massive destruction

bloodhoofing  asked:

so how do solar flares work with Sun? does he just get really angry sometimes because a star like Sirius is pickin on him or?? (and sunspots. idk if you've answered these but im curious)

Sun has flares when hes excited or annoyed, so most of the time he’s trying not to be a massively destructive force

How Gaara Became Kazekage
  • Baki: Gaara wants to be the Kazekage.
  • Suna Councilman: What?! But isn't he, like, twelve?
  • Suna Councilwoman: And isn't he the host to a poorly controlled, massively destructive demon?
  • Baki: Okay, who wants to tell him he can't be Kazekage?
  • Council: ...
  • Baki: All in favour say aye.
  • Council: ...aye.
We should be asking ourselves what our Archduke Ferdinand moment will be. How will an apparently small event trigger another period of massive destruction. We see Brexit, Trump, Putin in isolation. The world does not work that way — all things are connected and affecting each other. I have pro-Brexit friends who say ‘oh, you’re going to blame that on Brexit too??’ But they don’t realise that actually, yes, historians will trace neat lines from apparently unrelated events back to major political and social shifts like Brexit.
Brexit — a group of angry people winning a fight — easily inspires other groups of angry people to start a similar fight, empowered with the idea that they may win. That alone can trigger chain reactions. A nuclear explosion is not caused by one atom splitting, but by the impact of the first atom that splits causing multiple other atoms near it to split, and they in turn causing multiple atoms to split. The exponential increase in atoms splitting, and their combined energy is the bomb. That is how World War One started and, ironically how World War Two ended.
I often hear sentiments expressed to the effect that the world would be much better off if people just died or that the world needs to cleanse itself or people…To even make such a comment indicates that one has to be in a fairly privileged position in society where one is not faced with death on a regular basis. It also assumes that all people are equally responsible for massive environmental destruction, rather than facing the fact that it is people in positions of institutionalized power who are killing the earth to further their own economic interests. It is racist and imperialistic to look at people who are dying now from environmental degradation and say that it is a good thing that the earth is cleansing itself
—  Andy Smith, Ecofeminism through an Anticolonial Framework
OK, if one person managed to stop themselves from spinning this morning.. while the earth and everything keeps going.. would that person then get smashed into by the objects around her and cause massive destruction upon impact? or is that poor physics?

i know, i know..quit asking dumb ass questions to the internet and drop your album. haha

bounserr  asked:

"So how far down does this zipper go chat?" (ML prompt)

This one got a little longer than I expected, but I had a great time writing it. It does possibly get a bit suggestive at the end, but most of it is just Adrien being ridiculous.


“So, how far down does this zipper go, Chat?”

Adrien raised a brow. “That’s when you woke up?”

“Yeah, it’s the fifth dream I’ve had with him this week.” Nino sighed. “Sorry.”

“Don’t be.” Adrien shrugged, laying back on his bed and settling the phone against his ear. “I mean, he did save you from that akuma last week.”

“That doesn’t explain dreaming about him.”

“It might.” Adrien chuckled. “Maybe you feel like you owe him a kiss for being your knight in shining leather.”

“You know, I only told you this cause I felt guilty, and now you’re teasing me,” Nino grumbled.

“Sorry,” Adrien said, although he didn’t sound particularly guilty, “But, hey, maybe you’ll feel less guilty now.”

“I’ll feel less guilty when I stop dreaming about someone besides my boyfriend.”

“Maybe you can pretend I’m Chat Noir.” Adrien regretted it the instant he said it, but it was too late to take back now. He just had to hope Nino would laugh it off.

Nino did laugh, but then he followed it up with a suggestion Adrien never expected. “Yeah, you can wear a Chat Noir costume, and I can find a Ladybug one, so both of us can make out with our celebrity crushes. Sounds like a fun evening.”

Adrien’s mouth went dry. Despite moving on from his crush on Ladybug, he had to admit the idea of seeing Nino in spots was more than just a little appealing. “Are we…still kidding?”

