Been browsing GreenRush menus and getting confused by all the talk about hash, BHO, crumble, tinctures and waxes? In this post we take a detailed look at the different kinds of marijuana extracts currently available on the market and what makes them unique.
So whether you’re already a fan of cannabis concentrates or you’re a newbie looking to find out what all the hype is about, read on to find out all you need to know. And remember, sign up to GreenRush today and get cannabis delivered from the best dispensaries in your area in minutes.
•What are Marijuana Extracts?
The term “marijuana extracts” basically refers to any product that is made by extracting desirable compounds (such as cannabinoids and terpenes) from the cannabis plant and combining them in a concentrated form.
In cannabis, the compounds manufacturers are looking to extract are cannabinoids (such as THC, CBD, CBN, etc) and terpenes (such as pinene, limonene, etc). Cannabinoids are unique compounds that give cannabis its medicinal properties, while terpenes are mainly known for giving cannabis the aromas and tastes that we all treasure, although they also have medicinal properties of their own.
By extracting and concentrating these compounds, manufacturers are all striving towards one common goal; to create a pure product with high concentrations of the chemicals that give cannabis its distinct effects.
The process of extracting and concentrating these compounds, however, isn’t easy. The purity and quality of the end product is governed by countless variables, including everything from the chemical profile of the strain and the particular extraction method being used.
•It’s All About The Trichomes
All marijuana extracts are made by separating the trichomes (those sticky, hair-like crystals on your buds) from the plant matter. These trichomes contain the highest concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes in the cannabis plant, meaning they also harness the plant’s maximum medicinal potential.
Many plants have trichomes, such as The Venus Fly Trap, which uses them to sense prey on the inside of it’s leaves, or the tomato plant, which uses them to sense predators, such as caterpillars.
Scientists hypothesize that the trichomes found on cannabis work similarly, as a defense mechanism.
•Different Forms of Cannabis Extraction
There are a variety of ways to extract cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant. The various methods are usually categorized by whether or not they use a solvent to separate the trichomes from the plant matter:
-Solventless Extraction Methods:
Different Forms of Cannabis Extraction
There are a variety of ways to extract cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant. The various methods are usually categorized by whether or not they use a solvent to separate the trichomes from the plant matter:
Solventless Extraction Methods:
Although the term “solventless” technically refers to a concentrate that is made using an extraction method that doesn’t rely on any kind of solvent, the term is generally used by the industry to refer to products that are made without the use of chemical solvents such as butane or alcohol.
The most common solventless extraction methods include:
Dry sifting: Literally sifting cannabis flowers through various sieves to separate the trichomes from the flower. Dry ice is often used to produce kief or hash.
Cold water extraction: Cannabis plant matter is combined with ice and water and then agitated to separate the trichomes from the plant. The mixture is then filtered to remove the water and leave behind a relatively pure concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes. This method is used to produce ice-water hash.
Heat and pressure extraction: Most commonly used to make rosin, this method uses heat and pressure to press cannabis flowers and extract a thick, golden oil that contains high concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes. This method is used to create rosin.
CO2 extraction: A complex extraction method that works by turning CO2 gas into a supercritical liquid and using that liquid as a solvent to extract the desired compounds from cannabis plant material. This method is used to create CO2 Oil.
•Solvent-based Extraction Methods
Technically, the term “solvent-based extract/extraction” refers to any product which is made using a solvent, in which case any marijuana extracts made using CO2 or water extraction methods would fall under this heading.
However, the cannabis industry generally uses this term to refer to cannabis extracts made using chemical solvents such as butane and ethanol. The most common solvent-based extraction methods include:
Butane extraction: As the name implies, this method uses butane as a solvent to extract the key cannabinoids and terpenes from plant material. This is usually done by packing cannabis plant matter into a container with a small opening and ‘blasting’ or pouring liquid butane over the flower to extract the good stuff from the plant. The resulting mixture is then heated to remove as much of the solvent as possible, resulting in a concentrate that is rich in cannabinoids and terpenes. This method is used to create a type of hash oil known as BHO (Butane Hash/Honey Oil) which is often referred to by names like Shatter, Crumble or Wax, depending on the consistency and appearance of the final product.
