“Dr Levin is a researcher from Tufts University in Massachusetts, whose work focuses on organ placement in the body.
He believes that his work could soon extend beyond animals and into humans. For example, it could allow soldiers to regrow arms on the battlefield if lost to a bomb…
In 2013, Dr Levin surgically removed the eyes of donor tadpoles and grafted them onto the backs of recipient tadpoles, which induced the growth of ectopic - or abnormally placed - eyes.
Recipient tadpoles had their natural eyes removed, so only the ectopic, spinal cord-connected eyes remained.
Dr Levin said: ‘The [tadpole’s] ability to see when ectopic eyes are connected to spinal cord and not directly to the brain was stunning.
‘A primary goal in medicine is to one day be able to restore the function of damaged or missing sensory structures through the use of biological or artificial replacement components…’
Another of Dr Levin’s experiments in 2015 saw free-living flatworms growing specific head shapes and brains characteristic of other species of flatworm, and the changes were beyond skin deep.
By interrupting protein channels called gap junctions, which pass electrical signals between cells, Dr Levin changed the distribution of the worm’s adult stem cells, along with the shape of the head and brain.
‘It is commonly thought that the sequence and structure of chromatin - material that makes up chromosomes - determine the shape of an organism, but these results show that the function of physiological networks can override the species-specific default anatomy,’ said Dr Levin.
‘By modulating the connectivity of cells via electrical synapses, we were able to derive head morphology and brain patterning belonging to a completely different species from an animal with a normal genome…’
Most recently in May 2016, Dr Levin used lasers to reprogram tumour cells to become harmless again.
Cancer cells emit 'faulty’ electrical signals, that leads them to divide uncontrollably.
Dr Levin used gene therapy to make these cells 'light-sensitive’ meaning lasers could then alter their cancer-causing signals.
But Dr Levin has bigger hopes for regenerative medicine.
He told Popular Science: 'The endgame of this field is complete specification of shape.
'You’d be able to sit down on a computer, like in Photoshop, and draw what you want, and out it comes.
'If you said, “I want a triangular frog with seven legs, and the eyes should be over here,” I don’t see any reason you couldn’t do that…’
Everyone is born with a bracelet. No one knows for sure why, whether it be evolution, fate, or God trying to makes things easier on humanity, but before you even take your first breath, the bracelet appears on your wrist. The color always starts out muted, on the very coldest end of the color spectrum. It is different for everyone, but most are born with a deep true blue. Very rarely is a person born with a green or even a purple bracelet, closer to the warmth of meeting their soulmate. Scientists had figured out long ago that the color of your bracelet changed with age, not distance, which kept many a lonely heart from wandering the world in search of their love.
Y/N’s parents were both born with purple bracelets. They met in middle school and continued on to be high school sweethearts. Even after being together so long, the bright white of their bracelets had yet to fade in the slightest.
Y/N, like the majority of the world, was born with the deep blue that meant she wouldn’t meet her soulmate for many years. She tried not to be jealous of her baby sister’s green wrist. Everyone has a soulmate right? And all good things come to those who wait. Everyday of her life she would wake up and check for any hint of change on her wrist, but for many years it remained blue.
She and her family, like many, decided to take pictures of the bands on birthdays to see the color change over the years. One of the happiest days in her memory was the day she realized that her band had become the slightest bit more purple since last year.
The day her little sister’s band turned white was painful and yet she was still happy. Her band was a lot more purple than it had once been, and she still had a long time to meet her mate. She watched many of her friends meet their soulmates in middle school and high school. She watched them and was content with the blue-purple of her band.
Until one day, she woke up in the middle of the night to see the purple fading into black. She turned on the light just in time to see the darkness spread until it engulfed every bit of pigment. She felt a cold chill engulf her entire body.
They were dead. Whoever they were. She would never meet her soulmate. She felt like oxygen was no longer enough for her body. She was lightheaded and the room was spinning, but no matter how much air she gulped, it didn’t change the emptiness in her chest.
She didn’t realize she was making noise until her parents burst into the room to find her sobbing and clutching her wrist to her chest.
Things changed after that. She tended to wear long sleeves or tie a wide ribbon over her band. For a little while she would pretend the band wasn’t black underneath. For a while she even would have sworn it was dark purple, but when she finally had the courage to look again, it was just as black as she remembered.
After several months, she grew used to it. The pain wasn’t as constant and seeing the black didn’t sting as bad. So she embraced it. She stopped trying to cover the fact that her soulmate was dead. People still flinched when they saw the black band on the wrist of one so young, only 17 and already alone. Many even went so far as to apologize, as if the words of a stranger could possibly change the color of her wrist.
One day, long after she had come to terms with the fact that she would never have a soulmate, she woke up to find her bracelet of magenta. Something had changed and she was much closer to meeting her soulmate than she had ever been before. She felt that same breathless feeling she had felt so long ago when her bracelet had first turned black. She had spent so long coming to terms with never meeting her soulmate that the idea of suddenly having one again was world shattering. What had suddenly changed? Why now? After all she had been through? Asking questions wasn’t going to change the color of her wrist and only time would bring the answers so she continued on best she could.
She heard about the new vigilante in town. He was shaking things up and making life hard for a lot of bad people, but he also stood against Batman. She didn’t really have a strong opinion about him, other than she didn’t want to get on his bad side.
She pretended not to notice how warm her bracelet was beginning to look. The fiery red her band was becoming, but it almost seemed to glow at times. She took to wearing long sleeved shirts again.
