mellon institute
Colleges Have Increased Women Computer Science Majors: What Can Google Learn?
About half of Harvey Mudd College computer science graduates are women, up sharply in the past decade. It and other schools found success by adjusting their curriculums and making other changes.

A Google engineer who got fired over a controversial memo that criticized the company’s diversity policies said that there might be biological reasons there are fewer women engineers.  But top computer science schools have proven that a few cultural changes can increase the number of women in the field.

In 2006, only about 10 percent of computer science majors at Harvey Mudd College were women.  That’s pretty low since Harvey Mudd is a school for students who are interested in science, math and technology.  Then, Maria Klawe began her tenure as president of the college.

Klawe — a computer scientist herself — had always been told that girls weren’t good at these things.  "This whole idea that women lean to liking doing one thing and men to doing another, it turns out I think if you do the curriculum and pedagogy well that’s just false,“ she says.

In fact, as soon as she arrived Klawe joined in an effort to change the curriculum.  First the school changed the name of the intro course, which had been called Intro to Java — a programming language.

Faculty came up with a new name: Creative Problem Solving in Science and Engineering Using Computational Approaches.

And then, Klawe says, the college also had to address the fact that a lot of women were intimidated by male students who showed off in class.  Many had done some programming in high school and they would dominate discussion.

So, they created a second intro course for students who had no previous experience.  Klawe says that it took away the "intimidation that comes of being a class where you’ve had no prior experience and somebody else has been programming since they were eight.”

Klawe says they also countered the stereotype that computer geeks were guys who spent all their time alone in a basement.  "They had very deliberately made it collaborative and involving teamwork instead of being lonely,“ she says.

Harvey Mudd’s intro computer class became among the school’s most popular.  And now, instead of 10 percent in any given year, the number of women computer science majors ranges between 40 percent and 50 percent.

Harvey Mudd isn’t the only school seeing success in this effort.  Carnegie Mellon has also significantly raised the number of women who major in computer science.  Jane Margolis, an education researcher at UCLA began a four-year study of Carnegie Mellon in 1994.  At the time, only 7 percent of computer science majors were women.

"It was not a question of capacity or ability” Margolis says.  "It was a question of women feeling that they weren’t welcome or that their existence was suspect.“

For example, Margolis says there was a computer science club in which the men put the women down if they didn’t think about coding all day and night.

And yet, when Margolis interviewed the men, she found they had other interests too.  "Many of them would say I like to do other things besides computing.  I like to hike or I like to bike.  But they never felt like their presence was being scrutinized.”

Carnegie Mellon instituted a series of reforms.  The school created a women’s computer club.  The school made it harder to become a computer science major — as always applicants had to be good at math and science but now they also had to show they had leadership qualities.

Today, instead of 7 percent, over 40 percent of the computer science majors at Carnegie Mellon are women.

For companies like Google — where only 20 percent of women are in technical positions — the question is whether there is something to be learned from these educational programs.

Writing Research - World War One

World War I (WWI or WW1 or World War One), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war, a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents’ technological and industrial sophistication, and tactical stalemate. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, paving the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. [1]


  • Social Security Association - Popular Baby Names in 1914
  • Social Security Association - Popular Baby Names in 1918
  • British Baby Names - The Top 100 Names in England and Wales in 1914
  • - Japanese Baby Names for 1915 - 2000