Alcohol extraction: This method is similar to butane extraction, but uses alcohol (most commonly isopropyl alcohol or ethanol) as the solvent to extract the key compounds from the plant. Most commonly, plant material is soaked in alcohol for short amounts of time, before the mixture is filtered and occasionally heated in order to remove as much of the solvent as possible. This method is used to create tinctures and hash oil, the latter of which may be sold under a variety of names describing the texture of the oil or the alcohol it was made with.
•Types of Marijuana Extracts
There are a variety of cannabis concentrates currently available on the market. Here’s a simple guide to help you understand the differences between them:
-Kief and Hash
Kief is the oldest form of cannabis extract and is the main ingredient used to make hash. Using a dry sifting technique, frozen flower is sifted through fine mesh screens to separate the trichomes from the plant matter. The end product is a fine powder with a high concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes.
Regular flower, for example, tends to reach a maximum THC concentration of 25-30%, while good quality kief can reach up to 60%.
Kief is often heated and compressed into big blocks, popularly known as hash. The color of the kief or hash will often speak for its purity; a high-quality concentrate is usually golden, while lower quality products will have a greenish tinge, which indicates that it is contaminated with more plant matter.
-Ice Water Hash
Ice water hash is, you guessed it, a type of hash. The term refers to hash that is made using a ice-water extraction method.
Frozen cannabis trimmings are combined with cold water and ice and agitated (either shaken or stirred) in order to separate the brittle trichomes from the plant matter. The mixture is then sifted through various fine sieves and dried to form a granular concentrated that can be pressed or molded by hand.
Rosin is a cannabis concentrate made using a heat and pressure extraction method which can be easily done at home. Cannabis flower is placed inside parchment paper and pressed between two hot sheets of metal (such as the panels of a hair straightener) to release a sticky, golden oil that’s very similar to shatter.
CO2 oil is the end product of CO2 extraction, or supercritical fluid extraction. This method, relying on complex and very expensive equipment allows for one of the purest extractions of cannabis compounds currently available on the market. CO2 oil is a beautiful amber/gold color and is jam-packed full of cannabinoids and terpenes.
The oil is mixed with food grade propylene glycol or glycerin to keep it liquid at room temperature and is most commonly vaporized in vape pens, although it can also be frozen and dabbed using a regular dab rig.
Hash oil is arguably the most popular marijuana extract currently on the market and is most commonly made using the butane extraction method we described earlier.
Hash oil is available in various consistencies which are determined by minute factors in how the cannabinoids and terpenes were extracted from the plant.
Here are some of the most common types of hash oil and how they differ from one another:
Shatter refers to hash oil that has a similar texture to glass and commonly shatters when it is dropped or manipulated. It is clear and usually amber or golden in color and can have a potency of up to 80% THC. Due to its transparency, many mistake shatter as being the purest type of cannabis concentrates.
However, shatter simply owes its transparency to the fact that it’s molecules have been left undisturbed and not agitated like the molecules in wax, crumble, or bubble hash.
During the manufacturing process, shatter is purged of butane by heating it (often under a vacuum) until the butane evaporates. Because the product isn’t agitated, it’s molecules are undisturbed, making for a transparent concentrate.
The consistency of hash oil is governed by factors such as the heat it was exposed to during manufacturing, whether it has been decarboxylated, and it’s terpene contents. Here are some different names applied to concentrates like shatter but with different consistencies:
Pull-and-snap: A concentrate similar to shatter but with a more taffy-like consistency which can be pulled, manipulated, and snapped apart, unlike glass-like shatter.
Sap: A runnier, sticky concentrate that resembles tree sap or honey. This stuff usually can’t be manipulated by hand and you’ll need some kind of tool to load it into a dab rig without making a mess.
Cannabis wax has a sticky texture which, much like shatter, can differ in consistency. The most obvious difference between shatter and wax is that wax isn’t transparent. Instead, it can have a creamy white color, similar to honey when it solidifies.
Wax is opaque because, unlike shatter, its molecules have been agitated. While shatter is just heated during the purging process, waxes are usually whipped. The agitation from the whipping is what creates this non-transparent concentrate.
Like shatter, wax is available in a variety of consistencies which are referred to by various names. These include:
Crumble: A concentrate with a slightly granular texture that can be pressed or molded by hand. As it’s name suggests, it has a similar texture to the topping on an apple crumble dessert.
