mcloughlin brothers


The McLoughlin Brothers firm was one of the foremost publishers of children’s literature in 19th-century America, specializing in colored editions of children’s classics.

Before widely adopting color lithography in 1867, the McLoughlin Brothers experimented with stenciling and woodblock color printing. Earlier publications, like the library’s copy of the 1864 edition of The Three Little Crows (at top), were hand-colored by stenciling. The process was very labor-intensive as every color required its own stencil. While stenciling provided a light wash of color, the images lacked the rich, vibrant shades produced by color lithography (second image). To highlight the difference in color printing techniques, we’ve juxtaposed the hand-stenciled 1864 edition (on the right)  with McLoughlin Brothers’ later 1884 edition (on the left), printed using color lithography.

The Three Little Crows (New York: McLoughlin Brothers, 1864)
The Three Little Crows (New York: McLoughlin Brothers, 1884)

From the Children’s Literature Collection, University of South Florida Libraries

anonymous asked:

This might be a little different for you but: hcs where Ethan and Jack are like brothers (Jack's the big bro while Ethan's the lil bro) and live together while in college, so they always go shopping together, host game nights at their apartment with Teamiplier, Felix/Marzia, Robin/Signe, ect., are very supportive of each other's life endeavors, and are each other's shoulder to cry on alk through school


- Overprotective Brother ™ Jack/Sean always taking care of Ethan no matter w h a t

- Ethan always looking up to Jack, role model forever, trying to be as cool as him and Jack just smiles.

- Jack dyes his hair and their parents are #shook. Ethan dyes his hair and Mom faints.

- “My brother plays baseball AND he’s on the football team”  “Okay but MY brother shouts at video games and can kick your brother’s ass any day, so whatsup.”

- Senior!Jack and Freshmen!Ethan

- All the girls flaunt over Ethan being the little brother and Jack stands by and kinda just  ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)

- Getting complaints from everyone in the dorms before it gets L I T during game night every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday.

- *wink wonk* Jack teaching Ethan all the shortcuts and stress-free tips of the college life.

- One time, Ethan had a shitty breakup and the next day Jack bought him all his favorite junk food and called in sick for all his professors and just took care of him.

- “Who needs hoes when you’ve got bros?” “You’re the best, Jack”

- Teary-eyed Ethan when he sees Jack graduate.

- Jump ahead and Ethan graduates and just this intense hug and Jack whispers through tears “I knew we could do it”.



Anna Sewell (30 March 1820 – 25 April 1878)

English novelist, best known as the author of the classic 1877 novel Black Beauty. (Wikipedia)

From our stacks: 1. Cover from Black Beauty The Autobiography of a Horse By Anna Sewell. With Fifty Illustrations. Philadelphia: Henry Altemus Company, 1897. 2. Cover from Black Beauty; The Autobiography of a Horse By Anna Sewell. Illustrated. New York: McLoughlin Brothers, n.d. 3.-4. Cover and frontispiece from Black Beauty; The Autobiography of a Horse By Anna Sewell. With Forty Illustrations. Chicago: W. B. Conkey Company, n.d. 5. Frontispiece “’I fell heavily to the ground on my side’” from Black Beauty The Autobiography of a Horse By Anna Sewell. With Fifty Illustrations. Philadelphia: Henry Altemus Company, 1897. 6. Title page from Black Beauty; The Autobiography of a Horse By Anna Sewell. Illustrated. New York: McLoughlin Brothers, n.d.

Goosy Goosy Gander. McLoughlin Brothers, New York City.

McLoughlin Bros., Inc. pioneered the systematic use of color printing technologies in children’s books, particularly between 1858 and 1920. The firm’s publications served to popularize illustrators including Thomas Nast, William Momberger, Justin H. Howard, Palmer Cox, and Ida Waugh.

A brief history of the word “nigger.”

The history of the word nigger is often traced to the Latin word niger, meaning Black. This word became the noun, Negro (Black person) in English, and simply the color Black in Spanish and Portuguese. In early modern French, niger became negre and, later, negress (Black woman) was unmistakably a part of language history. One can compare to negre the derogatory nigger and earlier English substitutes such as negar, neegar, neger, and niggor that developed into its lexico-semantic true version in English. It is probable that nigger is a phonetic spelling of the White Southern mispronunciation of Negro.