Nino was quiet for a moment, then he hesitantly spoke, “We don’t have to be.”

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Some more thoughts about Shemihaza’s and Armumahel’s nephilims

I was rereading the last chapter again earlier this week and…

While Azazel’s nephilim blood line disappeared, I think we can trust Lightning’s words that Shemihaza’s and Armumahel’s are still alive and represent the Grigori. 

Last time, I conjectured that maybe Shiemi was one of Shemihaza’s nephilims (see here), with maybe her mom being the “current Shemihaza” which would explain why she said…

Because if the order always needs someone from Shiemi’s family to take on Shemihaza’s position, there is a lot of chance they cannot choose to do anything else in life, which is why Shiemi resigned and ended up saying she didn’t want to become an exorcist anymore. 

And by “inheriting the exorcist shop” she means also inheriting the Grigori position once her mom will have to be replaced? 

Anyway, these are my current thoughts on Shiemi.
Which leaves Armumahel and their nephilim blood line. 

The issue is the same as with Shiemi: Mephisto probably knows about Shiemi’s origins and if she’s indeed related to Shemihaza, and so there is a possibility he also knows who Armumahel’s current nephilims are. 

Speaking of which, we still don’t know a lot…

…about Takara. In fact I think that what’s above is basically all that we know, besides the fact that his family…

is “owned” by Mephisto.

Ah and one other thing, does anyone remember his fight against Shima?

While I still can’t say if the puppet is a demon or not, the fact is that the “Takara” we know is in fact this puppet because the real Takara Nemu carrying the puppet is sleeping almost 100% of the time in order not to trigger… an apparently massive and mysterious power.

So, what I’m saying is, what if Takara Nemu is one of Armumahel’s (the Emperor of Nothingness) nephilims? After all his eye…

was emphasized on specifically back when he “woke up”, the same way Shiemi’s eye…

was emphasized on in the last chapter.

TL;DR

  • Azazel has no nephilim alive so he has a random dude becoming the Grigori when needed
  • Shiemi’s family could be Shemihaza’s nephilims
    • with Shiemi’s mom as the current Grigori since her grandma’s death?
    • and Shiemi just learnt about that and resigned to the idea that she can’t choose a different future. 
  • Takara Nemu could be one of Armumahel’s nephilims?
    • which would mean the current Grigori is his dad/grandfather/someone from his family?
    • and Nemu has to stay asleep otherwise he triggers a massive and destructive power?
  • And as always Mephisto is definitely aware of both their origins
    • that’s probably why Amaimon was spying on Shiemi in the last chapter
    • also Mephisto’s actual spy is probably not Takara himself but rather the puppet that can summon any spirits (I have no idea about what the puppet is though? a demon?)

Aaaaand that’s it. Feel free to leave your thoughts!

6

Destruction of Islamic Heritage in the Kosovo War, 1998-1999

More than two-thirds of the 560 active mosques in Kosovo on the eve of the 1998-1999 war were buildings dating from the Ottoman era. Many of these were monuments of historical and architectural significance. However, this part of Kosovo’s cultural and religious heritage received relatively little attention from the state authorities charged with the protection of monuments. Between 1947 and 1990, a total of 425 monuments and sites in Kosovo were officially designated for state protection. These included 96 archaeological sites, 16 cemeteries, 116 secular buildings and monuments, and 174 religious sites. Of the last category, 139 were Orthodox churches or monasteries, while only 32 Islamic religious monuments had been listed for protection. Since listed sites received priority in attention and in conservation funding from state agencies, this meant that by the 1990s much of Kosovo’s Islamic built heritage was in a dilapidated state, after decades of neglect. In practice, the authorities not only failed to provide the funds and expertise needed for the preservation of these historic houses of worship, they allowed even listed Islamic monuments to be altered or demolished without intervening. The years of peacetime neglect were followed by the massive wartime destruction of Kosovo’s Islamic religious heritage in 1998-1999. As has been documented in this book, roughly 40 percent of Kosovo’s 560 mosques were damaged or destroyed during the war.