Society & Life

  • The Guardian - 1914: Life Before War – in Pictures (Britain)
  • The British Library - Europe Before 1914
  • Houston Chronicle - American Life in 1914: How We Lived A Century Ago
  • The Globe and Mail - What was life in Canada like before the First World War?
  • The Daily Mirror - 1913 in Pictures: Long Summer before World War One and End of Life as we Knew it
  • The Western Telegraph - life Before the First World War
  • History Learning Site - The Home Front 1914 to 1918 (Britain)
  • Life in Russia 1914-41
  • Alpha History - Great Britain before World War I
  • History of Ireland - 1914 to 1919: The First World War, Easter Rising and Rise of Sinn Féin
  • Click Americana - Average Life of a Woman in 1914
  • Australian Department of Veterans’ Affairs - Australian Women in World War I, 1914-1918 (PDF)
  • - Women in Wartime
  • Ontario Human Rights Commission - Women’s rights during WW1 in Canada
  • BBC - British Women at War, 1914-1918 (Video)
  • BBC - Women on the Home Front, 1914-1918 (Video)
  • BBC - British History: Women on the Home Front in World War One
  • BBC - What Did World War One Really Do For Women?
  • The British Library - Women at Home in a World at War
  • National Women’s History Museum - Women in World War I
  • San José State University - Women in WWI
  • Mail Online - Condemned to be virgins: The two million women robbed by the war
  • Clark College - Women’s Roles in the World War I Era and the Russian Revolution (PDF)
  • BBC - World War One: Family Life
  • Mail Online - Incredible photos from WW1 reveal the backbreaking and often dangerous work taken on by British women during the Great War
  • PBS - The Great War Timeline: Pre-1914
  • - First World War Erupts
  • Australian War Memorial - Enlistment Standards
  • The British Library - Recruitment: Conscripts and Volunteers during World War One
  • The Telegraph - First World War Centenary: How the Events of August 1, 1914 Unfolded
  • Heritage History - Why the War Began in 1914
  • PBS - The Great War Timeline, 1914
  • - U.S. Proclaims Neutrality in World War I
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - Why did the U.S. enter WWI?
  • Australian War Memorial - First World War 1914-18
  • University of Houston - Overview of World War I
  • Red Cross Canada - The First World War: 1914-1918
  • Education Scotland - The Great War, 1914-18
  • The George Washington University - World War I: 1914 - 1918
  • The National Archives - Civilians & War 1914-18, Britain
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica - World War I, 1914-18
  • Chicago Tribune - World War 1, 1914-1918
  • Anne Frank House - 1914: World War One
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - What would you say are the most notable reasons for the start of World War I?
  • Collin County Community College - Background to the War Nobody Won: World War I, 1914-1918
  • - Life in the Trenches: Soldiers on the Western Front, 1914-1918
  • The British Army in the Great War of 1914-1918 - The Life of a British Soldier
  • The British Library - Sensuous Life in the Trenches
  • The British Library - Combat and the Soldier’s Experience in World War One
  • BBC - World Wars: Soldier’s Stories (Audio)
  • Canadian War Museum - History of the First World War: Life at the Front
  • First World War - Life in the Trenches
  • BBC - Life in the trenches during World War One (Video)
  • The New York Times - Diaries of British Soldiers Detail Horrors of World War I
  • The Daily Telegraph - Soldier’s Diary of the First World War
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - How Dangerous was Life as a WWI Artilleryman?
  • Mail Online - Bloodthirsty World War I diaries of German soldier celebrate fighting on the Western Front
  • The Daily Telegraph - WW1 German soldier recalls moment he bayoneted foe to death
  • The Daily Beast - French Soldier’s WWI Memoir Vividly Describes Trench Warfare
  • The Daily Telegraph - Unseen interviews with WW1 veterans recount the horror of the trenches
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - In trench warfare, like what was seen during WWI, how were trenches excavated close to the opposing army front line without being overrun or shelled to pieces?
  • Reddit: Ask Histories - I know nothing about WWI warfare
  • Mail Online - World War One from the OTHER side: Hundreds of fascinating images taken by a GERMAN soldier reveal life in enemy’s trenches (Photos)
  • Canadian Naval Memorial Trust - Canadian Naval Operations in World War I (1914-18)
  • Life in Italy During World War I
  • Office of the Historian - American Entry into World War 1, 1917-1920
  • Schomburg-Mellon Humanities Summer Institute - African Americans and World War I
  • Wikipedia - United States Home Front During World War I
  • Wikipedia - United Kingdom Home Front During World War I
  • Wikipedia - Home Front During World War I (Covering all Major Countries Involved)
  • The Australian Home Front During World War 1
  • The Guardian - Children to mark WWI’s ‘Christmas Truce’ with plays and football
  • - Christmas Truce of 1914: World War I
  • New Zealand History - Schools in 1914 and the First World War
  • The British Library - Children’s Experiences of World War One
  • The Atlantic - World War I in Photos: Soldiers and Civilians (Photos)
  • The Blaze - Simply Amazing Photos of WWI That You May Not Have Seen Before (Photos)
  • The Legal Genealogist - A Doughboy’s Age
  • Wikipedia - Recruitment to the British Army During the First World War
  • Australian War Memorial - Enlistment Statistic: First World War
  • Canadian War Museum - French Canada and Recruitment during the First World War
  • Mental Floss - 12 Technological Advancements of World War I
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - WWI: Technology and the Weapons of War
  • BBC - 10 Inventions That Owe Their Success to World War One
  • Encyclopedia Britannica - World War I: Technology of War in 1914
  • The Library of Congress - The Increasing Power of Destruction: Military Technology in World War I
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - How did submarines in WWI and WWII navigate underwater and avoid collisions?
  • The Atlantic - World War I in Photos: Technology (Photos)
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - What were the German war aims of World War I?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - Why was Germany blamed for World War I?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - Why did Japan change allegiance from the WWI to WWII?


