memory cell

Right now I’m sitting in a toilet when I should be in biology class
Because they’re teaching us how our white blood cells help our bodies fight off Infections
I never did quite understand it so that night you spent hours explaining it to me on the phone
I was too busy listening to your voice to take in any of it anyway
I don’t want to hear my teacher explain how a phagocyte engulfs pathogens
Just like you use to engulf me
Or how our memory cells stop viruses from coming back
In the same way I should remember all the pain you caused
And never let you make a disease of me again
My skin is no longer the same skin that once felt your touch, but it aches for you all the same. Recollections of your fingertips have formed their own cellular memory, and as old cells die, new ones take their place and learn from them that same painful longing.
I do not know if I would liken you to a tattoo or a scar… I simply know you can never be erased.
Investigators Identify Human Brain Processes Critical to Short-Term Memory

Cedars-Sinai neuroscientists have uncovered processes involved in how the human brain creates and maintains short-term memories.

“This study is the first clear demonstration of precisely how human brain cells work to create and recall short-term memories,” said Ueli Rutishauser, PhD, associate professor of Neurosurgery at Cedars-Sinai and the study’s senior author. “Confirmation of this process and the specific brain regions involved is a critical step in developing meaningful treatments for memory disorders that affect millions of Americans.”

The study’s findings, published online Feb. 20 and in the April print edition of Nature Neuroscience, involve a type of brain cell, called a persistently active neuron, that is vital for supporting short-term memory. Results indicate that this specific type of neuron remains active for several seconds when a person is required to memorize an object or image and recall it later.

The findings reveal critical new information on how the human brain stores and maintains short-term memories — the ability to remember ideas, thoughts, images and objects for seconds or minutes. Short-term memory is essential for making decisions and mental calculations.

“Because impaired short-term memory severely weakens someone’s ability to complete everyday tasks, it is essential to develop a better understanding of this process so new treatments for memory disorders can be developed,” said Jan Kamiński, PhD, a neuroscientist at Cedars-Sinai and lead author of the study.

Researchers found persistently active neurons in the medial frontal lobe as well as the medial temporal lobe. The neurons remained active even after the patient stopped looking at an image or object. Until now, the medial temporal lobe was thought to be involved only in the formation of new long-term memories. Now, however, the new findings show that both areas of the brain are critical for maintaining short-term memory and rely on the ongoing activity of the neurons for memorization.

During the study, a team of Cedars-Sinai neurosurgeons implanted electrodes to precisely locate the source of seizures in 13 epilepsy patients. Investigators then studied the electrical activity of individual neurons while patients performed a memory test.

During the test, patients viewed a sequence of three images, followed by a delay of two to three seconds. Then patients were shown another image and were asked to decide whether they had previously seen it.

“A surprising finding of this new study is that some of the persistently active neurons were only active if the patient memorized a specific image,” Kamiński said. “For example, the researchers discovered a neuron that reacted every time the patient memorized an image of Han Solo, a character in the movie Star Wars, but not any other memory.”

Another key finding of the study was a correlation between the strength of the neurons’ activity and the ability to later make use of the memory.

“We noticed that the larger the increase in activity, the more likely the patient was to remember the image. In contrast, if the neuron’s activity was weak, the patient forgot the image and thus lost the memory,” said Adam N. Mamelak, MD, professor of Neurosurgery, director of Functional Neurosurgery at Cedars-Sinai and a co-author of the study.

Keith L. Black, MD, chair of Neurosurgery at Cedars-Sinai, said the breakthrough can be credited to the partnership between neurosurgery and neurology clinicians working with neuroscientists.

“This unique collaboration allows us to discover the mechanisms of memory in the human brain,” Black said. “This is key for moving closer to finding treatments for memory disorders, epilepsy and other diseases.”

Rutishauser said a next step is understanding how multiple areas of the brain work together to support short-term memory.

“Now that specific neurons that support short-term memory have been discovered, we have a way to study their interaction systematically,” he said.