No matter what its origins, by the early 1800s, it was firmly established as a derogative name. In the 21st century, it remains a principal term of White racism, regardless of who is using it. Social scientists agree that words like nigger, kike, spic, and wetback come from three categories: disparaging nicknames (chink, dago, nigger); explicit group devaluations (“Jew him down” or “niggering the land”); and irrelevant ethnic names used as a mild disparagement (“jewbird” for cuckoos having prominent beaks or “Irish confetti” for bricks thrown in a fight.)

Over time, racial slurs have victimized all racial and ethnic groups; but no American group has endured as many racial nicknames as Blacks: coon, tom, savage, pickaninny, mammy, buck, samba, jigaboo, and buckwheat are some. Many of these slurs became fully traditional pseudo-scientific, literary, cinematic, and everyday distortions of African Americans. These caricatures, whether spoken, written, or reproduced in media and material objects, reflect the extent, the vast network, of anti-Black prejudice.

The word, nigger, carries with it much of the hatred and disgust directed toward Black Africans and African Americans. Historically, nigger defined, limited, made fun of, and ridiculed all Blacks. It was a term of exclusion, a verbal reason for discrimination. Whether used as a noun, verb, or adjective, it strengthened the stereotype of the lazy, stupid, dirty, worthless nobody. No other American surname carries as much purposeful cruelty. The following shortlist is important information on the word’s use and meaning:

Naggers: Acting in a lazy and irresponsible manner.
Niggerlipping: wetting the end of a cigarette while smoking it.
Niggerlover: Derogatory term aimed at Whites lacking in the necessary loathing of Blacks.
Nigger luck: Exceptionally, but undeserved good luck.
Nigger-flicker: A small knife or razor with one side heavily taped to preserve the user’s fingers.
Nigger heaven: Designated places, usually the balcony, where Blacks were forced to sit, for example, in an integrated movie theater or church.
Nigger knocker: Axe handle or weapon made from an axe handle.
Nigger rich: Deeply in debt but flamboyant.
Nigger shooter: A slingshot.
Nigger steak: A slice of liver or a cheap piece of meat.
Nigger stick: Police officer’s baton.
Nigger tip: Leaving a small tip or no tip in a restaurant.
Nigger in the woodpile: A concealed motive or unknown factor affecting a situation in an adverse way.
Nigger work: Demeaning, menial tasks.

Nigger (as a word) is also used to describe a dark shade of color (nigger-brown, nigger-Black), the status of Whites that mix together with Blacks (nigger-breaker, dealer, driver, killer, stealer, worshipper, and looking), and anything belonging to or linked to African Americans (nigger-baby, boy, girl, mouth, feet, preacher, job, love, culture, college, music, etc). Nigger is the ultimate American insult; it is used to offend other ethnic groups. Jews are called White-niggers; Arabs, sand-niggers; Japanese, yellow-niggers. Americans created a racial hierarchy with Whites at the top and Blacks at the bottom.

In biology, heredity refers to the transference of biological characteristics from a parent organism to offspring. The word, nigger, speaks to the human heredity of Black people. Defining which characteristics of a person are due to heredity and which are due to environmental influences is often a controversial discussion (the nature versus nurture debate), especially regarding intelligence and race.

The hierarchy was set up by an ideology that justified the use of deceit, exploitation, and intimidation to keep Blacks “in their place.” Every major societal establishment offered legitimacy to the racial hierarchy. Ministers preached that God was White and had condemned Blacks to be servants. Scientists measured Black skulls, brains, faces, and genitalia, seeking to prove that Whites were genetically superior to Blacks. White teachers, teaching only White students, taught that Blacks were less evolved cognitively, psychologically, and socially. The entertainment media, from vaudeville to television and film, portrayed Blacks as docile servants, happy-go-lucky idiots, and dangerous thugs, and they still do this today. The criminal justice system sanctioned a double standard of justice, including its unspoken approval of mob violence against Blacks and there is still a similar double standard today. Both American slavery and the Jim Crow laws which followed were saturated by anti-Black laws and images. The negative portrayals of Blacks were both reflected in and shaped by everyday material objects: toys, postcards, ashtrays, detergent boxes, fishing lures, and children’s books. These items, and countless others, portrayed Blacks with bulging, darting eyes, fire-red oversized lips, jet-Black skin, and either naked or poorly clothed.