Honeycomb: Honeycomb waxes are usually hard and very brittle, much like the honeycomb centres in some snack bars.
Budder: Budder has a very rich, creamy, and soft texture similar to peanut butter.
Tinctures are marijuana extracts made by soaking cannabis trimmings in alcohol. The finished product is a potent extract which is usually applied in drops and administered orally. According to Leafly, tinctures were the most common form of medical cannabis prior to prohibition in 1937.
If this is helpful to any Supergirl writers, I mapped out Kara’s loft for my own purposes. Feel free to use to your heart’s content to assist with writing and/or squeeing.
A= These two sets of windows open like french doors.
B= These three sets of windows have sections that angle out for
C= Front door is extra wide, estimated 4’. Opens inward.
D= Laundry area with a stacked washer/dryer to the right, and a
portable screen to the left. There is a big air-conditioning duct that leads to
a weird alcove/cutaway at ceiling level perhaps indicating a mechanicals space
on the other side of the wall.
E= Kitchen and island.
F= The access hall outside has been seen from the interior, revealing
a narrow table and another of the ubiquitous concrete support columns. A behind
the scenes photo revealed another doorway, flanked by columns with an
G= the small line here represents a fancy mesh screen that separates
the dining area from the rest of the living space.
H= Café table. Just above this is Kara’s painting space.
I= Couch and two comfy chairs. Just above this is where the TV
is located. There is also a low, square table on wheels.
J= Queen sized bed. Just above is the largest banks of windows,
where the double rack of clothes are located, as well as a dresser between.
(doesn’t Kara worry about her clothes fading from the sunlight?) There are a pair of bed stands as well as a chair near
to the window. At the foot of the bed is a deep seat that looks a lot like a
K= There is a desk of art supplies here, as well as a vintage
typewriter and rotary phone, as well as an old dresser.
L= This is a weird one. In a behind the scenes shot, there is
clearly an alcove/hallway with a curtain and a closet rod with more clothes
hanging from it.
M= Claw foot tub and a single sink.
N= the dashed lines are two wooden storage units. There’s a
lamp in the corner too. I have NO idea where the toilet is in this room.
O= Bathroom door is the same large-paned window glass as the exterior
windows, flanked by a single vertical row of panes.
P= The little rectangle below and above are bookshelves that
also act as separation from living to bedroom space. There is also a curtain
for privacy. I can only guess that it has a double on the other side, but who
Q= A blue storage unit. There’s also a big potted plant in the
Grid scale is 1 square foot for each blue square. Yes, this
loft really is that huge!
The ceilings are approximately 15’, though in the apartment
itself, there are heavy support beams that make it seem slightly lower in
Walls inked are canon to photographs gleaned from the net, both
from productions stills and a very helpful behind the scenes tour. Pencil lines
of walls are best guesses from yours truly.
Summary: You keep seeing the same guy everywhere you go. In the coffee shop, on the streets, in your philosophy class. It’s getting to the point where you think he’s stalking you - only to realize that maybe there’s something much more mysterious at play here. (AU: Chen is your guardian angel)
Hey guys! This is a small little warm up for me to be able to start writing Teamiplier. Unless specified the character will be male based since I myself am a male. I apologize for anything that’s out of character because I’m pretty darn rusty. I hope you like it!
Mark: Mark was never one for subtlety. He was always loud and extra and made it known to everyone what he wanted. Maybe that’s why it came as such a shock to you and the rest of the gang when Mark out of the blue kissed you. It was one of those rare rainy days in L.A. and you had decided to savor it. Growing up, it had rained at least once a week so moving to L.A. was definitely a new experience. You were sitting outside with a cup of tea and your favorite book, rain lightly misting through the mesh windows of your screened in porch. You tucked your toes under a warm blanket to shield them from the slight chill when Mark came outside.
“Mind if I join you?” He asked, his own book in hand.
“Not at all.” You smiled and moved over on the small bed that you were sitting on. He sat beside you, a little closer than usual, but you weren’t complaining. He was very warm. You flick your blanket across Mark’s lap, snuggling further into it. A few minutes passed in silence as you and Mark read together in a comfortable silence before Mark spoke up.
“Y/N?” He said softly, closing his book and looking at you.
“Yes Mark?” You place your bookmark gently between the pages and set the book down beside you. Mark looked at you thoughtfully for a few moments, a wondering look in his eye.