#No9TWritingChallenge II: 19

Word: Handcuff 

Originally posted by belladonelucifer

I’d always wondered
how it felt
to be sitting,
guilty,
in a cell.
Fully bound,
with no way out,
a lesson for
the next
show and tell.

But when I
found myself
handcuffed to
your memories,
I realized that
I was already
in a prison,
locked away
but walking free.

                                                            ~N.V.

The 102- Part 1: Lockup’s a Bitch

Pairing: Bellamy x reader (eventually)
Characters: the reader, an unnamed guard, mention of the reader’s siblings
Warnings: swearing, a little bit of angst, violence, canon divergence
Summary: This is the first part of a pretty big series where I’m rewriting the first season (and maybe more) of the 100 with a reader insert and a few big twists:) In this part we learn about the reader’s backstory and follow her journey out of her cell and to the drop ship. 
A/N: Feedback is always appreciated:) If you want to be a part of my tag list message me or send an ask! 
Tag list: @bellamybb @bellamyimagines @bellamyimaginess @bellamyfanclub @bellarkefanfiction @the100writers @the100fanfic @the100imagine @the100imaginess @the100imagines @the100imaginesblog @the100imaginesdaily @bellamyblakesgun @bellamyblakeedition @bellarkesurvivestogether @bellarkefanfictions @bellamyblake-imagine @all-time-foes @beautiful-chaos-blake @the100imaginess  @justauthoring @livi-thewerewolf @your-fav-imagines-writer @blakesmurphy100 @wukindly @imaginebeauty @imagines-all-day-everyday  @imaginaryimagines @bellamyblake-imagines @sone-of-a-blake @clarkkeee @octavia-marie-blake @youcanjustimagineit @hesragnorssoulmate @tvshowturtle @ranbowbabyangel @tvfandomimagines @iausscribbles @sanestilinski @writingkeepsmewhole @iamfire355 @jordsie @helpimtrappedinastory @all-imaginess @bethelbee97 @john-murphy-smut @naturegirl16 @winter-commandos @theadventures-of @see-the-fandom-imagines @hellsbellsbellamy @murphysluv @fandomsmillion @johnmurphyneedslove @knocking-on-murphys-door @imagine-the-100 

*I don’t own the 100 or any of its characters, this is an adaptation of the CW’s original show. Also, the pictures aren’t mine*

A sliver of the open sky was all you could see from your one roomed cell. The stars, constellations, and distant view of earth had been the only things keeping you company for the past few weeks. Banished to solitary for mouthing off to a guard, you had nothing else to do but stare out the window and await your return to the sky box. You’d taken a screw from the frame of your bed and used it to scratch tallies into the wall, each marking a day you’d been there. Twenty-six scratches and a dull screw later, you were sure they’d forgotten about you- it was probably easier to lock you up and throw away the key anyways.

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Noise paints silver indignation
Enchanted body leaches green

Flowing abyss
A sea of vibrations locate me dreaming

A wake in the art of cosmos
Clasp of truth behind the moon

He is a smell alive in cell memory
A mood that avails the ochre of blame

Organic construct
The gaze of souls transcending

Sun-soothed and poignant
After the sonorous rain

Elderly discovered with superior memory and Alzheimer’s pathology

Well-established research suggests extensive plaques and tangles in the brain result in the death of neurons and are an indicator of Alzheimer’s dementia.

But surprising new Northwestern Medicine research on the brains of individuals 90 years and older who had superior memories until their deaths revealed widespread and dense Alzheimer’s plaques and tangles in some cases, considered full-blown Alzheimer’s pathology.

“This is amazing,” said Northwestern Medicine lead investigator Changiz Geula. “We never expected it. It tells us there are some factors that are protecting their brains and memories against the Alzheimer’s pathology of plaques and tangles. Now we have to find out what those are.”      

