Greek Silver Tetrobol of Hecatomnus, from Caria, C. 391-377/6 BC

Obverse: ΕΚΑ inscription with a lion’s head. Reverse: Star-like floral pattern.

Hecatomnus of Mylasa was an early 4th century BC ruler of Caria (map). He was the satrap (governor) of Caria for the Persian Achaemenid king Artaxerxes II (404–358 BC). However, the basis for Hecatomnus’ political power was twofold: he was both a high appointed Persian official and a powerful local dynast, who founded the hereditary dynasty of the Hecatomnids.

When he died in 377/6 BC, he left three sons, Mausolus, Idrieus and Pixodarus, and two daughters, Artemisia and Ada, who were married to their brothers, Mausolus and Idrieus, all five of whom in turn succeeded him as rulers.