medfacts

Usually, skin cells grow deep in the skin and rise to the surface about once a month. In people with psoriasis, the immune system sends out faulty signals that causes the cycle to speed up too much. Dead skin cells build up on the skin’s surface. The most common form of psoriasis is called plaque psoriasis and appears as red patches covered with a white sheet of dead cells that have built up. Other types of psoriasis include guttate, inverse, pustular, and erythrodermic psoriasis.

You can learn more here:
PubMed
National Psoriasis Foundation
WebMD
The more smart sounding way: Chronic bronchitis is when your mucus-producing glands in cartilaginous airways undergo hypertrophy and progressively limits airflow more and more. It can also be called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Bronchitis is extremely common, and occurs when your bronchial tubes have been inflamed. Bronchi are the air passages that go from your trachea to alveoli in the lungs.

You can learn more here:
MedScape
MayoClinic
PubMed
Sputum is mucus coughed up from your respiratory tract.

Similar to chronic bronchitis, acute bronchitis can be treated symptomatically. As long as the patient is getting enough oxygen, the body will recover on its own. Cough suppressants such as codeine and dextromethorphan might be prescribed. NSAIDs can help with pain relief. Antibiotics have not been proven to have any huge effect.

Senior citizens, young children, people with heart or lung disease, as well as smokers are at risk for bronchitis.

You can learn more here:
MedScape
MayoClinic
PubMed
The eruption usually occurs a few hours after bathing in seawater. About 98% of patients suffer from pruritus (translation: itchiness) which usually lasts about 1 to 2 weeks. It can also cause fever, nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, although more rarely and usually in children as opposed to adults.

Seabather’s eruption is basically an allergic reaction and will generally not require hospitalization. The specific larvae the reaction is to can vary by area. Long Island waters contain the larvae of sea anemone, while Florida waters contain thimble jellyfish larvae.

You can learn more here:
MedScape
NYC Dept of Health

Aspirin works to prevent the formation of clots in your vascular system. Clots tend to form on ruptured atherosclerotic plaques that build up along the lining of your blood vessels over the years. Plaque can build up in response to injury caused by a variety of mechanisms: high blood pressure, abnormal blood sugar, toxins inhaled through smoking, and a number of other possible factors.

These clots can become dislodged from the vessel they originate from and cause even more serious conditions like a pulmonary embolism or a stroke.

You can learn more about aspirin here:

Medline Plus
American Heart Association

ADH works by signaling the collecting ducts of the kidney to promote increased reabsorption of water into your system. ADH is produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior lobe of your pituitary gland.

ADH can be blocked by a number of drugs, including alcohol. This is why the need to urinate increases with alcohol consumption as well as explains the need to stay hydrated while drinking, as the alcohol blocks ADH from working properly.

You can learn more here:
ColoState
Medline Plus

There are three kinds of tachycardia:

  • sinus tachycardia
  • atrial or supraventricular tachycardia
  • ventricular tachycardia

Unlike supraventricular, or atrial, tachycardia which starts in the heart’s upper chambers, or atria, ventricular tachycardia starts in the heart’s lower chambers, called ventricles. The ventricles pump blood into the arteries. When the ventricles pump too fast, they do not get filled with blood properly before each beat. This leads to worsening blood circulation.

Ventricular tachycardia is most often a symptom of an underlying heart condition, such as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, or cardiac valve disease. It can also develop during or after a heart attack due to the formation of scar tissue in the ventricles.

Emergent treatment of ventricular tachycardia may include cardioversion, CPR, or IV medications. Long term control may require medications, radiofrequency catheter ablation, or an implanted pacemaker/defibrillator.

You can learn more here:
American Heart Association
MedlinePlus
Cleveland Clinic

There are three kinds of tachycardia:

  • sinus tachycardia
  • atrial or supraventricular tachycardia
  • ventricular tachycardia

Out of these, sinus tachycardia is the most benign and is typically a normal physiological response to things like exercise, anxiety, fear, and fever. It is a result of quickened firing of the sinoatrial node, the heart’s “pacemaker”, in a regular rhythm. Symptoms include dizziness, lightheadedness, shortness of breath, palpitations, and more.

Sinus tachycardia can also be a symptom of a more serious condition, such as anemia, thyroid problems, or a heart attack. As such, the presence of sinus tachycardia, while not concerning by itself, may warrant further investigation.

You can learn more here:
MayoClinic
American Heart Association

This first flu vaccine was developed using an egg based manufacturing process. A manufactured vaccine virus is injected into a fertilized hen’s egg. As the egg incubates, the virus multiplies. Eventually, the fluid containing the vaccine is collected from the egg. The viral antigen is purified and developed further into what we use as the flu shot.

Since then, researchers have also developed a cell-based manufacturing method, approved for use in 2012, and recombinant flu vaccines, approved for use in 2013.

You can learn more here:
Center for Disease Control and Prevention
History of Vaccines

A cool timeline can be found here:
Novartis Vaccines