  • Arkansas Hearst Television Inc - What Things Cost in America in 1914 and 2014
  • University of Colorado Boulder - Wartime Changes in the Cost of Living (PDF)
  • Historical Text Archive - Retail Food Prices, 1913,1914, 1924, 1925
  • Food Timeline - Food for the Workers (PDF)
  • Food Timeline - Monthly Labor Review, 1914-1923 (PDF)
  • Federal Reserve Archival System for Economic Research - Retail Prices and Cost of Living Series: 1915 - 1937
  • International Institute of Social History - Datafiles of Historical Prices and Wages

Entertainment & Food

  • Le Moyne College - 19th & 20th Century Cookbooks
  • Vintage Recipes - Things Mother Used to Make: 1914
  • The Daily Telegraph - How to bake a First World War trench cake
  • The Daily Telegraph - Beef tea, potato pie and duff pudding: How to eat like a WW1 Tommy
  • National Archives and Records Administration - Food Will Win the War: On the Homefront in World War I
  • History Learning Site - Soldiers Food in the Trenches
  • BBC - Trench Food in World War One
  • Imperial War Museum - Rationing and Food Shortages during the First World War
  • Smithsonian Institution - American Food Posters From World War I and II
  • British Red Cross - True Stories from WWI: The Crimson Field and Hospital Food
  • BBC - WWI Home Front Food: What did children eat and drink?
  • - Lunch With Libby: World War I Doughboy Rations and Red Cross Cakes
  • The Salvation Army, Palm Beach County - WWI Doughnut Recipe
  • Old Time Candy - Pre-1920 Candies
  • The Daily Telegraph - WW1 led to ‘ladette culture’ as women turned to drink
  • History Today - The Drink Crisis During World War One
  • BBC - The 'Lost’ Poetry of World War One
  • University of California, Santa Barbara Library - Popular Songs of World War I
  • Wikipedia - 1914 in Music
  • Wikipedia - 1915 in Music
  • Wikipedia - 1916 in Music
  • Wikipedia - 1917 in Music
  • Wikipedia - 1918 in Music
  • Smarthistory - British Art and Literature During WWI
  • History Today - First World War Literature
  • Wikipedia - World War I in Literature
  • Yale University - World War I: Literature and the War
  • Wikipedia - 1914 in Literature
  • Wikipedia - List of American Films of 1914
  • Wikipedia - List of American Films of 1915
  • Wikipedia - List of American Films of 1916
  • Wikipedia - List of American Films of 1917
  • Wikipedia - List of American Films of 1918
  • Wikipedia - List of French Films of 1914
  • World Socialist Web Site - Cinema as an imperialist weapon: Hollywood and World War I
  • The New York Times - How the First World War Changed Movies Forever
  • Wikipedia - World War I Film Propaganda
  • BBC - World War One Movies
  • The Daily Telegraph - Newly restored footage gives unique insight into WW1 (Video)
  • - Intense Battle Footage from WWI (Video)
  • Click Americana - Headlines from the Very Start of WWI, 1914
  • BBC - Art from Different Fronts of World War One

Hygiene, Health, & Medicine

  • Alverno College - Life Expectancy among Men and Women during World War I
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - WWI: Medicine on the Battlefield
  • BBC - How did WW1 Change the Way we Treat War injuries Today?
  • The British Library - Wounding in World War One
  • CEUFast - Nursing and Medicine During World War I
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Chemical Warfare and Medical Response During World War I
  • Imperial War Museum - Medical Services in the First World War
  • University of Kansas Hospital - Medicine in the First World War
  • Science Museum - Medicine in the War Zone, WWI
  • BBC - How WW1 Changed Emergency Medicine
  • American Memory - Health and Medicine: Red Cross and World War I
  • BBC - World War One: Illness and Injury
  • Prezi - Diseases During WWI (Video)
  • Prezi - Diseases and Medicine WWI (Video)
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - The U.S. Military and the Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919
  • The National Archives - First Word War: Problems
  • Prezi - Health & Hygiene in WWI (Video)
  • The National Archives - British Army nurses’ service records 1914-1918
  • First World - Memoirs & Diaries: Nurse
  • Western Front Association - British Military Nurses and the Great War: a Guide to the Services
  • The Daily Telegraph - Pioneering Plastic Surgery Records From the First World War
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Medical advances consequent to the Great War 1914-1918
  • Science Museum - War and Medicine
  • United States Air Force - Military Medicine During the Twentieth Century: World War I
  • British Red Cross - Volunteers During the First World War
  • The Wall Street Journal - World War I Centenary: Medicine