She didn’t expect her life to change again so soon, but not too long later she found herself in the wrong place at the wrong time. She was walking home from work when the Red Hood stumbled out of an alley and fell onto the sidewalk in front of her. She didn’t really put a lot into helping him, but before she knew it he was lying unconscious on her couch while she patched up his wounds.
She knew the moment he woke up. His breathing changed before he grabbed her wrist, his hand closing over her band. She let him gain his bearings and stayed silent while he realized he wasn’t in danger. Even though she had left his helmet on, she could tell the moment his eyes fixed on hers.
“Who are you?” His voice came out, garbled and a bit unnatural.
“Nobody.” She answered quietly.
They sat studying each other for several seconds before his eyes caught sight of his band. It was a vibrant snowy white against his skin. He slowly released her hand and gently moved the fabric of her sleeve to find that her band was the same.
That now familiar breathless feeling came back. Luckily her soulmate has good reflexes and caught her before she slipped of the couch and onto the floor.
“Are you okay?” He asked, extremely concerned at how his soulmate had reacted.
She nodded and steadied herself. He cautiously let her go and reached for his helmet. He lifted it off to reveal an attractive young man with dark hair and bright blue eyes.
“Hi, I’m Jason. And I guess I’m your soulmate, doll.”
i think its rly unfair that characters in mass effect are always like oh krogans arent intelligent enough to care about science or yeah theres no such thing as a krogan scientist. like. did yall forget the reason tuchanka is a wasteland is cuz the krogan split the atom and built nuclear weaponry? do u think they did that without an interest in science?? somehow?? also u literally. meet. krogan scientists in game. like okeer, the guy who made grunt. like wtf kinda nonsense
Information from ESA’s magnetic field Swarm mission has led to the discovery of supersonic plasma jets high up in our atmosphere that can push temperatures up to almost 10 000°C.
Presenting these findings at this week’s Swarm Science Meeting in Canada, scientists from the University of Calgary explained how they used measurements from the trio of Swarm satellites to build on what was known about vast sheets of electric current in the upper atmosphere.
The theory that there are huge electric currents, powered by solar wind and guided through the ionosphere by Earth’s magnetic field, was postulated more than a century ago by Norwegian scientist Kristian Birkeland.
It wasn’t until the 1970s, after the advent of satellites, however, that these ‘Birkeland currents’ were confirmed by direct measurements in space.
These currents carry up to 1 TW of electric power to the upper atmosphere – about 30 times the energy consumed in New York during a heatwave.
They are also responsible for ‘aurora arcs’, the familiar, slow-moving green curtains of light that can extend from horizon to horizon.
While much is known about these current systems, recent observations by Swarm have revealed that they are associated with large electrical fields.
These fields, which are strongest in the winter, occur where upwards and downwards Birkeland currents connect through the ionosphere.
Bill Archer from the University of Calgary explained, “Using data from the Swarm satellites’ electric field instruments, we discovered that these strong electric fields drive supersonic plasma jets.
“The jets, which we call ‘Birkeland current boundary flows’, mark distinctly the boundary between current sheets moving in opposite direction and lead to extreme conditions in the upper atmosphere.
“They can drive the ionosphere to temperatures approaching 10 000°C and change its chemical composition. They also cause the ionosphere to flow upwards to higher altitudes where additional energisation can lead to loss of atmospheric material to space.”
David Knudsen, also from the University of Calgary, added, “These recent findings from Swarm add knowledge of electric potential, and therefore voltage, to our understanding of the Birkeland current circuit, perhaps the most widely recognised organising feature of the coupled magnetosphere–ionosphere system.”
This discovery is just one of the new findings presented at the week-long science meeting dedicated to the Swarm mission.
Also presented this week and focusing on Birkeland currents, for example, Swarm was used to confirm that these currents are stronger in the northern hemisphere and vary with the season.
Since they were launched in 2013, the identical Swarm satellites have been measuring and untangling the different magnetic signals that stem from Earth’s core, mantle, crust, oceans, ionosphere and magnetosphere.
As well as a package of instruments to do this, each satellite has an electric field instrument positioned at the front to measure plasma density, drift and velocity.
Rune Floberghagen, ESA’s Swarm mission manager, said, “The electric field instrument is the first ionospheric imager in orbit so it’s very exciting to see such fantastic results that are thanks to this new instrument.
“The dedication of scientists working with data from the mission never ceases to amaze me and we are seeing some brilliant results, such as this, discussed at this week’s meeting.
“Swarm is really opening our eyes to the workings of the planet from deep down in Earth’s core to the highest part of our atmosphere.”
TOP IMAGE….Information from ESA’s magnetic field Swarm mission has led to the discovery of supersonic plasma jets high up in our atmosphere that can push temperatures up to almost 10 000°C.
(1/2) If your still accepting heacanons: Guardian AU. Ford would have to leave sometimes to go to conferences/meeting with other scientists (dumb smart people, as Mabel puts it) and the niblings would be very upset. During this time, Stan would take care of them until Ford comes back. One day however, he decides to surprise Ford at the airport. When Ford comes out of the terminal, he sees the twins, holding signs and flowers for him. He tears up and runs to them, giving them a million kisses.
(2/2) I have two posts made up of Pines family heacanons if you want to look at those too. :)
OMG. JSKJDNAJKFAJK. THAT IS SO CUTE AND PRECIOUS!!! Awwww. I’m crying. This is so pure. ;w;
Ooooh! I’d love for more Pines family headcanons!! Send ‘em my way! :D