“If you wanted to stare at me you could’ve just asked.” You tease, smiling. Mark’s lip curls up just a little and you laugh.
“Don’t hate me, okay?”
“Mark, you’re being weird. What’s u-” you were cut off as Mark darted forward and placed his lips gently against yours. It was brief, chaste, and warm. Before you had time to register what was happening Mark was flushing red and moving to get up.
“I’m so sorry I don’t know what came over me I just-” You take Mark’s hand and pull him back to you.
“The only thing you have to be sorry for is not kissing me for longer.” You smile a tiny smile and Mark breathes a sigh of relief.
“So… can I kiss you again?”
“I was hoping you’d ask.”
Overridesthe game phone mesh, screens in simlish, two types, reflective and not reflective. The difference is that when you move around the phone with the camera or when the sims moves while using it, the reflective version will have the screen shine according to the surroundings (I recommend non reflective)
On that lacerta post, I saw you mention that a t8 won't cut it and that a t5 should be used instead. My question is, what is the difference between the two that makes one better than the other?
I really love this video because around 1:58 (video URL starts there) Frances Baines starts comparing T8s and T5s (with reflectors). T8s are good for reptiles that don’t have high UV requirements/live mostly in shade, but to hit the “sunlight effect” UV index the animal has to get quite close to the bulb, around 6″-8″. Not really good for lacertids.
T5s have an excellent spread and works great for large vivariums. It’s much easier to hit “sunlight” UV indexes from larger distances too (around 12″ from the bulb). You can establish large basking areas with a T5, and even if installed above a wire mesh screen there won’t be too much of a reduction in UV output. Of course, unfiltered UVB is preferred but sometimes not feasible in some set ups.
Also, T5s are much brighter than T8s. You can see the difference in these pictures:
Request from anon: Hi. Can I plse ask for a prompt? You and Jack are staying in a log cabin in the Scottish countryside where you and Jack take walks holding hands and you’re cuddling into him when he wears fleeces. As fluffy and/or smutty as you like. Thanks 💛
pulled up to the little log cabin in the highlands of Glencoe, you couldn’t
help the awed gasp that escaped your mouth. The whole drive from Jack’s
hometown of Oxton to the West-coast village had been stunning, passing through
historic towns and magnificent landscapes, but the little wooden cabin situated
on the top of a hill, surrounded by a grove of trees, simply took your breath
it’s gorgeous,” you marvelled.
grin spread across his face as he agreed, “Aye, it’s quite the view”. The monticule
looked out over the valley, paved in tress of emerald, orange and gold. It was
the height of autumn, and the natural word was in the process of metamorphosis,
and your little spot of paradise was situated right at the centre, in the eye
of the storm, and he whirlwind of autumn blazed around you. The river raced
over stones and pebbles, foaming in its haste, and laced the grey-blue water
with white eyelashes. It was spectacular.
“No’ a bad
way to spend yer anniversary, eh?”
smiled, leaning onto your tiptoes to kiss his cheek, “Not bad at all.”
Summary: AU. After the tragic passing of reader’s father,
reader is left with a cruel stepmother and two miserable step-sisters,
who not only don’t care about her, but they use her for their own gain.
Will a handsome stranger offer her the freedom she longs for?
Pairing: Bucky Barnes x fem!reader
Word Count: 2,734
Warnings: mentions of death, angst, sadness, fluff, mentions of crime, mentions of murder
A/N: This is a RE-POST of my entry for the @stories-from-stark-tower ‘s AU movie challenge. It’s based off of the 2015 Disney adaptation of Cinderella, only with a bit of my own spin on it.
Title: Close Quarters - Kidge Week Day 4 Prompt Fill Fandom: Voltron: Legendary Defender Pairing: Keidge Summary: Neighbors!AU in which Pidge finds Keith’s missing pet and helps him take care of her. Standard Disclaimer: If you read and enjoy
this, please give it a like/ reblog so I know if I should write more.
AN: So because school and life suck, I’m just gonna upload what I finished from last years Keidge week. I never finished a fill for Day 5′s prompt but I did finish the others. Did one quick proof-read so it might be a little rough still.
im making these paranormal buttons and i thought i’d make a tutorial while im at it. they’re meant to look like cmyk screenprints, but entirely digital. you can do this with any image, but i found that photographs look the best. give a cool vintage postcard feel to your pictures or artwork!