The damage in most cases was clearly the result of deliberate attacks directed against the mosques. There is evidence of explosives planted in the mosque or inside the minaret, of artillery projectiles aimed at the minaret, and of mosques set ablaze. In some places, the mosque was the only building in the vicinity that had been singled out for attack. More often, the destruction of a mosque was accompanied by the burning of the surrounding homes of the local Albanian residents. The devastation of Islamic sacral sites was widespread and systematic, with few areas of Kosovo left untouched. Among the worst hit was the northwestern region of Peja/Peć, where every one of 49 Islamic sites was attacked in 1998 and 1999. Among the sites targeted were the region’s 36 mosques (half of them dating from the 15th-18th centuries), the offices, archives and library of the Islamic Community Council of Peja, a historic medresa, a 15th-century hamam (Turkish baths), 9 schools for Qur’an readers (mekteb), a dervish lodge (tekke), and several mosque libraries

In some places, those responsible for these attacks had left behind their “signatures”— in the form of anti-Albanian and anti-Islamic graffiti in Serbian scrawled on mosque walls, or in the deliberate desecration of Islamic sacred scriptures, torn apart by hand, defiled and burned. Examples of this sort could be seen in the Gjylfatyn Mosque in Peja, the Mosque of Carraleva/Crnoljevo, the Mosque of Livoç i Poshtëm/Donji Livoč, and the Mosque of Stanofc i Poshtëm, and in a number of other mosques. Of the 218 mosques and 11 tekkes in Kosovo that were destroyed or damaged during the war, 22 mosques and 8 tekkes were in the most severe damage categories. Among these, 13 mosques and 5 tekkes were completely razed, the ruins levelled by bulldozer; 9 mosques and 3 tekkes were reduced to rubble, but the ruins were not bulldozed. Among examples of completely levelled Islamic houses of worship are the Bazaar Mosque (built 1761-62; renewed 1878) in Vushtrria/Vučitrn, the Ibër Mosque (built 1878) in Mitrovica, the Mosque of Halil Efendi in Dobërçan/Dobrčane (1526), the Mosque of Loxha (1900), and the historic Bektashi tekke in Gjakova/Đakovica (1790).

An additional 95 mosques suffered lesser degrees of damage, ranging from shell holes in the walls, through the roof or in the shaft of the minaret, to vandalism, including fires set inside the mosque, smashed-up interior furnishings, and the desecration of sacred scriptures. A total of 31 mosques and 2 tekkes (dervish lodges) were attacked by Serb forces during the first year of the war, in the spring and summer of 1998. Two-thirds of these religious buildings were burned down, blown up or otherwise destroyed or seriously damaged. Ten of the mosques that were damaged during 1998 were subjected to repeat attacks and further damage during the spring of 1999. During the second year of the war in 1999, a total of 197 mosques and 9 tekkes in Kosovo were damaged or destroyed by Serb forces. One mosque, in the village of Jabllanica (Prizren region), had its roof partly destroyed by a NATO air strike in the spring of 1999. Otherwise, the destruction of mosques and of other Islamic heritage in Kosovo during the war was entirely attributable to attacks from the ground, carried out by Serbian troops, police and paramilitaries, and in some cases by Serb civilians.