In 1874, the McLoughlin Brothers of New York produced a puzzle game called “Chopped Up Niggers.” Beginning in 1878, the B. Leidersdory Company of Milwaukee, WI., produced NiggerHair Smoking Tobacco. Decades later, the name was changed to BiggerHair Smoking Tobacco. A 1916 magazine ad, copyrighted by Morris & Bendien, showed a Black child drinking ink. The caption read, “Nigger Milk” (shown). In 1917, the American Tobacco Company had a NiggerHair redemption promotion. NiggerHair coupons were redeemable for “cash, tobacco, S&H Green stamps, or presents.” The J. Millhoff Company of England produced a series of cards in the 1930s which were widely distributed in the United States. One of the cards shows ten small Black dogs with the caption: “Ten Little Nigger Boys Went Out To Dine.”

This is the first line from a popular children’s story called, “The Ten Little Niggers.” it reads like this.
Ten Little Nigger Boys went out to dine;
One choked his little self, and then there were nine.
Nine Little Nigger Boys sat up very late; one overslept, and then there were eight. Eight Little Nigger Boys traveling in Devon; one said he’d stay there, and then there were seven.
Seven Little Nigger Boys chopping up sticks; one chopped himself in halves, and then there were six.
Six Little Nigger Boys playing with a hive; a Bumblebee stung one, and then there were five.
Five Little Nigger Boys going in for Law; one got in Chancery, and then there were four.
Four Little Nigger Boys going out to Sea; A Red Herring swallowed one, and then there were three.
Three Little Nigger Boys walking in the Zoo; the big Bear hugged one, and then there were two;
Two Little Nigger Boys sitting in the Sun; one got frizzled up, and then there was one.
One Little Nigger Boy living all alone; He got married, and then there were none.

In 1939, writer Agatha Christie published a book called Ten Little Niggers. Later editions sometimes changed the name to Ten Little Indians, or And Then There Were None, but as late as 1978, copies of the book with the original title were being produced. It was not rare for sheet music produced in the first half of the 20th century to use the word nigger on the cover. The Howley, Haviland Company of New York produced sheet music for the songs “Hesitate Mr. Nigger, Hesitate,” and “You'se Just A Little Nigger, Still You'se Mine, All Mine.” This last example was promoted as a children’s lullaby. Some small towns used nigger in their names, for example, Nigger Run Fork, Virginia. Nigger was a common name for darkly colored pets, especially dogs, cats, and horses. So-called “Jolly Nigger Banks,” first made in the 1800s, were widely distributed as late as the 1960s. Another common piece with many variations, produced on posters, postcards, and prints is a picture of a dozen Black children rushing for a swimming hole. The caption reads, “Last One In’s A Nigger.”

The civil rights movement, Supreme Court decisions, the Black empowerment movement, broad civil rights legislation, and a general embracing of democracy by many American citizens have worn down America’s racial pecking order from slavery moving into Jim Crow period and today’s institutional racism. Yet, the word nigger has not left and its relationship with anti-Black prejudice remains symbiotic, interrelated, and interconnected. Ironically, it is co-dependent because a racist society created nigger and continues to feed and sustain it. But, the word no longer needs racism, or brutal and obvious forms, to survive. The word nigger today has its own existence.

Another interesting and confusing experience in American speech is the use of nigger by African Americans. Poetry by Blacks is instructive; one can often find the word nigger used in Black writings. Major and minor poets alike have used it with startling results: Imamu Amiri Baraka, contemporary poet, uses nigger in one of his angriest poems, “I Don’t Love You,” and what was the world to the words of slick nigger fathers too depressed to explain why they could not appear to be men. One wonders how readers are supposed to understand “nigger fathers.” Baraka’s use of this imagery, regardless of his purpose, reinforces the stereotype of the worthless, pleasure-seeking “coon” caricature. Ted Joans’s use of nigger in "The Nice Colored Man” is an example of explainable expression. Joans said he was asked to give a reading in London because he was a “nice colored man.” Infuriated by the labels “nice” and “colored,” Joan’s wrote a quintessential rebellious poem. While the poem should be read in its entirety, a few lines will do:
Smart Black Nigger Smart Black Nigger Smart Black Nigger Smart Black Nigger Knife Carrying Nigger Gun Toting Nigger Military Nigger Clock Watching Nigger Poisoning Nigger Disgusting Nigger Black Ass Nigger.
This piece uses adjective upon adjective attached to the word nigger.

