memory formation

anonymous asked:

This question is related to psychology more broadly, I'm not sure if it's ok or not. What is the relationship between cognitive functions and the formation of memories? Stereotypically memories are associated with Si but wouldn't all the functions influence memory in some way because they are all involved in information processing to some extent?

Yes. Memory is actually a very complicated mental process and even though psychologists have been studying it for a long time, there are still many aspects of it that we don’t understand very well. Take a simple example like trying to remember a visual image: The brain is not like a xerox machine that just makes a copy of the image and files it; if the brain did that, you would quickly run out of shelf space because, as long as your eyes are open, you’d be making copies continuously. Since we can’t logistically remember every little single thing we perceive, there must be some method of “filtering” or “choosing” things to remember, though that choice is not always conscious. That’s likely where the cognitive functions enter, they influence what sorts of things we pay attention to, what sorts of things are given priority over others, which would likely include the kinds of information we pick out to store (particularly with the perceiving functions):

  • Si: potent personal impressions of physical details
  • Ni: contextual details with personalized meaning
  • Se: new, unique, unusual, striking physical details
  • Ne: interesting ideas or promising possibilities
  • Ti: mental blueprints that map cause-effect experiences
  • Fi: moral instincts derived from subjective experience
  • Te: rules and standards that lead to efficient results
  • Fe: social knowledge derived from (in)harmonious feelings

To store an item in memory, we tend to use the whole brain in finding the appropriate “sticky notes” to attach to that item for easy retrieval, so we each use our own interpretations to remember things. E.g. The other day, I was doing a geography quiz to remember the names of world countries. My friend, who is studying for a citizenship exam, needed to brush up on geography, so we went through a quiz together just for fun. I did the quiz first by explaining how I remembered each item, I would say things like: Place A is where that earthquake just happened, B is where this celebrity lives, I took an interesting trip to C when I was in high school, my mom loves the beaches in D, my ex was born in E, etc. My friend (Se Sensor) noticed that it was very interesting how I turned everything into a mini-narrative and I couldn’t remember the names of places that I hadn’t attached any story to. By contrast, their learning method was just to stare at the map and memorize the visual outlines and then rehearse the names and remember through repetition, perhaps only adding a “story” for very difficult items - very simple strategy but seemingly impossible for me.

When I have to remember random details, my strategy is to attach as many Ni(Fe) anecdotes as I can to each item. Since Sensing is my inferior function, I don’t prioritize visual details very well, so the details of an image shift around in my mind very easily, like placing a completed jigsaw puzzle in a box and shaking it vigorously. If I look at a geographical map only a day after I’ve studied it very carefully, NOTHING is where I remember it to be (frustrating!); I can’t draw the map accurately at all but I can remember the relative position of items because that’s how I stored them (“this place is next to that place which is just north of the other place”) and then I piece the chunks together into a very ugly blob that barely resembles the real map. This sad result happens even though I studied the details meticulously, even though I draw as a hobby and often pay very close attention to reproducing details, even though I swear an oath to remember certain details later on. In other words, how you store memories is often dependent on what information you unconsciously value, which is often determined by the dominance of the cognitive functions at work. Of course, your skill in remembering things can improve through practice or employing special strategies, but it’s possible that cognitive functions place some limits on you, e.g., if my friend employed my memory strategy more vigorously, it would lead to confusion and getting all the details mixed up because of being overwhelmed by so many seemingly random and overcomplicated interconnections.

Memory is also very intertwined with emotion, so any experience that is associated with very strong emotions (especially negative) is more likely to get stored whether you like it or not, which makes sense in evolutionary terms because you should have an easy and reliable mechanism to remember the things that may be harmful or detrimental for your survival. What provokes strong emotions can oftentimes be related to cognitive functions and the strong expectations that they produce:

  • Si expects familiarity in physical details
  • Se expects physical stimulation/engagement
  • Ni expects one’s extrapolations to be true/real
  • Ne expects mental stimulation/inspiration
  • Ti expects knowledge to be correct for problem solving
  • Te expects actions to be successful or get results
  • Fi expects respect for subjective moral boundaries
  • Fe expects respect for social harmony/cohesion