The destruction also encompassed the written record of Islamic religious and cultural life in Kosovo. The Central Historical Archives of the Islamic Community of Kosovo were burned by Serbian police in June 1999, hours before the arrival of the first NATO troops in Prishtina. Six of the regional archives of the Islamic Community were also attacked and wholly or partially destroyed, among them the archives of the Islamic Community Councils in Peja/Peć, Gjakova/Đakovica, Gllogoc/Glogovac, Lipjan, Peja/Peć, Skenderaj/Srbica, and Suhareka. Kosovo’s Islamic religious libraries were also singled out for destruction. Notable losses include the manuscripts and old books of the library of Hadum Syleiman Efendi in Gjakova/Đakovica, founded in 1595 and burned in 1999, as well as the libraries of dervish lodges in Gjakova/Đakovica, Mitrovica and Peja/Peć, also destroyed in 1999. However, the losses go far beyond this. Many old mosques in Kosovo had been endowed with collections of Qur’an manuscripts and Islamic religious books that were destroyed or damaged in 1998-1999Remarkably, not a single Serb Orthodox church or monastery in Kosovo was damaged or destroyed by Albanians during the 1998-1999 conflict. Unfortunately that changed after the end of the war, as thousands of Albanian refugees who had been forced out of Kosovo during the war returned to their burned-out home towns and villages. Following the end of hostilities in June 1999, dozens of Serb Orthodox churches and monasteries were damaged in revenge attacks. Some 40 Serb Orthodox sites were vandalized, while another 40 suffered serious structural damage or were destroyed completely. Many of these buildings were village churches, some of them built during the previous decade. But about 15 to 20 of the destroyed churches dated from the medieval period.By the end of the summer of 1999, as a result of the efforts of KFOR and the UN administration to restore order, and in response to public appeals by Kosovo Albanian political and religious leaders, attacks on Serb Orthodox religious sites largely ceased.

“This book is an attempt to document, to the extent possible, the Islamic sacral heritage of Kosovo that was lost during the 1998-1999 war. As Kosovo and its people come to terms with the painful memories of the recent past and work towards a common future it is well to recall that, for most of Kosovo’s long history, houses of worship were protected by all communities and had traditionally been held immune from personal and communal vendettas. The rich cultural heritage that remains in Kosovo, despite the ravages of time and the destruction of war, is the common patrimony of all of Kosovo’s people. It is up to them, as it was up to their forefathers, to jointly value and preserve it for future generations.“  - Destruction of Islamic Heritage in the Kosovo War, 1998-1999, by Sabri Bajgora


1. Mitrovica. Tekke (dervish lodge) of Sheh Fejzullah. Destroyed in spring 1999.
2. Vushtrria. Gazi Ali Beg Mosque, its minaret blown away by tank cannon
3. Peja/Peć. The Market Mosque (1471), torched by Serbian policemen, June 1999.
4. Mushtisht/Mušutište. Mosque of Hasan Pasha (1702). Blown up in April 1999.
5. Deçan. Mosque, built like a kulla; the mosque was burned in the 1999 war.
6. Carraleva/Crnoljevo. Torn-up and desecrated Qur’ans in the village mosque.

2

Just got my copy of ‘A Brief History of Time Lords’! Above is part of the preview from Amazon, but below the read more I’ve also typed up some (well, a lot - I might have gotten a bit carried away) of my favourite quotes from the book, which I felt some of the Classic/EU fans in particular on here may want to see:

Keep reading

My first point is that we are cyclical. At a local level in time people think things are fine, then things rapidly spiral out of control until they become unstoppable, and we wreak massive destruction on ourselves. For the people living in the midst of this it is hard to see happening and hard to understand. To historians later it all makes sense and we see clearly how one thing led to another. During the Centenary of the Battle of the Somme I was struck that it was a direct outcome of the assassination of an Austrian Arch Duke in Bosnia. I very much doubt anyone at the time thought the killing of a minor European royal would lead to the death of 17 million people.
My second point is that this is a cycle. It happens again and again, but as most people only have a 50–100 year historical perspective they don’t see that it’s happening again. As the events that led to the First World War unfolded, there were a few brilliant minds who started to warn that something big was wrong, that the web of treaties across Europe could lead to a war, but they were dismissed as hysterical, mad, or fools, as is always the way, and as people who worry about Putin, Brexit, and Trump are now.
Then after the War to end all Wars, we went and had another one. Again, for a historian it was quite predictable. Lead people to feel they have lost control of their country and destiny, people look for scapegoats, a charismatic leader captures the popular mood, and singles out that scapegoat. He talks in rhetoric that has no detail, and drums up anger and hatred. Soon the masses start to move as one, without any logic driving their actions, and the whole becomes unstoppable.