The reality is that many of these uses can be heard in present-day African-American society. Herein lies part of the difficulty: The word, nigger, endures because it is used over and over again, even by the people it insults. Writer Devorah Major said, "It’s hard for me to say what someone can or can’t say, because I work with language all the time, and I don’t want to be limited.” Poet and professor Opal Palmer Adisa claims that the use of nigger or nigga is “the same as young people’s obsession with swearing. A lot of their use of such language is an internalization of negativity about themselves.” Rappers, themselves poets, rap about niggers before mostly White audiences, some of whom see themselves as wiggers (White niggers) and refer to one another as “my niggah.” Snoop Doggy Dogg’s single, “You Thought,” raps, “Wanna grab a skinny nigga like Snoop Dogg/Cause you like it tall/and work it baby doll.” Tupac Shakur’s “Crooked Ass Nigga” lyrics included, “Now I could be a crooked nigga too/When I’m rollin’ with my crew.” Also rap lyrics that degrade women and glamorize violence reinforce the historical Brute Caricature.

Erdman Palmore researched lexicons and said, The number of offensive words used correlates positively with the amount of out-group prejudice; and these express and support negative stereotypes about the most visible racial and cultural differences. When used by Blacks, nigger refers to, among other things, all Blacks (“A nigger can’t even get a break.”); Black men (“Sisters want niggers to work all day long.”); Blacks who behave in a stereotypical, and sometimes legendary, manner (“He’s a lazy, good-for-nothing nigger.”); things (“This piece-of-shit car is such a nigger.”); enemies (“I’m sick and tired of those niggers bothering me!”); and friends (“Me and my niggers are tight.”). This final habit, as a kind word, is particularly challenging. “Zup Niggah” has become an almost universal greeting among young urban Blacks. When asked, Blacks who use nigger or its variants argue that it has to be understood in its situation; repeated use of the word by Blacks will make it less offensive. It’s not really the same word because Whites are saying nigger (and niggers) but Blacks are saying niggah (and niggaz). Also it is just a word and Blacks should not be prisoners of the past or the ugly words that originated in the past.

These arguments may not be true to the real world. Brother (Brotha) and Sister (Sistha or Sista) are terms of endearment. Nigger was and still is a word of disrespect. More to the point, the artificial dichotomy between Blacks or African Americans (respectable and middle-class) and niggers (disrespectable and lower class) ought to be challenged. Black is a nigger, regardless of behavior, earnings, goals, clothing, skills, ethics, or skin color. Finally, if continued use of the word lessened its damage, then nigger would not hurt or cause pain now. Blacks, from slavery until today, have internalized many negative images that White society cultivated and broadcast about Black skin and Black people. This is mirrored in cycles of self- and same-race hatred. The use of the word,nigger by Blacks reflects this hatred, even when the user is unaware of the psychological forces involved. Nigger is the ultimate expression of White racism and White superiority no matter how it is pronounced. It is linguistic corruption, an attack on civility.

To a smaller scale, words other than Nigger also remain accepted public banter in White America. In 1988, on Martin Luther King’s birthday, sports commentator Jimmy “The Greek” Snyder said (on national television) that Black people were better at sports because of slave plantation breeding techniques. “During the slave period, the slave owner would breed his Black with his big woman so that he would have a big Black-kid. That’s were it all started.” Another sports announcer, Billy Packer, referred to pro-basketball player, Allan Iverson, as a “tough monkey.” Another announcer, Howard Cosell, referred to Alvin Garrett, a pro football player with the Washington Redskins as “little monkey” during a Monday Night Football game. The comments made by Cosell and Packer did not go without any punitive consequences.

Nigger is one of the most notorious words in American culture. Some words carry more weight than others. But without trying to exaggerate, is genocide just another word? Pedophilia? Clearly, no and neither is nigger.