As you go through life, knowledge of the world grows through experience and emotionally-laden memories accumulate. These emotional memories can drive unconscious behaviors, where you gradually learn to avoid, dismiss, or become hypersensitive to the things that may violate your cognitive expectations, e.g.: SJs may become oversensitive to confronting unfamiliar things/situations, SPs dull or slow-moving people/situations, NJs reality and its constraints, NPs conventional/routine situations, TPs areas where they lack knowledge/expertise, TJs areas where they can’t feel success/competence, FPs whatever impinges on authentic self-expression, FJs disruptive people or socially toxic environments. Memory, knowledge, perception, emotion, reasoning, judgment, decision making processes are all tied together and neuroscientists have had a very tough time trying to separate the areas and map each process because not everything about subjective human experience corresponds neatly to a physical counterpart and every person’s neural map is somewhat unique.

I said I would do this, but I’ve been too busy doing junk and other stuff to even get some time to. I saw you on snepchet and my mind kept running again so here I am, 3:16am with work tomorrow, tired as shit, wearing my Charmander onesie sipping on some juice just to write some corny ass shit bout my amazing friend @zenshousewife . You mind if I love you real quick? Pbbpptbbt:

There’s no way I can actually put my appreciation into words for you. You came into my life during a storm. A windy one at that. And your presence alone seemed to just clear the skies before I had a chance to notice. You were heaven sent in the purest form. Just so much going on for you in such a beautiful package: the way you go to great lengths to make everyone feel included. The fact that you don’t even have to say anything and you just seemingly put smiles on everyone’s face. The fact that you have no traces of darkness in you. You approach all situations with pure intentions and a pure heart. The way that like… you seem to have all the right words, all the right combinations to make people feel better. And I’m not talking just putting smiles on peoples faces. Like the actual power to heal unseen wounds. It’s astonishing. The way you express your BOAT loads of support and love for every one of your friends with no hesitation. Makes you feel like you’re on top of the world; like you have no limits to what you can or can’t do. The fact that I can literally talk to you about ANYTIHNG and you won’t judge or see me differently. Where I can talk about my problems, my past, myself, Orochimaru’s snord (snake sword) cock, and you’d instantly be on board. I can truly be myself when I’m talking to you. And lastly, the way you’re able to pick yourself up from dark times. With no words of encouragement, with no one by your side to offer you a hand. You’re just able to stand up on your own two feet, and all of this while offering to carry the burdens of your friends and loved ones on your back? You are unbelievably strong and I hope you don’t forget that. You are an angel in human form. Like an actual actual angel. 

Just… thank you for being that person I can always depend upon, that person I can always come back to, confide in, trust, and create unforgettable memories with. Thank you for being my person. Love you always Poo, sincerely and truly. ᵇᵘᵗ ᵖᵒˢᵗ ᵃᶰᵒᵗʰᵉʳ ᵇᶦʳᵈ/ˢᑫᵘᶦᵈ ᶜᵒᶜᵏ ᵒᶰ ᵐʸ ᵈᵃˢʰ ᵃᶰᵈ ᴵ ʷᶦᶫᶫ ᵗʰʳᵒʷ ʰᵃᶰᵈˢ⋅

Pbbbpppttpbtt~

Whoever said INFPs were the emo ones

Little Jakweenie things in the FBAWTFT Screenplay:
  • Blonde QUEENIE, the most beautiful girl ever to don witches’ robes, is standing in a silk slip, supervising the mending of a dress on a dressmaker’s dummy. JACOB is thunderstruck.
  • She runs her wand up the dummy and the dress runs magically up her body. JACOB watches the display, dumbfounded.
  • JACOB suddenly staggers, very sweaty and unwell. QUEENIE runs to him
  • QUEENIE playfully gestures towards JACOB with her wand.
  • JACOB nods with excited enthusiasm. QUEENIE grins back, delighted.
  • (After Queenie has made strudel) JACOB takes a deep breath in: heaven.
  • JACOB (…) and QUEENIE are getting on famously.
  • QUEENIE giggles, delighted, captivated by JACOB.
  • QUEENIE and JACOB gaze into each other’s eyes.
  • JACOB is suddenly very pale and sweaty again, although still trying to look good for QUEENIE.
  • As TINA shuts the door, JACOB gets a quick glimpse of QUEENIE in the other room, wearing a much less demure dressing gown.
  • (Blind Pig) QUEENIE gazes at JACOB, a cheeky smile on her face.
  • JACOB and QUEENIE look at each other.
  • QUEENIE
    Are all No-Majs like you?
    JACOB
    (trying to be serious, almost seductive)
    No, I’m the only one like me.