I wanted to make a little guide to show everyone how I clean fresh or mummified animals using the flower pot burial method. This is a great way to clean skeletons in a more domestic environment (the city, or a more conservative household) without dealing with smells or fresh bodies, while keeping the whole skeleton fairly intact. Lots of pictures under the cut!
This tutorial will cover how to make eyes for a fursuit by being resourceful with available materials to create cartoony eyes for your mask. This technique yields eyes with good visibility that also help with ventilation.
Summary: kpoptrashchild said: could you maybe do a taehyung scenario based on “roman holiday” by halsey?? i made a music video version and i can’t stop thinking about it lol xx
Author’s Note: I have never listened to the song before, so I hope from listening to it a couple of times that I interpreted it well enough. You can find the song here. Enjoy~
ALSO, to make this more personal, here are what some cues mean in the story.
(Y/M/N)- Your Moms Name
(Y/D/N)- Your Dads name
(Y/C/N)- Your Cities Name
~WARNING~ There are mentions of an affair, if there is anyone who is sensitive to that, please be aware!
As you leaned your head against Taehyungs shoulder, watching the sun rise from the cliff you were sitting on top of, you couldn’t help but imagine the events that lead you here.
It had been a normal dinner night with your family, your mom making pasta as your dad began to unwind from a long day at work with a glass of scotch. You had invited your long term boyfriend over for this dinner, as you haven’t seen him in a while due to him traveling.
He was always traveling, as he was in a well known band, but he always made an effort to stay in touch with you. Calling you everyday without fail, texting you until both of you could barely keep your eyes open. He’d fall asleep some nights worried sick about you, tears running down his cheeks as his heart ached for your touch, not sure where you were at that moment and wondering what you were doing. He was very protective over you, a feeling that you love so much.
Your parents loved him as well, and loved how happy he made you. They loved how polite he was to them, how well he treated you, how respectful he was to your parents wishes.
You were all siting at the table, having normal conversation, until something snapped. someone snapped.
You looked up from your plate at your father, who had caused the dinner table to grow quiet with a comment he had said just moments ago.
“Have you made this for your boyfriend yet, (Y/M/N)?”
The air felt thick as you looked up at your mother. She looked absolutely horrified, she didn’t know how to react to your fathers statement. It took a couple of seconds for your mother to process this comment, your heart completely shattering as everything finally came to light. You looked at Taehyung, who was staring at you with wide eyes, his hand going under the table to grip your hand tightly.
“Well,” your mother broke the silence, standing and collecting the plates, “I think you two should go upstairs for a while. “
You nodded quickly, tightening your grip on Taehyungs hand as you dragged him up the stairs to your room
“What was that…?” He asked softly, closing the door behind him as he entered. You felt the tears flow down your cheeks, unable to stop as you completely broke down.
You cried softly, holding your head in your hands as you let loud sobs leave your mouth. He walked over to you quickly, wrapping his arms around you and pulling you into his chest. He allowed you to cry softly, as the he heard the sounds from downstairs increasing. He could hear them fighting. He could hear the desperate screams of your mother, and he knew you didn’t deserve this. You didn’t deserve to be in this home.
“M-my mom cheated on my father,” you sobbed softly into his chest, gripping onto his shirt that you knew you were staining with lines of mascara.
He didn’t know how to react, he didn’t know what to say. He searched his mind for the right things that he could do or say to make you feel better, but he just couldn’t. He apologized, saying he was sorry that this was happening to you, that you didn’t deserve it and neither did your father.
As your sobbing ceased, you heard a loud bang come from the bottom of the stairs, worrying you greatly, as you weren’t sure what it was. You rushed to your door, opening and peaking your head out slowly, Taehyung following your actions to see what was going on. Your fathers fist was still in the wall, your mom screaming for him to stop being so crazy as she cried into her hands. He continued, punching yet another whole in the wall of your home, the home that had held so many beautiful, loving memories. And now, within seconds, the memories and love that was held there was falling apart at the seems.
“I can’t let you stay here,” Taehyung said as he quickly pulled you into your room, shutting and locking the door behind him as he searched for a bag.
“What are you doing?” you asked softly, watching as he took a bag from within your closet.