Name: My true disaster

Author: Aya-Fay

Fandom: Fantastic Beasts and where to find them

Pairing: Percival Graves x Reader

Theme: Percival Graves gets jealous. SMUT.

Tagging: @seninjakitey@umbrellas-and-tallymarks@oswald-cobblepot-is-my-addiction@elvirateaqueen13@queencobblefreezestuff@myregardstothereader​  @rawrcoptergaming​  @seaweedredandbrown@fantasticbeastsimagines@ohlookfanfiction@hirainhisrain@waywardtimemachinejellyfish@this-is-a-unique-username@socktrollqueen@eli-cya@n-octicolor@fairylightsandfandoms@kazezakura@animeo2l

Originally posted by liebemagneto

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anonymous asked:

Ok, next thing is try and work cheesecakelessness into a drabble!

Challenge accepted, anon.


Kara puts the phone between her shoulder and her ear while she busies about the kitchen pulling out bowls and spoons and measuring cups and will she need a whisk? she shrugs and tosses it into the pile. 

The line rings and rings and she’s about to hang up and just fly over to the DEO when Alex finally picks up. She doesn’t even wait to let her get a greeting out.

“Do you have Eliza’s cheesecake recipe?”

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don’t let this destroy you|| old man logan

Originally posted by sirsusblack

Okay, so I’m about 70% better and I’m doing everything in my power to get out as many of these today as possible. I really hope you’re all still enjoying them, because I for one happen to love writing for Old Man Logan. 

** Masterlist: If you are ever in my masterlist and can’t find a fic I wrote, it’s probably because I took it off of there. I normally tag all of my fanfics under #Kayla Grace writes imagines so all of them should be under that tag!

This one was third place in my poll the other day, so here it is! I hope you all enjoy! Probably mostly angst.. Also Platonic. No romance here.

Key: 

y/p – your powers

Requested by Anon: Logan and Laura find the reader and find out she’s just like them and on the run as well, so they agree to take her in. One night Logan and the reader are talking about their past and the reader becomes emotional and says.. “If I was a success, then why do I feel like such a failure?”

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misanthropicphilantropist  asked:

I hope you have a great holiday :) I have this random thought bugging me and since I LOVE your meta I want your opinion on it. (Or point me to the post if you've already touched it.) So as we all you know, God created humanity in His image. It's canon that a) Dean represents humanity (for Amara) and b) God is bisexual. Coincidence or another hint at bi!Dean? (Also Chuck and Dean both love bacon...)

Oh man, well, yeah as I’m on holiday and don’t have access to my computer I can’t help much with links sorry!
Firstly thank you so much :)

but basically a huge whopping YES! I mean, why write God as bi and then immediately stick a million parallels into the same and next few episodes about how similar he is to Dean? Pffff. Of course we are supposed to notice this.

I’m pretty sure @mittensmorgul @elizabethrobertajones @postmodernmulticoloredcloak and others have written about this a lot but off the top of my head:

1. Chuck is bi/probably pan
2. Chuck likes a million things Dean does and it’s POINTED OUT TO US REPEATEDLY (Bacon, beer, donuts, porn, pancakes, his robe, the water pressure……? I’m sure there’s more)
In such a relatively short amount of time it’s made so obvious (LIKE THE SAILEEN/DESTIEL PARALLELS - its so crammed in its just blatant).

Also - the bacon thing. Ok they could easily have replaced this with something else - burgers maybe?
But the point of this I think is also to show the fact that in certain religions pork is seen as a kind of ‘sin’ and so is bisexuality / anything other than being straight so I think it’s an important point being made here.

The porn thing too, I can’t remember where but I read an excellent post about how Chuck got through ALL Dean’s porn then got to curling which apparently has strong queer undertones…. and like… there’s a subtext there about what kind of porn…. and now with Ketch there are apparently visual undertones that one of the magazines has a bisexual reference in how it’s shown on screen?