  • Fashion Era - 1914-1920: Towards Dress Reform
  • The Guardian - The Influence of the Great War on Fashion
  • Glamourdaze - History of Women’s Fashion: 1900 to 1919
  • BBC - World War I War Clothes
  • BBC - Men’s Clothes
  • BBC - Girls’ Clothes
  • BBC - Boys’ Clothes
  • Vogue Magazine - Wartime Wardrobe: How Will Downtown Abbey Dress for WWI?
  • Mail Online - Stylish in trousers and elegant in trench coats: The changing fashions worn by the battling women of World War One revealed in incredible illustrations
  • University of Massachusetts - Hairstyles of the War Eras
  • The University of Vermont - Women’s Hairstyles: 1910s
  • The University of Vermont - Women’s Hats: 1910s
  • The University of Vermont - Women’s Fashion Accessories: 1910s
  • The University of Vermont - Men’s Fashion: 1910s
  • The University of Vermont - Women’s Fashion: 1910s
  • Glamourdaze - The History of Makeup: 1900 to 1919
  • History of Footwear - 1870-1914 Women’s Shoes
  • Victoria and Albert Museum - WW1 Era Clothing: Archive of Art and Design Resources for Re-enactors and Costumers
  • Illinois State University - WWI Women Fashion
  • Wikipedia - British Army Uniform and Equipment in World War I
  • Solider of Fortune - WW1 British Army Soldier Uniform from the Somme 1916
  • BBC - World War One: Guided Tour of British Soldier’s Kit (Video)
  • Military Items- WWI American Military Uniforms
  • Old Magazine Articles - U.S. Army Uniforms of World War One
  • Collectors Weekly - World War One Antiques and Memorabilia
  • Trenches on the Web - Wartime Changes to the German Field Uniform 1914-1916


  • The British Library - Slang and World War One
  • Trenches on the Web - Words, Expressions & Terms Popularized 1914 - 1918
  • Mail Online - Oxford English Dictionary reveals how the trenches of World War One shaped our language…and there could be more
  • Australian War Memorial - Australian First World War “slanguage”
  • The Guardian - Trench talk: A Guide to First World War Slang
  • Mental Floss- 21 Slang Terms From World War I
  • Bartleby - The American Heritage Book of English Usage: War Slang
  • Canadian War Museum - Soldier's Slang
  • BBC History - Slang and swear words 'helped soldiers survive the First World War’
  • French Slang in the Trenches of World War One