“Pack a couple of things, yeah? We’re getting out of here. As far away as possible.” He put the bag in your hands, grabbing small trinkets from off your dressed that he knew you would want to take with you, wrapping them in a small blanket. Without word, you do as you were told, tossing clothes and shoes into your bag as you laced another pair of shoes on your feet. Taehyung peeked his head out again, shaking it as he took your hand.
“We can’t go down there,” he mumbled, pressing his lips to your knuckles, “We have to go through the window.”
You were hesitant at first, watching as he took out the mesh screen that covered your window before quickly jumping down. You rushed over to the window, making sure he wasn’t hurt before taking your bag.
“Throw the bag down first, (Y/N),” Taehyung shouted, opening his arms as you threw down the bag with your possessions. You gripped the edge of the window, shaking your head as you were very nervous to jump.
“Hey hey hey,” Taehyung said, coming closer to the window, opening his arms yet again, “I’ll catch you. I promise.”
You put all of your trust in him at that very moment, flinging yourself out of the window and into the tight arms of your awaiting boyfriend. Stumbling back a bit, he smiled at you as he quickly pressed a kiss to your lips before taking both your hand and bag.
“Let’s go,” he whispered, tugging on your hand as he ran.
You didn’t know where you were running to, and at that point, you had no care in the world. You were happy to be gone, and you knew you were going to get hell for leaving at such a late hour when you return home, or IF you return home. You knew that your parents wouldn’t love Taehyung after this, that they wouldn’t try and understand his viewpoint of the situation you two were forcefully thrown into. You knew they wouldn’t try to understand that he was desperately trying to protect you for what may come if you stayed a moment longer.
All you cared about was Taehyung. He was running for your safety. He was helping you run away to keep you out of harms way, because he didn’t want to see you hurt. Being away from you made Taehyung realize how much he truly cared about you, how his heart fluttered at the sound of your name, at the thought of your touch. That even getting a simple message from you would made him smile, a call would make his day more bearable as he was away from you. He realized while he was away, that you had his heart truly. All he wanted was for you to be happy and safe in his arms, and that was what his goal was as he continued to run, feeling you slowly drag behind him as you quickly began to feel tired.
“Taehyung,” you panted, gripping his arm as you felt your heart beat in your throat, “Please stop.”
“(Y/N), we need to find somewhere to stay,” he grunted, watching the sky turn almost pitch black as you stood beneath it. “It’s getting late.” “I know, bu-“
“(Y/N), listen to me,” he said softly, cupping your cheeks as he stared into your eyes, “We need to find somewhere to rest, okay? Even if it’s for a little. I have no money and no contacts, so we’ll have to find somewhere for free. Do you have a friend you can call?”
You shook your head softly, walking into his arms as you closed your eyes. “No, none of them would let me stay.”
He nodded slowly, taking your hands and kissing your knuckles. You felt yourself grow tired as you listened to the soothing beat of his heart.
“Here, Jagi. Get on my back,” he murmured, turning around and crouching down. Too tired to argue, you hopped onto his back and wrapped your arms tight around his neck, feeling yourself being lifted up as he gripped your thighs tightly. “Sleep for a little, ill wake you when i find a place.”
You woke up against his chest, the feeling of a soft fabric underneath you. You leaned up slowly, rubbing your eyes as you looked at the breathtaking scenery in front of you. You watched as the sun rose slowly, yawning as you felt his arms wrap around your waist.
“How did you sleep?” he asked, kissing your shoulder as you leaned your head against his, shrugging gently.
You both sat in a comfortable silence, playing with his hands as he continued to press his lips to your forehead.
“I wish we could run away…” you admitted, looking into his eyes, “I want to be with you forever. Somewhere where it’s always sunny and happy, no cares in the world. Just you and me.”
“One day we’ll be together jagi. In a pretty house, with doggies and kitties. Snuggling on the couch, watching movies. It’ll all happen soon, my love. Just you wait.”
you nodded softly, thinking about the dream world you created in your head, thinking about the happy times you were sure to experience soon with the love of your life. You just have to get to that point first.
This is the last installment of the “ceramic heated tub” tutorial.
Here I am demonstrating how I safely modify my tubs for my snakes if I am using a ceramic heat emitter as the sole or supplementary heat source.
Heat mats are great… but they do not heat the air and are not great for very heavily bodied species of snake. If your house gets very cold (like mine) this environment is not ideal for a reptile, which can become immuno-suppressed if constantly exposed to temperatures which are too low.
