundant wildlife includes the golden eagle, red deer and Atlantic salmon. The local flora is dominated by heather moor, and there are nationally important invertebrate populations on the surrounding sea bed. Skye has provided the locations for various novels and feature films and is celebrated in poetry and song.


independent.co.uk
12,000-year-old grave of female shaman excavated in northern Israel
The 12,000-year-old grave of a female shaman has been unearthed by archaeologists in northern Israel, providing a new insight into religious practices in the prehistoric world. The woman's remains were buried in the tomb at Hilazon Cave in Galilee along with a human foot, an eagle’s wing, a leopard’s pelvic bone and 86 tortoise shells.

The grave of a female shaman has been discovered in northern Israel.  The graves of female shamans are quite common throughout Asia but never in Israel till now.  Shamanism is often believed to be the earliest stage of religion according to historians and anthropologists of religion and can be found in various parts of the world.  The ancient Near East is one part of the world where evidence of shamanism was not found until recently.  

The shaman herself was believed to be from the Natufian culture, a little known Near Eastern culture that appeared during the Mesolithic period (between Paleolithic and Neolithic) during the Stone Age.  From what we know about Natufians is that they were sedentary before becoming agricultural, which is both rare and difficult among ancient Near Eastern cultures, or it is at least for those furthest away from the eastern Mediterranean.  Also the first signs of the domestication of the dog is found among the Natufians.

Other than that, not much is known about the Natufians.  They did have settlements close to major important cities and sites that exist today or are mentioned in history.  But other than that they remain a mystery.     

~Hasmonean

the worlds oldest statue

The statue is twice as old as the Egyptian pyramids, and contains arguably the most ancient coded message on the planet

The Shigir Idol, is estimated to be 9,500 years old and is regarded as the worlds most mysterious object.

It was made during the Mesolithic period, around 7,500 BCE but was only discovered in 1890 in Kirovgrad, Sverdlovsk region, in the Ural Mountains.

The statue is currently displayed in the “Historic Exhibition” Museum in Yekaterinburg, Russia and is guarded 24 hours a day by Russian special forces.

Discovery

The idol was discovered on January 24, 1894 at a depth of 4m in the peat bog of Shigir, on the eastern slope of the Middle Urals, approximately 100 km from Yekaterinburg. Investigations in this area had begun 40 years earlier after the discovery of a variety of prehistoric objects in an open-air gold mine.

It was extracted in several parts; professor D. I. Lobanov combined the main fragments to reconstitute a sculpture 2.80m high.

In 1914 the archaeologist Vladimir Tolmachev proposed a variant of this reconstruction by integrating the unused fragments.

Some of these fragments were reported lost, so only Tolmachev’s drawings of them remain.

Since 2003 the sculpture has also been displayed in a glass box filled with inert gas.

The body is flat and rectangular and strange Geometrical motifs decorate its surface. Horizontal lines at the level of the thorax seem to represent ribs, and lines broken in chevrons cover the rest of the body. The rest of the markings remain unexplained

No consensus exists about the meaning of the motifs, or what the sculpture represented. Claims have been made that the motifs refer to aliens or gods.

Expert view

Now Russian experts say the remarkable relic contains encoded information on the ‘creation of the world’ – a message to modern man from the Mesolithic era of the Stone Age.

THE SHIGIR IDOL: Strange facts

The Shigir Idol is thought to be the most ancient wooden sculpture in the world.

It stands 9.2ft (2.8 metres) in height but originally was 17.4ft (5.3 metres) tall, as high as a two storey house.
Almost 6.5ft (2 metres) of the artefact went missing during Russian’s 20th century political turmoil, though Siberian archaeologist Vladimir Tolmachev drew images of all the pieces.

The messages carved into the ornament ‘remain ‘an utter mystery to modern man’, according to experts.

Some say the straight lines could denote land, or horizon – the boundary between earth and sky, water and sky, or the borderline between the worlds.

A wavy line or zigzag symbolised the watery element, snake, lizard, or determined a certain border.