Maintaining strong eye contact with QUEENIE, JACOB knocks back the shot. Suddenly he emits a raucous, high pitched giggle. QUEENIE laughs sweetly at his look of surprise.

  • JACOB punches GNARLAK straight in the face, knocking him backwards. QUEENIE looks delighted.
  • JACOB and QUEENIE exchange perplexed glances before heading off.
  • She moves to Disapparate, but JACOB hands on to her and she falters.
  • JACOB tightens his grip on QUEENIE. She reads his mind and her expression changes to one of wonderment and tenderness as she sees what he went through in the war. QUEENIE is moved and appalled. Very slowly, she raises a hand and touches his cheek.
  • QUEENIE, having read her mind, stands protectively in front of JACOB, trying to hide him.
  • JACOB leads the others up the steps of the subway, QUEENIE following close behind him.
  • QUEENIE reaches out and grabs his coat, willing him not to move out into the street. JACOB turns to her.
  • JACOB fights back tears. QUEENIE gazes up at him, her beautiful face full of distress.
  • QUEENIE moves forwards up the stairs towards JACOB – they stand close.
  • JACOB
    (bravely)
    There’s loads like me.
    QUEENIE
    No…No…there’s only one like you.

The pain is almost unbearable.

  • QUEENIE creates a magical umbrella with her wand and steps out towards JACOB. She moves in closely, tenderly stroking JACOB’S face before closing her eyes and bending in to gently kiss him.
  • Finally she pulls slowly away, her gaze not leaving JACOB’S face even for a second. Then, suddenly, she’s gone, leaving JACOB standing, arms out, longingly embracing no one.
  • JACOB looks up and is thunderstruck all over again: it’s QUEENIE. They stare at each other – QUEENIE beams, radiant. JACOB, quizzical and totally enchanted, touches his neck – a flicker of a memory. He smiles back.
Neuroscientists identify brain circuit necessary for memory formation

When we visit a friend or go to the beach, our brain stores a short-term memory of the experience in a part of the brain called the hippocampus. Those memories are later “consolidated” – that is, transferred to another part of the brain for longer-term storage.

A new MIT study of the neural circuits that underlie this process reveals, for the first time, that memories are actually formed simultaneously in the hippocampus and the long-term storage location in the brain’s cortex. However, the long-term memories remain “silent” for about two weeks before reaching a mature state.

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Two new studies uncover key players responsible for learning and memory formation

One of the most fascinating properties of the mammalian brain is its capacity to change throughout life. Experiences, whether studying for a test or experiencing a traumatic situation, alter our brains by modifying the activity and organization of specific neural circuitry, thereby modifying subsequent feelings, thoughts, and behavior. These changes take place in and among synapses, communication junctions between neurons. This experience-driven alteration of brain structure and function is called synaptic plasticity and it is considered the cellular basis for learning and memory.

Many research groups across the globe are dedicated to advancing our understanding of the fundamental principles of learning and memory formation. This understanding is dependent upon identifying the molecules involved in learning and memory and the roles they play in the process. Hundreds of molecules appear to be involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, and understanding the interactions among these molecules is crucial to fully understand how memory works.

There are several underlying mechanisms that work together to achieve synaptic plasticity, including changes in the amount of chemical signals released into a synapse and changes in how sensitive a cell’s response is to those signals. In particular, the protein BDNF, its receptor TrkB, and GTPase proteins are involved in some forms of synaptic plasticity, however, very little is known regarding when and where they are activated in the process.

By using sophisticated imaging techniques to monitor the spatiotemporal activation patterns of these molecules in single dendritic spines, the research group led by Dr. Ryohei Yasuda at Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience and Dr. James McNamara at Duke University Medical Center have uncovered critical details of the interplay of these molecules during synaptic plasticity. These exciting findings were published online ahead of print in September 2016 as two independent publications in Nature (1, 2).