So if you want to boost ambient temps while still keeping the benefits associated with plastic tubs… maybe this will be of some use.
You can also use the method of replacing part of a tub lid with screen to add UV lighting to a tub.
Part One- Checking the ceramic is powerful enough and the safety margins you will need.
Part Two- Choosing a position for the bulbs and making the screen mesh top.
Part Three- The balance between ventilation and Insulation, and checking the thermogradient.
Born Ricardo Leyva Muñoz Ramirez, February
29th 1960 in El Paso, Texas. Gained the title of the “Night Stalker”
from the media after his highly publicised reign of terror of the greater Los
Angeles and San Francisco area. Ramirez was the youngest of five children; his
father was a Mexican national and former Juarez policeman who later became a
labourer on the Santa Fe railroad. Though he was a hard working man, he was
often prone to fits of anger which commonly resulted in fits of physical abuse.
Ramirez sustained multiple childhood injuries which resulted in epileptic
seizures that persisted into his teens. As a young teen, he was strongly
influenced by his older cousin, a combat veteran who often shared details of
his horrific deployments during the Vietnam war. He even shared Polaroid photos
of his victims – these included images of Vietnamese women he had raped and
even images of himself posing with a severed head of a woman he had abused.
Richard and his cousin would bond sadistically over the stories his cousin
would share with him. His cousin even shown him certain military techniques such
as killing with stealth and surety. His used some of these techniques to escape
his fathers violent outbursts by sleeping in a nearby cemetery.
Richard was present when his cousin
shot his wife with a .38 calibre revolver following a domestic dispute, resulting
in her death. Ramirez became withdrawn from the family circle shortly after and
began living with his older sister and her husband – who was a profound “peeping
tom” and took Ramirez along on his nocturnal exploits. Ramirez began using LSD
and sparked an interest in Satanism. His cousin was later found not guilty for
the murder of his wife after pleading insanity, his military experience being a
mitigating factor. Due to his release, his influence was still heavy and
present over Ramirez.
In his adolescence, Ramirez began
having dark and violent sexual fantasies. As a student, Ramirez took a job at a
local Holiday Inn where he abused his passkey access to rob sleeping clients.
This employment shortly ended when a guest returned to the hotel to find
Ramirez attempting to rape his wife. The husband beat Ramirez at the scene but
all charges were dropped when the couple left the state and declined to return
to testify against him. Ramirez dropped out of Jefferson High School in ninth
grade, at the age of 22 he moved to California which became his permanent
April 10th, 1984 – 9 year
old Mei Leung was found murdered in a hotel basement where Ramirez was seeking
residence in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco. The young girl was found
to have been raped, beaten and vicious stabbed before her body was found
hanging from a pipe. The death of Mei Leung was Ramirez’s first known killing.
Though it wasn’t until 2009 that there was match of Ramirez’s DNA to the DNA
obtained to that found at the crime scene. In 2016, officials disclosed
evidence of a second suspect indentified via DNA evidence from the crime scene
who is believed to be connected to Leung’s murder. Though authorities have not
publicly identified the suspect and have not brought charges due to the lack of
“Night Stalker” crimes:
June 28th, 1984. 79 year
old Jennie Vincow was found brutally murdered in her apartment in Glassell
Park. She had been stabbed repeatedly while asleep in her bed, her throat
slashed so deeply to the point of near decapitation. Ramirez’s fingerprint was
found on a mesh screen he had removed to gain access through an open window.
March 17, 1985. Ramirez attacked 22
year old Maria Hernandez outside her home in Rosemead – shooting her in the face
with a .22 caliber handgun after she pulled into her garage. The bullet
ricocheted off her keys which she held in her hand to protect her face from the
bullet. Inside the home, her roommate heard the gunshot and hid behind a
counter when she saw Ramirez enter the house. Ramirez shot her in the head,
killing her instantly.
Within an hour of the Rosemead home
invasion, Ramirez dragged 30 year old Tsai-Lian Yu from her car in Monterey
Park. Shooting her twice with a .22 caliber handgun, fleeing from the scene
straight after. Tsai-Lian Yu was pronounced dead on arrival to the hospital.
The murders on March 17th attracted great media attention, dubbing
Ramirez “The Walk-in Killer” and “The Valley Intruder”.