After a period of relative dormancy, the word nigger has been reborn in popular culture. It is hard-edged, streetwise, and it has crossed over into movies like Pulp Fiction (1994) and Jackie Brown (1997), where it became a symbol of “street authenticity” and hipness. Denzel Washington’s character in Training Day (2001) uses nigger frequently and harshly. Richard Pryor long ago rejected the use of the word in his comedy act, but Chris Rock, Chris Tucker, and other Black male comedy kings use nigger regularly and not affectionately. Justin Driver, a social critic, makes a case that both Rock and Tucker are modern minstrels shucking, jiving, and grinning, in the tradition of Step ‘n Fetchit. White supremacists have found the Internet an indispensable tool for spreading their message of hate. An Internet search of nigger using Netscape or Alta Vista locates many anti-Black web pages: Niggers Must Die, Hang A Nigger for America, Nigger Joke Central, and many others. Web searchers find what most Blacks know from personal experience, that nigger is an expression of anti-Black hostility. Without question, nigger is the most commonly used racist slur during hate crimes.

No American minority group has been caricatured as often or in as many ways as Black people. These misrepresentations feature distorted physical descriptions and negative cultural and behavior stereotypes. The Coon caricature, for example, was a tall, skinny, loose-jointed, dark-skinned male, often bald, with oversized, ruby-red lips. His clothing was either ragged and dirty or extremely gaudy. His slow, exaggerated walk suggested laziness. He was a pauper, lacking ambition and the skills necessary for upward social mobility. He was a buffoon. When frightened, the Coon’s eyes bulged and darted. His speech was slurred, halted, and stuffed with malapropisms. His piercing, high-pitched voice made Whites laugh. The Coon caricature dehumanized Blacks, and served to justify social, economic, and political discrimination. Nigger may be viewed as an umbrella term, a way of saying that Blacks have the negative characteristics of the Coon, Buck, Tom, Mammy, Sambo, Pickaninny, and other anti-Black caricatures.

In 2003, the fight to correct the shameful availability of this word had positive results. Recently Kweisi Mfume, president and CEO of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), gave a speech at Virginia Tech. There everyone was informed that a landmark decision was made with the people at Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Recognizing their error, beginning with the next edition, the word nigger will no longer be synonymous with African Americans in their publication.

Nigger, like the false impressions it incorporates and means, puts down Blacks, and rationalizes their abuse. The use of the word or its alternatives by Blacks has not lessened its hurt. This is not surprising in a racial hierarchy four centuries old, shaping the historical relationship between European Americans and African Americans. Anti-Black attitudes, motives, values, and behavior continue. Historically, nigger, more than any other word, captures the personal hatred and institutionalized racism directed toward Blacks. In 2013, incidences such as Atlanta born restaurant entrepreneur Paula Dean and Oklahoma football player Reilly Cooper’s comfortable reference to the word against Blacks shows that it is alive in the white vocabulary and it still does great harm.

Source: Phil Middleton and David Pilgrim, Department of Sociology,
Ferris State University 

via:  Dr. Ray Winbush

celadonleaf  asked:

Hey Patrick McHale, were there any inspirations for Wirt or Greg's looks in the show? Perhaps Beatrice? Thank you.


The overall look of the show started off with referencing the illustrations of Childe Harold. Greg’s design started very similar to this boy:

From there he evolved into wearing a sailor outfit, and then eventually I decided to go with a more Johnny Appleseed look because i was worried about too many comparisons to Flapjack. 


Wirt’s costume was based on a costume i made for myself. Here are the first sketches I did of it (from sometime in 2007, i believe):


Beatrice’s design was just going off of the general design style of the show. She couldn’t look too cartoony - or else it would be weird to have realistic animals walking around the woods - but also couldn’t look overly realistic - because she had to be expressive and interact with Wirt and Greg so much. Here are the original beatrice sketches from 2006:


Greg’s Frog was based on these frogs in this McLoughlin Brothers game: 


Auntie Whispers was based on an 19th century illustration of an old man with big eyes who looked like an owl. I can’t seem to find the book with the illustration at the moment, but here is my initial sketch (basically copying the illustration):