A surprising signaling system within the spine

In one of the publications (Harward and Hedrick et al.), the authors identified an autocrine signaling system – a system where molecules act on the same cells that produce them – within single dendritic spines. This autocrine signaling system is achieved by rapid release of the protein, BDNF, from a stimulated spine and subsequent activation of its receptor, TrkB, on the same spine, which further activates signaling inside the spine. This in turn leads to spine enlargement, the process essential for synaptic plasticity. In other words, signaling initiated inside the spine goes outside the spine and activates a receptor on the external surface of the spine, thereby evoking additional signals inside the spine. This finding of an autocrine signaling process within the dendritic spines surprised the scientists.

What are the consequences of the autocrine signaling within the spine?

The second publication (Hedrick and Harward et al.) reports that the autocrine signaling leads to activation of an additional set of signaling molecules called small GTPase proteins. The findings reveal a three-molecule model of structural plasticity, which implicates the localized, coincident activation of three GTPase proteins Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, as a causal feature of structural plasticity. It is known that these proteins regulate the shape of dendritic spines, however, how they work together to control spine structure has remained unclear. The researchers monitored the spatiotemporal activation patterns of these molecules in single dendritic spines during synaptic plasticity and found that all three proteins are activated simultaneously, but their activation patterns differed significantly. One of the differences is that RhoA and Rac1, when activated, spread beyond the stimulated spine to the surrounding dendrite, which facilitates plasticity of surrounding spines. Another difference is that Cdc42 activity was restricted to the stimulated spine, what seems to be necessary to produce spine-specific plasticity. Furthermore, the autocrine BDNF signaling is required for activation of Cdc42 and Rac1, but not for RhoA.

Unprecedented insights into the regulation of synaptic plasticity

These two studies provide unprecedented insights into the regulation of synaptic plasticity. One study revealed for the first time an autocrine signaling system and the second study presented a unique form of biochemical computation in dendrites involving the controlled complementation of three molecules. According to Dr. Yasuda, understanding the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the regulation of synaptic strength is critical for understanding how neural circuits function, how they form, and how they are shaped by experience. Dr. McNamara noted that disorder of these signaling systems likely underlies dysfunction of synapses that cause epilepsy and a diversity of other diseases of the brain. Because hundreds of species of proteins are involved in the signal transduction that regulates synaptic plasticity, it is essential to investigate the dynamics of more proteins to better understand the signaling mechanisms in dendritic spines.

Future research in the Yasuda and McNamara Labs is expected to lead to significant advances in the understanding of intracellular signaling in neurons and will provide key insights into the mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity and memory formation and brain diseases. These insights will hopefully lead to the development of drugs that could enhance memory and prevent or more effectively treat epilepsy and other brain disorders.

[blinks] I’m listening to Jake answer questions on this MultiplicityAndMe channel and he said something about “Jess only sees her memories in third person”

then I sat there thinking, ‘wait…………… that’s not normal…? since when?’

Elderly discovered with superior memory and Alzheimer’s pathology

Well-established research suggests extensive plaques and tangles in the brain result in the death of neurons and are an indicator of Alzheimer’s dementia.

But surprising new Northwestern Medicine research on the brains of individuals 90 years and older who had superior memories until their deaths revealed widespread and dense Alzheimer’s plaques and tangles in some cases, considered full-blown Alzheimer’s pathology.

“This is amazing,” said Northwestern Medicine lead investigator Changiz Geula. “We never expected it. It tells us there are some factors that are protecting their brains and memories against the Alzheimer’s pathology of plaques and tangles. Now we have to find out what those are.”      

The Northwestern findings are the first to indicate that full-blown Alzheimer pathology also can exist in brains of elderly who show superior cognitive performance.

Geula presented the results of the study Monday, Nov. 14, at the Society for Neuroscience 2016 Annual Conference in San Diego. He is a research professor at the Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer’s Disease Center at Northwestern University Feinberg school of Medicine.

Extensive plaques and tangles in the brain result in the death of neurons and are an indicator of Alzheimer’s dementia. The fact that some elderly with the pathology still had superior memory points to mechanisms that protect their neurons and memory.

Discovery of these mechanisms is likely to help the development of therapies against Alzheimer’s disease, Geula said.

“Now we have to search for factors that protect these elderly against memory loss,” Geula said. “We will look at genetic, dietary and environmental influences that could confer protection for neurons against Alzheimer’s pathology.”