But the marks could have multiple meanings for the ancient statue-makers who gave the idol seven faces, only one of which is three-dimensional.

The faces may be images of spirits that inhabited the human world in ancient times.

Skye or the Isle of Skye (/sk/Scottish GaelicAn t-Eilean Sgitheanach or Eilean a’ Cheò) is the largest and most northerly large island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland.[Note 1] The island’s peninsulas radiate from a mountainous centre dominated by the Cuillins, the rocky slopes of which provide some of the most dramatic mountain scenery in the country.[9][10] Although it has been suggested that the Gaelic Sgitheanach describes a winged shape there is no definitive agreement as to the name’s origins.

The island has been occupied since the Mesolithic period and its history includes a time of Norse rule and a long period of domination by Clan MacLeod and Clan Donald. The 18th-century Jacobite risings led to the breaking up of the clan system and subsequent Clearances that replaced entire communities with sheep farms, some of which also involved forced emigrations to distant lands. Resident numbers declined from over 20,000 in the early 19th century to just under 9,000 by the closing decade of the 20th century. Skye’s population increased by 4 per cent between 1991 and 2001.[11] About a third of the residents were Gaelic speakers in 2001, and although their numbers are in decline this aspect of island culture remains important.[12]

The main industries are tourism, agriculture, fishing and whisky-distilling. Skye is part of the Highland Council local government area. The island’s largest settlement is Portree, known for its picturesque harbour.[13] There are links to various nearby islands by ferry and, since 1995, to the mainland by a road bridge. The climate is mild, wet and windy. The abundant wildlife includes the golden eaglered deer and Atlantic salmon. The local flora is dominated by heather moor, and there are nationally important invertebrate populations on the surrounding sea bed. Skye has provided the locations for various novels and feature films and is celebrated in poetry and song.

New research suggests continuous human presence in Stonehenge landscape for ten millennia

New research has revealed that the landscape around Stonehenge has been continuously occupied for  around 10,000 years.The findings – a series of radiocarbon dates from a site 1.5 miles east of the famous prehistoric  monument – strengthens  the likelihood that the area was of considerable political significance  for literally thousands of years before Stonehenge and its neighbouring monuments were built.

The earliest definitive evidence of human activity in the area – dating from around 8000 BC – is from a site 100 metres north of Stonehenge. But now a new series of 11 radiocarbon dates reveal that an area 1.5 miles east of the site of Stonehenge was inhabited between 7600 and 4700 BC, during the pre-agricultural ‘Mesolithic’ period. Read more.

Cultural Allusions

Words: 1,552
Notes: I claim no credit for this joke. I got it from this post, although it’s appeared in several other places since; the next logical step was to just run with it, since that’s in all probability what Natasha would do. 

Also, the concept was irresistible and I am weak. 

My most sincere apologies, and I hope I’m not overstepping when I assume you’re all familiar with “Shrek.” 

In May of 2001, Robert Bruce Banner (no aliases yet, although he prefers to go by his middle name) is thirty-one years old. He will turn thirty-two in December. His life centers around the study of anti-electron collision and its production of gamma ray photons, protein-lesion yields and viability in irradiated cells, an 8-bit TTL computer he’s been putting together from scrap, and a woman named Elizabeth Ross whom he has earnest hopes of marrying.

In May of 2001, Natalia Alianovna Romanova (alias “Natasha Romanoff,” alias “Black Widow,” alias “Whatever the Plot Requires”) is sixteen years old. She might turn seventeen in November. Her life centers around the sound of her own heartbeat inside her ears, the feeling of her own hands and arms as she washes off other people’s blood, the sight of a newly-made scar that runs horizontal across her lower abdomen, and the general idea of not getting herself killed. This shapes up to be a rather all-consuming avocation.

So neither party, understandably enough, is paying much attention to the activity of DreamWorks Studios, or a certain movie it promotes and releases that particular month.

(Bruce may vaguely note a period of several weeks during which he cannot turn around in the supermarket without seeing a green-faced creature – what was on its head, suction cups? – decorating the front of every cereal box and cookie package, but the image leaves no lasting impression. 