  • friend: hi how was your d
  • me: and did you know that in over the garden wall you can see quincy endicotts name on a tombstone in the final chapter? did you know that on the soundtrack there is a song that plays while greg is granted is wish entitled "forward oneiroi" and oneiroi are the greek deities of dreams? did you know that the boat in "lullaby in frogland" is named after the mcloughlin brothers who wrote childrens stories and that a boat resembling it can be seen as a toy with two kids in the intro in episode one? because auntie whisper's bell is still in the frogs belly in the finale we know that the Unknown is a real place and not just a coma dream. Is it some form of afterlife then, as Beatrice is the name of the guide who showed Dante through heaven in the divine comedy, and the hints through Enoch and Pottsfield and Endicotts gravestone? Speaking of Pottsfield did you know that a Potter's Field is where the bodies of poor or unidentified folk would be buried? or perhaps is the Uknown a realm of dreams? Dreams are inherently connected to stories and story-telling so perhaps it can be said that Unknown is actually a realm where stories and fairytales are the laws of reality, this combines the theories of dreams and afterlife. What of the interesting suppositions around the tavern patrons all obsessed with subscribing to a certain role in life when in the context of their forms as toys in the into? In the outro, wirt is represented as having joined them as another toy. Does the theme of toys, such as the boat and the patrons suggest that they are all pawns in a larger game? that their fates are not controlled by themselves? By defeating the beast, was Wirt only fulfilling the Pilgrim's Quest? What is the significance of Enoch in the form of a black cat and some form of patron of death? did you know that you can see the woodsman snap off some edelwood and toss it under a table in the first chapter, and thats the wood he finds in his desperate search in the final chapter? What's more, what do you think the significance of Adelaide as a fate-weaver is, does it reinforce the greek-inspired ideas and the predestination theories or contrarily do you think it

Publication in 1875, made available by the McLoughlin Brothers!
Boy what a way for the children to learn to count!

Ten little nigger boys went out to dine;
One choked his little self and then there were Nine.
Nine little nigger boys sat up very late;
One overslept himself and then there were Eight.
Eight little nigger boys travelling in Devon;
One said he’d stay there and then there were Seven.
Seven little nigger boys chopping up sticks;
One chopped himself in halves and then there were Six.
Six little nigger boys playing with a hive;
A bumble bee stung one and then there were Five.
Five little nigger boys going in for law;
One got into Chancery and then there were Four.
Four little nigger boys going out to sea;
A red herring swallowed one and then there were Three.
Three little nigger boys walking in the Zoo;
A big bear hugged one and then there were Two.
Two little nigger boys sitting in the sun;
One got frizzled up and then there was One.
One little nigger boy left all alone;
He went out and hanged himself and then there were None.

Undine: A Legend. Friedrich de la Motte-Fouqué. Illustrated by Frances Bassett Comstock. McLoughlin Brothers, New York, 1911.

“Before the nuptial ceremony, and during its performance, Undine had shown a modest gentleness and maidenly reserve; but it now seemed as if all the wayward freaks that effervesced within her burst forth with an extravagance only the more bold and unrestrained.”

Cinderella or Hunt the Slipper (1887). Card game. Printed cardstock, cardboard, paper. McLoughlin Brothers, New York.

The card game Cinderella or Hunt the Slipper is a reverse version of Old Maid, likely intended for little girls. The winning player is the player who holds the single “slipper” card at the end, unlike standard Old Maid. McLoughlin Brothers of New York produced this game and copyrighted the name in 1887. The romanticized box cover probably helped sales.


The Indestructible One Syllable Primer: For Home and School Use, One Hundred Illustrations (New York: McLoughlin Brothers, 1878).

It’s back-to-school day here at USF, and in honor of the new school year, we found this primer from 1878. Unlike its Puritan ancestors, which were strictly morally didactic, this primer juxtaposes moral lessons (do not lie!) with more entertaining illustrations of animals. This primer is “indestructibly” printed on linen rather than the more easily ripped paper.


Sleeping Beauty Pantomime Toy Book (New York: McLoughlin Brothers, ca. 1870).

The McLoughlin Brothers were a 19th century American publishing firm celebrated for their illustrated children’s books, most of which feature chromolithographs. This edition of Sleeping Beauty illustrates one of the firm’s innovative publishing practices. Shaped like a theater stage, the book opens from the center to reveal six different scenes.

This edition of Sleeping Beauty is told entirely through chromolithograph illustrations that depict the action of the fairy tale on a theater stage.