1,000 Days in Orbit: MAVEN’s Top 10 Discoveries at Mars

On June 17, our MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission) will celebrate 1,000 Earth days in orbit around the Red Planet.

Since its launch in November 2013 and its orbit insertion in September 2014, MAVEN has been exploring the upper atmosphere of Mars. MAVEN is bringing insight to how the sun stripped Mars of most of its atmosphere, turning a planet once possibly habitable to microbial life into a barren desert world.

Here’s a countdown of the top 10 discoveries from the mission so far:

10. Unprecedented Ultraviolet View of Mars

Revealing dynamic, previously invisible behavior, MAVEN was able to show the ultraviolet glow from the Martian atmosphere in unprecedented detail. Nightside images showed ultraviolet “nightglow” emission from nitric oxide. Nightglow is a common planetary phenomenon in which the sky faintly glows even in the complete absence of eternal light.

9. Key Features on the Loss of Atmosphere

Some particles from the solar wind are able to penetrate unexpectedly deep into the upper atmosphere, rather than being diverted around the planet by the Martian ionosphere. This penetration is allowed by chemical reactions in the ionosphere that turn the charged particles of the solar wind into neutral atoms that are then able to penetrate deeply.

8. Metal Ions

MAVEN made the first direct observations of a layer of metal ions in the Martian ionosphere, resulting from incoming interplanetary dust hitting the atmosphere. This layer is always present, but was enhanced dramatically by the close passage to Mars of Comet Siding Spring in October 2014.

7. Two New Types of Aurora

MAVEN has identified two new types of aurora, termed “diffuse” and “proton” aurora. Unlike how we think of most aurorae on Earth, these aurorae are unrelated to either a global or local magnetic field.

6. Cause of the Aurorae

These aurorae are caused by an influx of particles from the sun ejected by different types of solar storms. When particles from these storms hit the Martian atmosphere, they can also increase the rate of loss of gas to space, by a factor of ten or more.

5. Complex Interactions with Solar Wind

The interactions between the solar wind and the planet are unexpectedly complex. This results due to the lack of an intrinsic Martian magnetic field and the occurrence of small regions of magnetized crust that can affect the incoming solar wind on local and regional scales. The magnetosphere that results from the interactions varies on short timescales and is remarkably “lumpy” as a result.

4. Seasonal Hydrogen

After investigating the upper atmosphere of the Red Planet for a full Martian year, MAVEN determined that the escaping water does not always go gently into space. The spacecraft observed the full seasonal variation of hydrogen in the upper atmosphere, confirming that it varies by a factor of 10 throughout the year. The escape rate peaked when Mars was at its closest point to the sun and dropped off when the planet was farthest from the sun.

3. Gas Lost to Space

MAVEN has used measurements of the isotopes in the upper atmosphere (atoms of the same composition but having different mass) to determine how much gas has been lost through time. These measurements suggest that 2/3 or more of the gas has been lost to space.

2. Speed of Solar Wind Stripping Martian Atmosphere

MAVEN has measured the rate at which the sun and the solar wind are stripping gas from the top of the atmosphere to space today, along with details of the removal process. Extrapolation of the loss rates into the ancient past – when the solar ultraviolet light and the solar wind were more intense – indicates that large amounts of gas have been lost to space through time.

1. Martian Atmosphere Lost to Space

The Mars atmosphere has been stripped away by the sun and the solar wind over time, changing the climate from a warmer and wetter environment early in history to the cold, dry climate that we see today.

Maven will continue its observations and is now observing a second Martian year, looking at the ways that the seasonal cycles and the solar cycle affect the system.

For more information about MAVEN, visit: www.nasa.gov/maven

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com


If anything happens to John Murphy in the following episodes… If they sacrifice him for whatever dumb reason, I will end EVERYONE! 

…In a noncriminal way

RQ Members at Hamilton

Mare: *raps everything perfectly especially guns and ships*

Cal: *went to support mare and make sure she doesn’t start throwing punches. ends up crying in ‘who lives, who dies’*

Cameron: *acts like she hates it but really ends up enjoying the show*

Farley: *yells at historical inaccuracies*

Maven: *steals Jonathan Groff’s costume to get on stage and sing ‘you’ll be back’*

Shade: *is Lin-Manuel*

  • Cal: *drunk off of his ass*
  • Cal: One day I'm gonna tell Mare that she's amazing and pretty and I want to touch her hair and I want to kiss her on her tongue doors.
  • Shade: You mean her mouth?
  • Cal: Oh yeah. I couldn't think of the word.

In this post you’ll find all of my Red Queen playlists that I made so far. I made these playlists with all of my heart and love towards this series and its characters. I chose every song thinking about its lyrics, its melodies and all of the feelings people can feel when listening to them and thinking about these characters. So I hope you guys enjoy it and are able to feel at least a little bit of these characters and this story in this songs.

  1. Silver Kings and Red Pieces: a Red Queen Series playlist (X)
  2. The Lightning Queen: a Mare Barrow playlist (X)
  3. A Long Shadow: a Maven Calore playlist (X)
  4. The Flame Soldier: a Cal Calore playlist (X)
  5. The Most Worthy: an Evangeline Samos playlist (X)
  6. You’ll Be Okay: a Coriane Jacos playlist (X)
  7. Choose Me: a Marecal playlist (X)
  8. You Will Find Me: a Farley & Shade playlist (X)
  9. Welcome To Our Cage: a Mareven playlist (not romantic) (X)
  10. Fight Together. Stand Alone.: a War Storm playlist (X)
  11. Rising Red: A Scarlet Guard playlist (X)
Rq characters as animals


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