Justice & Crime

  • Wikipedia - Battle of Tannenberg, 1914
  • Wikipedia - Abschwangen Massacre, 1914
  • Wikipedia - Ludlow Massacre, 1914
  • Wikipedia - Battle of Broken Hill, 1915
  • Wikipedia - Sinking of the RMS Lusitania, 1915
  • Wikipedia - 1915 Singapore Mutiny
  • Wikipedia - Surdulica Massacre, 1916
  • Wikipedia - Black Tom Explosion, 1916
  • Wikipedia - Everett Massacre, 1916
  • Wikipedia - Preparedness Day Bombing, 1916
  • Wikipedia - East St. Louis Riot, 1917
  • Wikipedia - Houston Riot, 1917
  • Wikipedia - 1917 Kazan Gunpowder Plant Fire
  • Wikipedia - Kielce Pogrom, 1918
  • Wikipedia - Lwow Pogrom, 1918
  • Wikipedia - March Days, 1918
  • Wikipedia - September Days, 1918
  • Wikipedia - 1914 in United States Case Laws
  • Wikipedia - 1915 in United States Case Laws
  • Wikipedia - 1916 in United States Case Laws
  • Wikipedia - 1917 in United States Case Laws
  • Wikipedia - 1918 in United States Case Laws
  • Wikipedia - United Kingdom Acts of Parliament 1914
  • British Military Crime and Punishment of 1914-1918
  • Wikipedia - List of War Crimes: World War I
  • BBC - The British WWI prisoner of war who returned to captivity
  • Trenches on the Web - Frank Savicki: First Doughboy Prisoner of War to Escape
  • Wikipedia - World War I Prisoners of War in Germany 
  • - Prisoners of War on the Eastern Front During World War I
  • History Learning Site - World War One Executions
  • International Committee of the Red Cross - Chemical and Biological Weapons
  • Wikipedia - Weapons of World War I
  • The Daily Telegraph - Weapons of World War I
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica - Biological weapons in the World Wars
  • Wikipedia - Chemical Weapons and the United Kingdom
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - Small Arms the World War One Era
  • Canadian War Museum - The First World War: Discipline and Punishment
  • The British Library - Military Discipline and Punishment
  • BBC - Shot at Dawn: Cowards, Traitors or Victims?
  • The National Archives - Courts Martial during the First World War
  • History Today - Crucifying Tommy: Punishment in the First World War
  • The Daily Mirror - Heroes Not Cowards: Pardons for Men Shot in WWI
  • - British Soldier Henry Farr Executed for Cowardice
  • Australian War Memorial - Desertion and the Death Penalty
  • Wikipedia - World War I Prisoners of War Held by the United Kingdom
  • BBC - Why were journalist threatened with execution in WWI?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - We have all heard of the mass infantry charges in World War One, but what was the thought process behind them?
  • Imperial War Museum - Prisoners of War in the First World War

Batman is coming….. 


The bat symbol is actually on Mellon Institute, and for those who don’t know that’s the building they used as Gotham Town Hall in the latest batman movie.

This is actually for a batman movie marathon that our activities board is doing this week. 

Cheers! and keep your eye out for the dark knight!

EDIT: I LIED!!!! sorry it wasn’t on the Mellon building, upon closer observation it looks like the side of the University Center. Would have been cool if it was on Mellon

EDIT NUMBER 2: and…. I lied again. It was on Purnell, the drama building :P Does this mean Christian Bale is coming? XD


Last post about Batman!

So this video is quite awesome since it shows them doing the fight scene between Batman (Christian Bale) and Bane (Tom Hardy) on the steps of Gotham City Hall (Mellon Institute building, part of CMU) in the midst of a riot, right next to the prison (Software Engineering Institute, also part of CMU).

I kid, I kid. The Software Engineering Institute building is right next to the Mellon Institute building, But you won’t see a prison right next to Gotham City Hall in the movie.

Oh, it’s also supposed to be winter. Just imagine, winter clothes in summer…

But all filming in front of the Mellon Institute has ceased. Further filming will probably be done inside Mellon (something about a motorcycle) and the Software Engineering Institute. 

Oh, did I mention this was filmed on Sunday? The day I didn’t show up to the film site? ah… sadness….

Mellon Institute (243/365)

Was walking to Max Flavor Pizza for some dinner before my Sensation and Perception, and on my way I stopped by this, remembering it is the sight of one of the scenes in the upcoming Batman movie, The Dark Knight Rises. Given that, and seeing as it was one of the few things around the Oakland area that I haven’t taken a photo of yet, I decided to snap a picture. I’m pleased with how it turned out. I’m not, however, pleased with how my dinner turned out. Like last time, the meal left me feeling bloated, with a headache to boot. It didn’t help that they were out of ice, so for a drink I had warm Orange Crush, which comes in a pretty large cup. Next time, I’ll remember to avoid the place before my exam, which will, thankfully, be my last (Sensation and Perception can’t be over soon enough; some classes just shouldn’t be squeezed into six-weeks). That’s not a knock on the place itself, just my luck when I happen to have it right before one of those exams.

Looking on the bright side, though, my exam went considerably better than the first one, which was the worst exam-taking experience I’ve ever had, despite what the relatively respectable grade I ended up getting, a 77% (70% without the curve), may lead you to believe. My confidence level during an exam has never been lower than it was during that one, and I think I owed part of that sinking feeling to the pizza that was trying and failing to sit in my stomach, my stomach perpetually pulling the chair out from under it each time it tried. This time, I only had to make an educated (or, well, at least not a completely blind) guess on about a quarter of the 96 questions. Does the fact that that is leaps-and-bounds better than the first exam, where my guesses were about as educated as a potato and I probably guessed on more than I knew, give you an idea just how bad we’re talking, here? Only two more weeks. Two. More. Weeks. Two… more… weeks. Why!? [/Kenan]