The Northwestern findings are the first to indicate that full-blown Alzheimer pathology also can exist in brains of elderly who show superior cognitive performance.

Geula presented the results of the study Monday, Nov. 14, at the Society for Neuroscience 2016 Annual Conference in San Diego. He is a research professor at the Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer’s Disease Center at Northwestern University Feinberg school of Medicine.

Extensive plaques and tangles in the brain result in the death of neurons and are an indicator of Alzheimer’s dementia. The fact that some elderly with the pathology still had superior memory points to mechanisms that protect their neurons and memory.

Discovery of these mechanisms is likely to help the development of therapies against Alzheimer’s disease, Geula said.

“Now we have to search for factors that protect these elderly against memory loss,” Geula said. “We will look at genetic, dietary and environmental influences that could confer protection for neurons against Alzheimer’s pathology.”

If scientists can find a protective environmental factor, it could help the normal elderly and those with the Alzheimer’s pathology, Geula said.

A number of recent studies suggest some elderly individuals harbor extensive Alzheimer pathology in the brain without any evidence of the cognitive decline seen in Alzheimer’s disease.

Northwestern scientists studied the brains of eight individuals older than 90 who were selected for superior performance in memory tests compared to their same-age peers who had a normal memory test performance. Three of those brains qualified pathologically as having Alzheimer’s disease, despite superior memory performance of the individuals when they were alive.

When Geula and colleagues examined nerve cells in the hippocampus, the part of the brain that is responsible for memory formation, they found cells in this area were relatively intact in brains of elderly with full Alzheimer pathology and superior memory performance.

They also examined five brains of Alzheimer’s dementia patients with full Alzheimer’s pathology. Those brains showed significant cell death in the hippocampus. A similar pattern was observed in other areas of the brain that control cognitive function.

“These findings clearly demonstrate the brains of some elderly are immune to the toxic effects of plaques and tangles,” Geula said.

To count the neurons, they examined a series of tissue sections, which were stained to visualize neurons. Then, using a microscope, they counted the number of neurons in sections of the hippocampus and the frontal cortex. When plaques and tangles appear in the frontal cortex, it means Alzheimer’s pathology has spread throughout the brain.

Geula’s lab is now embarking on a large-scale study to determine the factors, including genetic factors, that help protect the brains of some elderly against Alzheimer pathology.

[L]oving is also necessarily a speculation, not so much because, as poets repeat, “gli occhi in prima generan l'amore” (the eyes first generate love), or because love, as Cavalcanti puts it in his canzone, “vien da veduta forma che s'intende” (comes from a seen form that is understood) (that is, from a form that, according to the process we have illustrated, penetrates through the external and internal senses until it becomes a phantasm or “intention” in the phantastic and memorial cells), but because medieval psychology—with an insight that yielded one of its most fertile legacies for Western culture—conceived of love as an essentially phantasmatic process, involving both imagination and memory in an assiduous, tormented circling around an image painted or reflected in the deepest self.
—  Giorgio Agamben, Stanzas: Word and Phantasm in Western Culture

800 FOLLOWER APPRECIATION POST!

When I created this blog about two years ago, I never would have dreamed I would hit about 100 followers. I’m amazed that there are about 800 people who like my posts! Sure, some are archives of old blogs, but whatever, I’m gonna make a post anyway! I am greatful to all of you! Both me and Red appreciate all of you! I probably can’t tag all of you, mostly rp blogs that I interact with, but just know that I love you all and hope you will continue to enjoy my Red!

I LOVE YOU ALL SO MUCH!

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Arcturian Frequency Art 

Healing timelines in earth system 
All is connected, every situation in life has been embedded in your current bodies cell memory, we can change and transform our consciousness by letting go of the past, letting go of fears and useless programming which can be stored even early as childhood. Who we truly are, is a field of non local, creative infinite potential, and the memories and identifications we hold in our bodies memory banks can keep us stuck and resistant to receiving the guidance and blessings of the source within, of timeless intelligence. 
By healing and unifying your earthly timelines that are connected to the months, seasons and astrological cycles, you grow stronger in all aspects. 