Natalia-Natasha-Black Widow, meanwhile, does not go to the cinemas. She already spends enough time sitting by herself in the dark, waiting for things to happen. Why give away her money for more of the same?)

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Gender Binary Adventures

When I sit down at a gaming table with multiple boys and one girl, I know there’s gonna be trouble. Often the girl is a year or two younger than the boys: maybe it’s a boys’ birthday party and the powers that be have ordered the boys to accept someone’s little sister into the group, despite impassioned protestations. Whatever the ages and the reason, this invariably happens …

GM: The bad guys attack you. What do you do?
Boy A: I run around in circles singing a song.
Boy B: I charge suicidally at the biggest monster.
Boy C: I do something equally irrelevant or dumb.
Girl: I do the tactically optimal thing.

I do not know why, but for some reason, little girls are more inclined to set ambushes, analyze enemies’ weaknesses, and generally think tactically and efficiently. I think it comes from socialization rather than biology or whatever, because I GMed a group with two girls and four boys in which one of the girls looked female, but the other was used to being treated as male because of her short hair and clothing. The girl who looked female played tactically, whereas the girl who looked male bounced erratically off the walls like the rest of the boys.

Here on grownup tumblr we are (hopefully) used to conceptions of gender that fall all along the spectrum of male to female and beyond. Little kids have no such luck: there’s boys and there’s girls, and if you have ideas or feelings that fall outside that division, no one listens or helps or cares. By the time kids get to the gaming table, everyone and everything is already split in two.

Common Seven-Year-Old Girl Actions: I scout ahead in the shadows. I wait for the boys to charge the bad guys heedlessly, then flank the enemy. I hide in the bushes and send my animal companion to distract them while I line up a shot. I transform into a big, scary animal to do maximum damage.

Common Nine-Year-Old Boy Actions: I walk up to the crocodiles and demand that they respect my authority. I find a dangerous-looking hole and jump in it. I wrestle the chain devil. I poop repeatedly.

The flip side of this problem is that girls are still much, much quieter than boys of comparable ages. As time goes on and the screaming gets louder, the girl will probably become quieter and less forthcoming, to the point where she might just lose patience with the game and wander off to play with dolls or something in order to find an activity where boys don’t shout over her all the time.

What does this phenomenon mean for you if you’re going to run a game for such a table? Just like in other situations in which one player is much quieter than the others, you have to make a special effort to engage the reticent player. Sit her next to you so you can hear her more easily. If someone else talks over her, get everyone’s attention and have her repeat herself. When you ask what everyone’s doing, turn to her first. You’ll not only keep her interest and encourage her participation, but also increase the party’s life expectancy and success rate if you’re running a game with combat and competition in it (which you probably are because children).

Another, partially unrelated caveat: If you have a brother/sister sibling pair at the table, they will spend all their time trying to murder each other both in- and out-of-character. I’m still not sure what to do about this one other than forcing them to play conjoined twins, or the two heads of a monster.

I’m running on anecdotal evidence here, but even if my generalization is wrong, I have to wonder why I keep getting groups like these. Perhaps evolutionary psychology has an explanation for this phenomenon: during the mesolithic period of human development, men ventured into the wilderness to hunt wild animals with primitive tools, whereas women stayed at home and defended the cave from trolls and dragons by throwing fireballs from higher ground.

Now a Weed, Once a Prehistoric Cavity Fighter

Cyperus rotundus, commonly known as purple nutsedge or nutgrass, is considered one of the world’s worst invasive weeds. But new research suggests that prehistoric humans in what is now central Sudan may have gotten an unusual benefit from it.

Stephen Buckley, an archaeological chemist from the University of York in England, analyzed dental calculus — a form of hardened plaque — in fossilized teeth from people who lived thousands of years ago, in the pre-Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Meroitic periods.

In a paper published in the journal PLOS One, Dr. Buckley and his colleagues report that the teeth had remarkably few cavities and high levels of the chemical compounds found in purple nutsedge, suggesting that the plant may have protected against tooth decay. Read more.