Mausolus (Μαύσωλος) was a king of Caria (377–353 BC), also known as the Persian Satrap, of the dynasty of Hecatomnids.
Mausolus was a big fan of the Hellenic way of life and art. The monumental shrine, the legendary Mausoleum of Halicarnassus was erected for him by his sister and wife Artemisia. The Mausoleum was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, its chief constructors were all greek.
Nowadays the word ‘mausoleum’ can be used to describe any grand tomb.
The Mausoleum represents the idea of the “worship of the overlord”. The worship of the monarch as god will become even more prevalent during the hellenistic era. The classical greek way of life resisted such worships, there was a denial towards the veneration of any mortal, this will change after Alexander’s dissolution of the Persian Empire. Alexander adopted some of the Persian royal ways, one of them being the curtsey to his kingship and divinity.
Colossal statue of Mausolus from the Mausoleum of Alicarnassus, 360-350 BC, now at the British Museum.