Vocalize star language mantra below 12 times while staring at the middle of the picture 

Ohmm - Sah - Kiiii
x12

Sing it strongly, vibrate it through your being and Breath in between each time you say it, 

- one love -

- EHANI -

How White Blood Cells Become Serial Killers

To develop vaccines against microbial infections and immunotherapy against cancer, researchers are looking for ways to enhance white blood cells called CD8+ T lymphocytes. Specifically, they want to bump up how well they work and how long they live.

Naïve T lymphocytes patrol the front lines of the human body’s defense against infection, circulating in blood and tissues, searching for invasive microbes and other foreign antigens. They’re called “naïve” because they have not yet encountered an invader. When they do, these T lymphocytes activate and divide, giving rise to at least two types of specialized cells: 1) effector lymphocytes or “serial killers” responsible for immediate killing of infected host cells; and 2) memory lymphocytes that provide long-term protection from similar infections. Researchers have been trying for a very long time to understand how activated naïve T cells give rise to effector and memory cells during an infection.

Taking advantage of technological advances in single-cell gene expression profiling and computational modeling that trace the destiny of individual cells, University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers, led by John T. Chang, MD, associate professor in the Department of Medicine, and Gene W. Yeo, PhD, professor in the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and Institute for Genomic Medicine, constructed a roadmap with detailed instructions that tell CD8+ T lymphocytes how to become serial killers or long-lived memory cells.

The findings are published in the February 20 online issue of Nature Immunology.

According to Chang, the primary purpose of vaccines is to produce strong and durable immune protection, which depends heavily on memory lymphocytes.  

“Our work suggests that early instructions that T lymphocytes receive during a microbial infection seem to be critical to whether or not they give rise to long-lived memory cells,” Chang said. “Strategies that exploit this process could potentially enhance durable immunity and help us to design more effective, longer-lasting vaccines against microbial pathogens and develop better approaches to boost the anti-cancer activity of white blood cells.

Pictured: a graphical representation of T cells attacking a cancer cell.

Neuroscientists identify brain circuit necessary for memory formation

When we visit a friend or go to the beach, our brain stores a short-term memory of the experience in a part of the brain called the hippocampus. Those memories are later “consolidated” – that is, transferred to another part of the brain for longer-term storage.

A new MIT study of the neural circuits that underlie this process reveals, for the first time, that memories are actually formed simultaneously in the hippocampus and the long-term storage location in the brain’s cortex. However, the long-term memories remain “silent” for about two weeks before reaching a mature state.

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Currently cooking a Frankenstein’s monster!Barry AU.

Featuring: 

  • Being brought back to life by Cisco/Caitlin/friends
  • Friends expect him to still be the same person and trying to force behaviors and relationships
  • Being rejected by said friends and running away after he fails
    • He’s not the same person anymore
    • Scrambled memories (from cell death?) about his life
    • Easily overstimulated by sounds and bright lights
    • Difficulty controlling his emotions and therefore his powers
    • Grey morals
  • Finding Captain Cold, whom he remembers in bit and pieces
  • If his friends don’t want him, Len’s certainly not going to turn him away
  • Being adopted by the Rogues, who try to help him

perfectlyrose  asked:

7 + a ship of your choice :)

7:  if I could do this all over again, I would

(kelsey, you have no idea – i’ve been trying to finish this draft for what seems like a million years and your prompt finally pushed me to do it! i hope you enjoy it <3)

running scared | AO3

(Just running scared each place we go
So afraid that he might show) 

“God, I’m tired,” she mutters and laughs—breezily—rubbing her eyes. “I don’t even know what’s my name anymore. Did we really have to chase that Flox up to here?”

He grins helplessly and shrugs his shoulders, as though to ask, ‘what can I say?’

She chuckles again. “Yeah, forget I asked that.”