Am I surprised? I’ll let you guess the answer to that ;)

Part of what I loved about the Chuck having boyfriends thing was how it was kind of a throwaway comment, like it’s NOT IMPORTANT to the grand scheme of things. Chuck, yes. And are we annoyed Dean didn’t find out? Of course! But that’s how drama works right?

Like how Dean doesn’t know about Cas having to kill 1000 Deans, how Dean doesn’t know how Cas bought him the porn and nearly got an ASBO for ruffling up the poor kid at the mini market, how Cas doesn’t know how depressed Dean was when he was gone he turned to booze, oh and meaningless sex with a blonde, not really his type, but who was just there, using generic pick up lines on her, not that THATS a recurring theme at all?! ;)

With everything else going on from mid s11-now and Dean’s facade coming down it is NO coincidence that Chuck is paralleled with him and is queer.

Same way it is no coincidence that Amara is mirrored with Mary and through Mary this facade-destruction is massively pushed forwards - because Amara KNEW this was what Dean needed (search Amara on my blog for this, but basically Amara knows Dean is queer and in love with Cas, that’s canon or s11 makes no sense).

So, a huge resounding yes, nothing on this show that stands out is accidental. Because accidents don’t happen accidentally. Even the subtext isn’t accidental and gives us SO MUCH so something like this that is textual AND makes us sit up and notice? Yeah, no coincidence at all ;)

Brotherhood - Request

Requested by anon:  please Could you do a Marvel imagine where the reader is Pietro and Wanda’s little sister and she’s having a really bad day. Everything’s going wrong, she didn’t do well in training, she keeps breaking stuff etc, and they look after her?

Characters: Pietro Maximoff x Sister!Reader x  Wanda Maximoff (No incest)

Word count: 1.854

Warnings: Not sure how to describe it but reader is sad af.

A/N: I’m a terrible older sister when it comes to emotional stuff so I hope I did it right on this one. Also, first time writing those two (and the Avengers in general) so PLEASE be kind.

Enjoy!

Originally posted by ranrightintomyheart

Life is hard for everyone. Life is a bitch to us all. Life is only for the bold and the brave. Life discriminates the small and the weak. Life is full of errors. Life is flawed.

Ever since the beginning, she had been suffering life. Only her two older brothers kept her sane, kept her feet on the ground and made her feel loved, but even so, she always felt rejected because they were twins and twins have a special connection that no other type of brother shares.

Eventually, this connection became more evident, after the three kids were submitted to a series of experiments and she almost died. Her twin brothers, however, survived without a problem, and their powers were magnificent. True, she had some too, but she wasn’t as strong as the twins and therefore she was always ignored, overshadowed by the two.

She loved them, nonetheless. They were kind, loyal, and loving; the only family she had left, and her protectors. They always found a way to put a smile on her face and, consequently, take the smile off the face of whoever had made their little sister upset.

Several events had happened, and said events had taken them to the one and only Avenger’s tower, the Head Quarters, or whatever the hell people called it. She did not care for the name, it was just a pretty building that served as a home for her and the twins, and that was as much information as she needed.

Every member of the Avengers was meant to train daily, and they all did – except for Tony and Bruce, because they always found a way not to do it. Every day, at first time in the morning, they would train as hard as possible.

Keep reading

Time for a history lesson

Just remember the following:

Hitler promised to make his country strong again.
Stalin vowed to restore the glory of his people.
Mao Tze Tung started the “Great Leap Forward” to make China better, more efficient, and stronger.
Trump promises to make America great again.

Hitler believed the best way to make Germany strong again was to murder an entire ethnicity, along with the gays, roma, and anyone else who happened to cross him.
Stalin instituted the Great Purge, took over the economy, and executed who knows how many farmers.
Mao Tze Tung seized all the farmland, shipped the actual farmers to the cities and the cityfolk to work on the farms, and shot anyone accused of being smart and/or badmouthing his regime. 
Trump wants to build a wall to protect Americans from those awful Mexican rapists, register and/or deport the Muslims, and kill the families of people he says are terrorists.