If scientists can find a protective environmental factor, it could help the normal elderly and those with the Alzheimer’s pathology, Geula said.

A number of recent studies suggest some elderly individuals harbor extensive Alzheimer pathology in the brain without any evidence of the cognitive decline seen in Alzheimer’s disease.

Northwestern scientists studied the brains of eight individuals older than 90 who were selected for superior performance in memory tests compared to their same-age peers who had a normal memory test performance. Three of those brains qualified pathologically as having Alzheimer’s disease, despite superior memory performance of the individuals when they were alive.

When Geula and colleagues examined nerve cells in the hippocampus, the part of the brain that is responsible for memory formation, they found cells in this area were relatively intact in brains of elderly with full Alzheimer pathology and superior memory performance.

They also examined five brains of Alzheimer’s dementia patients with full Alzheimer’s pathology. Those brains showed significant cell death in the hippocampus. A similar pattern was observed in other areas of the brain that control cognitive function.

“These findings clearly demonstrate the brains of some elderly are immune to the toxic effects of plaques and tangles,” Geula said.

To count the neurons, they examined a series of tissue sections, which were stained to visualize neurons. Then, using a microscope, they counted the number of neurons in sections of the hippocampus and the frontal cortex. When plaques and tangles appear in the frontal cortex, it means Alzheimer’s pathology has spread throughout the brain.

Geula’s lab is now embarking on a large-scale study to determine the factors, including genetic factors, that help protect the brains of some elderly against Alzheimer pathology.

instagram

I know it’s been 2 days now since the #formationworldtour but here is @beyonce singing and performing one of my favorite songs from her #lemonade album #daddylessons 👯🐝🍋#formation #beyonce #yoncé #concert #rosebowl #pasadena #memories #takemeback (at Beyonce: Formation World Tour, Rose Bowl)

Made with Instagram

currently charging my camera batteries, formatting my memory cards, cleaning my lenses, and pre-setting my camera for NOVA ROCK festival next week! im excited!! this is my 4th time photographing it and the line-up is soooo gooooooood

also if any of my austrian pal friends are going hmu and let me know (or just say hi when you see me (ill be easy to find, always either at the entrance to the photo pit before a band - or after im done shooting the first 3 songs!) 

Foreign Nickname (Taeyang Scenario)

Posted June 16, 2016

Requested by lostamongstthecosmos

From the voting about which requested scenario I should finish first, this one turned out to be the one the biggest amount of people wanted ^^ The end result of this isn’t as mushy and cheesy as I thought it would be, but I love the way it turned out and I got so invested in writing it that it got kind of long haha. I really hope that you’ll like it, sweetie, and enjoy~

Summary: You call him an affectionate nickname in your native language; something that soon becomes a unconscious habit, as your supressed feelings for him takes over.

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[World Building June 2017: Luxson Cluster] Day 16: Scraps & Shreds

[Day 16 Prompt] 🌐 [Full Prompt List]

Two energetic phenomenon found in Morbit are scraps and shreds.

Scraps are believed by some to be fragments of the soul that are lost or expelled after particularly emotional, traumatic, or generally life-changing events. They carry the emotions or memories involved in their formation with them, and can form together with other scraps or be used by mortals in strange ways.

Shreds, meanwhile, are a form of pure energy that do not carry emotions or memories. They are harnessed by many societies in Morbit as a power source, as they are plentiful and renewable. Shreds are given off by people as they go about their lives, and all creatures give off massive clouds of shreds when they die.

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Why Babies Are Born Screaming

Recall your earliest childhood memory. How old are you in this memory? Four? Five? Developmental neuroscience tells us we do not form episodic memories before the age of three. Supposedly, memories from before this time are merely phantoms— errors in the brain’s memory formation process. Ordinary daydreams, mislabeled as fact. This is what the current research tells us. It is important you know this. Bear with me, reader; I will not waste your time with endless foreplay. Here is my story:

I am a graduate student, studying linguistics. My work often overlaps with that of the neuroscience department, and I have made many contacts there. One such contact is the subject of this story. We will call him DV.

DV is also a graduate student. He studies memory. He uses a procedure called transcranial magnetic stimulation. This procedure uses magnetic radiation to activate targeted portions of the brain. Imagine a magic wand you can point at a cluster of neurons and say, “dance.” And they dance.

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