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Tony Stark's Daughter-Part five

Readers POV
We arrived at the secret house a few hours after we left, it was in the middle of nowhere which I guess was the whole idea because it made us harder to be found which is what we all needed.

I was sat outside looking out at the countryside that surrounded the house, it had been such a long time since I’d been surrounded by nature like this, all those years spent in the Hydra labs….it felt strange to finally be free, part of me couldn’t believe that it was real…Like it was just some type of dream.

“It’s beautiful, isn’t it?” Bucky said as he sat down next to me, putting his arm around my waist. I smiled at him and nodded before placing my head on his shoulder.

“Is this even real, Buck? It feels​ too good to be true” I sighed, he kissed my head and chuckled.

“Yeah, doll, it’s real,” he whispered to me.
The two of us stayed like that until the evening, just sat with each other, looking at the view and talking about everything that has happened​. It then got late and I decided to go to my room. Part of me was terrified to go to sleep in fear of the nightmares returning, but I was so tired and as soon as my head was on the pillow I fell asleep instantly.

Dream
I was with Bucky and the guys at the safe house, we were all laughing and joking over dinner. And then there was the sound of gunshots. I went to run, but was stopped by the scene that I saw infront of me. They were dead. All of them. All of the Avengers. My dad…And Bucky all of them had bullet holes running through their heads as blood covered their faces.
And then I heard his voice….the voice of the man that had tortured me for years…The man that i had grown to fear more than anyone.
“This is all your fault” he began “you cause trouble wherever you go, you’ve caused so many deaths..” his voice was like an echo as images replayed in head…Images of all the people he had made me kill.
Within seconds, I was sat in a chair with that stupid device on my head… I knew what was going to to happen and I tried so hard to be brave, but I couldn’t hide my fear.
“You’re a monster, Y/N, a perfect little monster” he said, and it’s then that he turned on the device, sending  I am immense amount of pain to surge through my body,and then he began talking in Russian. He was saying the code, the code that triggered the monster that Hydra had created.
I could feel myself slowly slipping back….Back to the monster….back to the killer that they had created….Back to my own nightmare.
End of dream

Bucky’s POV
I couldn’t sleep, I knew that even if I tried, I wouldn’t be able to. So I was just sat in the kitchen drinking a beer. But that’s when I heard a scream, coming from upstairs. I instantly thought about Y/N…she suffered from the same nightmares that I did. I ran upstairs to see the Avengers all standing outside the room looking at Y/N with worry, Tony was in the room with her trying to wake her up, I noticed that a similar worry filled his eyes. I walked into into the room and sat opposite Tony.

I placed my metal hand on her cheek, stroking it softly as I leant close to her ear whispering,

“Y/N, doll, you need to wake up, it’s not real, it’s just a dream,” and “C’mon doll, come back to me”, I repeated those phrases a few more time, (Y/N and I had known each other long enough to know how to wake one another up from a nightmare), and eventually Y/N woke up. Her forehead was covered with sweat and her eyes were wide and watery…She looked so fragile in that moment, like her whole world could fall apart any second…. I had seen this look before and I carefully grabbed her chin so she facing me.

“Bucky?” She asked, her voice cracking as she did so.

“It’s me, it was just a dream doll, you’re safe, we all are”I whispered to her before she fell into my chest sobbing. I held her close as I rubbed soothing circles onto her back. I didn’t need to ask her what the nightmare was about, I already knew. Hydra.
I looked over at Tony, he looked broken….I couldn’t imagine how hard this was for him, all those years of her missing, the fear that she was dead….and in a way she was, the little girl that he knew had died a long time ago, Y/N was different now. And there was nothing anyone could do to help her…The memories from Hydra always came back, no matter what. Tony nodded at me as I held his daughter in my arms as he left the room, the other Avengers followed closely behind. I stayed with Y/N comforting her, and after she has calmed down we just lied in bed together…Neither of us uttering a single word, knowing that words wouldn’t help.