Hitler sent his prisoners to camps in other countries to be beaten, starved, and worked to death if not immediately terminated.
Stalin sent his prisoners to gulags in Siberia to be beaten, starved, and worked to death if not immediately shot.
Mao Tze Tung sent his prisoners to “re-education farms” to be beaten, starved, and worked to death if not immediately murdered. 
Trump probably has the same general idea, the way the rest of his politics are reading.

Hitler invaded half of Europe to push his master race idea. He was pretty friendly with Stalin until he decided to invade Russia.
Stalin invaded the other half of Europe for the glory of communism. 
Mao was too busy waging war on his own people to invade anyone else but I’m sure he would have if his army wasn’t otherwise occupied. He was also pretty chummy with Stalin
Stalin is now thankfully dead but Trump is still working that Russian bromance.

Hitler’s policies resulted in the massive destruction of his own country, and the starvation and death of millions of not only his own people (the Jewish ones, anyway) but those from neighboring countries.
Stalin’s policies resulted in the starvation and death of millions.
Mao’s policies resulted in the starvation and death of millions.
We’ll have to wait and see about Trump.  I am not optimistic.

Hitler had a cult following of devoted sycophants, and appealed to millions of Germans who believed in his message of superiority.
Stalin had a cult following of devoted sycophants, and appealed to millions of Soviets, though it was lethal to profess otherwise.
Mao was revered by his people and still is to this day.
Trump appealed to enough Americans to land him in the white house, despite his message of superiority, hate, and offensiveness.

Hitler controlled the media and used it as a propaganda machine.
Stalin controlled the media and used it as a propaganda machine.
Mao controlled the media and used it as a propaganda machine.
Trump wants to control the media.

Hitler was directly responsible for the deaths of over 6 million people.
Stalin was directly responsible for the deaths of 35-50 million people.
Mao was directly responsible for the deaths of over 70 million people.
Trump has time.

Oh, and finally

No one thought Hitler would rise to power.
No one thought Stalin would amount to more than a government thug.
No one thought Mao would be more than a political agitator.
No one thought Trump would win. 

Those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it. 

Edit:  This popped up in my notes again and I noticed a typo.  Typo fixed.  Meanwhile noticed a few of the comments, so

1.) to the people claiming “but Trump never said to kill people!”  Did you watch the news when he said that you must go after the families of terrorists?  Or made pointed references to the 2nd amendment when talking about how his opponent might not even make it to the election?  Or do you have some sort of head-trauma related amnesia?

2.) To the people complaining about comparing Trump to every bad person ever: You must have been absent from school on “Pol Pot and the 2 Million Dead Cambodians” Day, but since American schools aren’t really interested in teaching kids about shit that goes down in countries that aren’t American and/or white unless Americans are somehow involved to play hero in, I’ll give you a pass. 

3.) and finally to the “But Stalin/Mao created lots of jobs and a decent economy” brigade,  Honey.  Sweetheart.  No.

And related to #3, In a purely hypothetical situation in which one demographic is bitterly complaining about a different demographic stealing its jobs… if you have someone come along who wants to undertake a massive construction project to keep the second demographic out of its playground so that the first demographic has more job opportunities and also wants to make the second demographic build it and pay for it….isn’t that kind of creating more job opportunities that the first demographic claims they’re stealing?

Oh right.  I forgot.  The first demographic thinks jobs like that are beneath it and therefore don’t count as “real” jobs.  My bad.

4

New study documents aftermath of a supereruption, and expands size of Toba magma system

The rare but spectacular eruptions of supervolcanoes can cause massive destruction and affect climate patterns on a global scale for decades - and a new study has found that these sites also may experience ongoing, albeit smaller eruptions for tens of thousands of years after.