March 27, 1985. Ramirez had entered
a home in Whittier which he had previously burgled a year earlier. He shot 64
year old Vincent Zazzara whilst he slept with a .22 caliber handgun once again.
Zazzara’s wife, 44 year old Maxine Zazzara was woken from the murder of her
husband. Ramirez beat her and bound her hands together whilst demanding to know
the whereabouts of her valuables. While Ramirez searched the room, Maxine was
able to escape her bonds and managed to retrieve a shotgun from under the bed –
however, this was not loaded. It infuritated Ramirez who as a result, shot her
three times with .22 calibre, retrieving a carving knife from the kitchen and
mutilated the 44 year old woman’s body with multiple stab wounds. Ramirez
gouged out her eyes, which he placed in a jewellery box and took as a momento.
Ramirez left shoe print impressions in flower beds on the residence, the police
photographed and cast the impressions which was the only evidence the police
were able to retrieve from the scene at the time. Bullets found at the scene
matched those from the previous murders which provided police with the
conclusion that it was the work of a serial killer.
Ramirez continued his horrific
crimes in the greater Los Angeles and San Francisco areas. Ramirez began to
incorporate rape, Satanism and torture techniques using various weapons which
included: handguns, knives, machete, tire iron and a hammer. Ramirez would
begin to draw pentagrams on his victims and in the premises of the houses. Even
making his victims “swear on satan”. Ramirez followed the media coverage of his
crimes which lead him to leave the Los Angeles area and into San Francisco. Ballistic
and shoe print evidence which was found from the crime scenes was paraded on a
televised press conference which the then mayor of San Francisco hosted. This infuriated
detectives on the case who knew Ramirez would be tracking the media coverage of
the case. This lead Ramirez to throwing his shoes off the golden gate bridge
before heading back to Los Angeles.
August 24, 1985. Ramirez travelled
76 miles south of Los Angeles and followed his structured routine. He told his
victim, Inez Erickson after vicious attacks “tell them the Night Stalker was
here”. He drove off in a stole Toyota much to the attention of a thirteen year
old neighbour who wrote down the license plate of the car due to his strange
appearance striking attention. Erickson’s fiancé was able to have two of the
bullets from his head which allowed him to luckily survive his injuries.
The young neighbour contacted the
police of the cars license plate when the story broke. Erikson was able to
provide a full description of Ramirez. The car was found four days later,
police were able to obtain a single fingerprint from the rear view mirror
despite Ramirez’s attempt to wipe the car clean of his prints. The print
matched that of Ramirez who had a long record for traffic and illegal drug
violations. A mug shot of Ramirez was released to the media December 12 1984. The
“Night Stalker” finally had a face.
Trial and conviction:
At his first court appearance,
Ramirez raised his hand with a pentagram drawn on his palm, yelling the words “Hail
Satan”, a peculiar trademark of the murderer (see the image). September 20,
1989. Ramirez was convicted of all charges; 13 counts of murder, 5 attempted
murders, 11 sexual assaults and 14 burglaries. He was sentenced to die in
California’s gas chamber when he stated to reporters “Big deal. Death always
when with the territory. See you in Disneyland.” The trial cost $1.8 million
which was the most expensive in the history of California until the OJ Simpson
case in 1994.
Ramirez died of complications due
to secondary B-Cell lymphoma. He had also been affected by chronic substance abuse
and chronic hepatitis C viral infection. At the age of 53 years old, he had
been on death row for more than 23 years.
I’ve come to realize that the biggest problem anywhere in the world is that people’s perceptions of reality are compulsively filtered through the screening mesh of what they want, and do not want, to be true.
I was wondering if you could answer how you did the light-up screen and reflectivity on your phone replacement, I was hoping to learn as I have other (deco and accessory) phones in my game that definitely deserve this treatment!
It’s pretty simple actually! First, you just need to make a mesh subset of the screen (if you don’t know how to do this, there are tutorials on MTS). Make this subset have all the same textures and stuff etc but when you’re cloning the TXMT for it, you need to edit one value ‘stdMatEmissiveCoef’, it can be anything from 0 to 1. There’s more info on part one of this tutorial here. And yeah, that’s about it, I wonder if you could take it further so it actually lights up objects like computers in the game, but I would have no idea how to do that ;p