Tony’s POV
“Tony?” Rhodey asked cautiously as I grabbed a bottle of whiskey and poured myself a glass.

“Is now really a good time to be drinking?” Clint asked. I clenched my fist at his words. In a simple answer, no, now wasn’t a good time to be drinking. But I needed to. I needed to have the drink so that I wouldn’t hunt every single Hydra agent down and kill them. Kill them for what they did to my little girl.

“No, Clint, it isn’t, but right now it’s the only thing stopping me from getting in my suit and killing every single son of a bitch that hurt my daughter” I said anger filling my voice. Everyone looked at me sympathetically as I poured myself another glass. I hated seeing Y/N like this, I hated hearing her screaming and not being able to help her. I blamed myself for everything…Why did I have to try and be the hero, why couldn’t I have just stayed with my daughter. If I’d have stayed, they never would’ve taken her…And she wouldn’t be this way.

My rage filled inside me causing me to throw the glass at the nearest wall, shattering it to pieces as I knelt over the counter letting out a sigh.

“Tony, you cannot blame yourself” Wanda said as she walked over to me.

“Wanda’s right, Tony, none of this is your fault,” Steve said as he moved the bottle of whiskey away from me. It’s then that we saw Bucky enter the room.

“She’s okay, she’s reading” he said.

“How’s you know to do that?” Nat asked him. He looked at me before answering her question

“Y/N and I are very used to dealing with each other in that state…The nightmares, they feel so real.” he said

“What are the nightmares about?” I asked, he looked at me, working out if he should tell me, knowing that it would not only enrage me but the others as well.

“I want to know what they did to my daughter, please tell me” I asked as I moved closer to him. He let out a sigh and nodded.

“Y/N was always stubborn, she never did what they wanted her to do…So they had to break her, it meant doing a similar thing to her as they did to me, it meant erasing her memories and creating a new person…A monster. She remembered things quicker than anyone else, and when she did, she broke down, which is why they did the experiments on her, it was like a punishment for her remembering , and they hoped that it would make her weak so that the next time they erased her memories it would last longer…And they were right…So they did more experiments, hoping that they would give her powers…But they never worked, so they tortured her as a result of the experiments not working.” Bucky explained, I could feel years begin to enter my eyes.

“Wh-what type of torture?” I asked choking on my words, he looked at me with a warning look in his eye, as if asking if I was sure I wanted to know. I nodded in reply, even though i didn’t want to know…But I needed to know.

“it was both mental and physical torture. They would put visions in her head of you dying, and they would show her pictures of everyone she’d ever killed….they’d also hurt her,beat her up, sometimes so bad that she’d be in the hospital for a few days.”He whispered quietly, as I saw a tear fall from his eyes.

“How did you two get so close?” Steve asked, I think he was trying to get Bucky back to happier memory.

“We were in cells next to each other, and we just started talking…And then Hydra partnered us together on missions….we protected each other when we were the ‘monsters’ and we helped each other when we returned to normal.” Bucky said as a small smile came onto his face,
“She was always talking about you, Tony, about how you were a big hero and that all she wanted was to see you again, even if it was just for a second. She hoped that you wouldn’t be stuck in a wallow of self pity, she even thought you might be moved on and got a new family…She was forever talking about always wanting a little brother or sister.,” As Bucky said those words, I felt a wave of emotions hit me,part of me was devastated that she thought I could move on and forget about her, but then I remembered how she was younger, before her mother died, she would always ask us to give her a baby brother or sister…She even put it on her Christmas list one year…I couldn’t help but smile as I remembered the old memories.

Unknown POV
“So they’re in that house” I asked the scientist standing next to me.
“Yes, I take it you remember what to do?” He asked me. I nodded in reply, I was to get Y/N Stark back to the Hydra base. That was my mission, that was what I had to do. And I was going to do it, I had to, it’s what I’d been ordered to do.