In fact, Oregon State University researchers were able to link recent eruptions at Mt. Sinabung in northern Sumatra to the last eruption on Earth of a supervolcano 74,000 years ago at the Toba Caldera some 25 miles away.

The findings are being reported this week in the journal Nature Communications.

“The recovery from a supervolcanic eruption is a long process, as the volcano and the magmatic system try to re-establish equilibrium - like a body of water that has been disrupted by a rock being dropped into it,” said Adonara Mucek, an Oregon State doctoral candidate and lead author on the study.

“At Toba, it appears that the eruptions continued for at least 15,000 to 20,000 years after the supereruption and the structural adjustment continued at least until a few centuries ago - and probably is continuing today. It is the magmatic equivalent to aftershocks following an earthquake.”

This is the first time that scientists have been able to pinpoint what happens following the eruption of a supervolcano. To qualify as a supervolcano, the eruption must reach at least magnitude 8 on the Volcano Explosivity Index, which means the measured deposits for that eruption are greater than 1,000 cubic kilometers, or 240 cubic miles.

When Toba erupted, it emitted a volume of magma 28,000 times greater than that of the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington state. It was so massive, it is thought to have created a volcanic winter on Earth lasting years, and possibly triggering a bottleneck in human evolution.

Other well-known supervolcano sites include Yellowstone Park in the United States, Taupo Caldera in New Zealand, and Campi Flegrei in Italy.

“Supervolcanoes have lifetimes of millions of years during which there can be several supereruptions,” said Shanaka “Shan” de Silva, an Oregon State University volcanologist and co-author on the study.

“Between those eruptions, they don’t die. Scientists have long suspected that eruptions continue after the initial eruption, but this is
he first time we’ve been able to put accurate ages with those eruptions.”

Previous argon dating studies had provided rough ages of eruptions at Toba, but those eruption dates had too much range of error, the researchers say. In their study, the OSU researchers and their colleagues from Australia, Germany, the United States and Indonesia were able to decipher the most recent volcanic history of Toba by measuring the amount of helium remaining in zircon crystals in erupted pumice and lava.

The helium remaining in the crystals is a remnant of the decaying process of uranium, which has a well-understood radioactive decay path and half-life.

“Toba is at least 1.3 million years old, its supereruption took place about 74,000 years ago, and it had at least six definitive eruptions after that - and probably several more,” Mucek said. “The last eruption we have detected occurred about 56,000 years ago, but there are other eruptions that remain to be studied.”

The researchers also managed to estimate the history of structural adjustment at Toba using carbon-14 dating of lake sediment that has been uplifted up to 600 meters above the lake in which they formed. These data show that structural adjustment continued from at least 30,000 years ago until 2,000 years ago - and may be continuing today.

The study also found that the magma in Toba’s system has an identical chemical fingerprint and zircon crystallization history to Mt. Sinabung, which is currently erupting and is distinct from other volcanoes in Sumatra. This suggests that the Toba system may be larger and more widespread than previously thought, de Silva noted.

“Our data suggest that the recent and ongoing eruptions of Mt. Sinabung are part of the Toba system’s recovery process from the supereruption,” he said.

The discovery of the connection does not suggest that the Toba Caldera is in danger of erupting on a catastrophic scale any time soon, the researchers emphasized. “This is probably ‘business as usual’ for a recovering supervolcano,” de Silva said.

It does emphasize the importance of having more sophisticated and frequent monitoring of the site to measure the uplift of the ground and image the magma system, the researchers note.
“The hazards from a supervolcano don’t stop after the initial eruption,” de Silva said. “They change to more local and regional hazards from eruptions, earthquakes, landslides and tsunamis that may continue regularly for several tens of thousands of years.

"Toba remains alive and active today.”

As large as the Toba eruption was, the reservoir of magma below the caldera is much, much greater, the researchers say. Studies at other calderas around Earth, such as Yellowstone, have estimated that there is between 10 and 50 times as much magma than is erupted during a supereruption.