massive black holes

the signs as fake quotes my weird cousin has attributed to famous authors

aries: as oscar Wilde once famously said, ‘fuck men’

taurus: i believe it was percy shelley who wrote ‘why cry over spilled milk when instead u could cry over everything

gemini: you can lead a horse to water, but u can’t make the horse drink that fucking water if it wants vodka instead. sun tzu said that.

cancer: y’know, steinbeck once screamed ‘death to capitalism’ while setting himself on fire, and i couldn’t agree more.

leo: i was trying to think of a hemingway quote, but thankfully i just remembered that i don’t give a shit about hemingway

virgo: Flintstone vitamins are for losers. William shakespeare.

libra: did you know that that nicki minaj took the lyrics “i beez in the trap” straight from jane austen’s iconic 1813 novel pride and Prejudice?

scorpio: maya angelou actually invented the acronym NSFW, did u know that? 'Not Safe From Whites’. they’re coming

sagittarius: the most inspirational thing walt whitman ever said was ‘dance like nobody’s watching’ that man was a poet

capricorn: ‘be there or be…gay! lol jk don’t be gay’ ~ the bible, chapter 5 verse 17

aquarius: honey, as Faulkner said once, ‘eat shit mark twain’. words to live by

pisces: nietzsche once said that dante was a ‘hyena that wrote poetry on tombs’ and i’m not making that shit up because nothing is funnier than that

Your fave is problematic: Black Holes
  • has no integrity: is a star that was too massive to become a neutron star at its death. therefore lost its shit and its core collapsed. 
  • rude, clingy predator: nothing escapes a black hole. the escape velocity is greater than the speed of light, so neither matter or light can escape.
  • is so complicated that there are lots of misconceptions around it: people often think a black hole is like a huge space vacuum cleaner. 
    • however,  their gravity is only really intense very close to them.
  • people also sometimes think the Sun could become a black hole:
    • however, a star needs several times the mass of the Sun to become a black hole at its death!
  • fucks with space and time: space-time! 
    • warps the “fabric” of space-time so much that when you would fall in a black hole, a spectator would literally see you fall forever (if they could)
    • they couldn’t see you because you would turn invisible (gravitational red-shift)
  • is the literal end of a star. whatever happens in a black hole, stays in a black hole.
  • crazy pasta-lover: a stellar-mass black hole has tides so darn strong that if you fell into one, the force on your feet would be millions of times stronger than the one of your head. IT WOULD SPAGHETTIFY YOU. 
    • this is a real scientific term btw
  • makes even scientist argue: so god damn hard to understand that some scientists even argue that the event-horizon (a crucial part to understand a black hole) might not exist as we know it
  • summary: weird, RUDE PREDATOR who confuses the shit out of everyone and doesn’t even respect space or time!
theguardian.com
Edge of darkness: looking into the black hole at the heart of the Milky Way
It would take a telescope as big as a planet to see the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. But a team of scientists think they know how to do it
By Robin McKie

Ladies and gentlemen: we’re going to be taking a picture of the Milky Way’s black hole (Sagittarius A) using a camera the size of the Earth called the Event Horizon Telescope.

Also discussed: Interstellar’s Gargantua, M87′s juggernaut (one of the most active super-massive black holes on record), and how taking a picture of Sagittarius A is going to use at least 10,000 laptops worth of information. It will take at least nine months to compile the first images.

Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core

Astronomers have uncovered a supermassive black hole that has been propelled out of the center of a distant galaxy by what could be the awesome power of gravitational waves.

Though there have been several other suspected, similarly booted black holes elsewhere, none has been confirmed so far. Astronomers think this object, detected by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, is a very strong case. Weighing more than 1 billion suns, the rogue black hole is the most massive black hole ever detected to have been kicked out of its central home.

Keep reading

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A few villain characters I’ve been developing!

They’re all black holes, and work for another massive black hole queen. They’re all really creepy in their own ways and I’m having fun figuring out their personalities C:

boom-kaka-laka  asked:

Hey :) I don't want to be annoying or anything but I was wondering if you could recommend some books or websites were I could learn more about space.. I have huge interest in it but I don't really know much about anything from the astro field >_<

Since space always has a bunch of crazy shit going on in it, I’ll just take a bunch of random bookmarked links I have and throw them at you!

Books:Videos:Space Image Galleries: Cool Online Programs:Random Articles:
the types as Things
  • ENFP: drinking ketchup to cope
  • INFP: Nicholas Sparks' The Notebook
  • ENTP: Nicholas Sparks' The Notebook on a skateboard
  • INTP: a single oyster, wrapped in over five thousand feet of embroidered satin, drifting across the fabric of space and time, and making its way towards the event horizon of a super massive black hole
  • ESFP: crying yourself to sleep
  • ISFP: crying in general
  • ESTP: crocodiles, a fuckton of them
  • ISTP: the inexplicable urge to correct your friend's already correct grammar paired with the uncertainty of death
  • ESFJ: Using the :) emoticon to hide the sneaking suspicion that everyone close to you has been replaced by something sinister but virtually identical
  • ISFJ: Latte foam and misanthropy
  • ESTJ: a pair of rival neighbors crashing their retractable awnings into each other during a rather uncomfortable outdoor luncheon with friends
  • ISTJ: three correctly aligned printer cartridges in an incorrectly aligned universe
  • ENFJ: suspicious hand gestures and solar flares
  • INFJ: a brief summary of someone else's existential grief
  • ENTJ: fighting against time, gravity, and the frustration of a broken hole puncher
  • INTJ: screaming into a bowl of clam chowder and your prayers going unanswered

What Is Dark Matter?

There is as yet no answer to this question, but it is becoming increasingly clear what it is not. Detailed observations of the cosmic microwave background with the WMAP satellite show that the dark matter cannot be in the form of normal, baryonic matter, that is, protons and neutrons that compose stars, planets, and interstellar matter. That rules out hot gas, cold gas, brown dwarfs, red dwarfs, white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes.

Black holes would seem to be the ideal dark matter candidate, and they are indeed very dark. However stellar mass black holes are produced by the collapse of massive stars which are much scarcer than normal stars, which contain at most one-fifth of the mass of dark matter. Also, the processes that would produce enough black holes to explain the dark matter would release a lot of energy and heavy elements; there is no evidence of such a release.

The non-baryonic candidates can be grouped into three broad categories: hot, warm and cold. Hot dark matter refers to particles, such as the known types of neutrinos, which are moving at near the speed of light when the clumps that would form galaxies and clusters of galaxies first began to grow. Cold dark matter refers to particles that were moving slowly when the pre-galactic clumps began to form, and warm dark matter refers to particles with speeds intermediate between hot and cold dark matter.

This classification has observational consequences for the size of clumps that can collapse in the expanding universe. Hot dark matter particles are moving so rapidly that clumps with the mass of a galaxy will quickly disperse. Only clouds with the mass of thousands of galaxies, that is, the size of galaxy clusters, can form. Individual galaxies would form later as the large cluster-sized clouds fragmented, in a top-down process.

In contrast, cold dark matter can form into clumps of galaxy-sized mass or less. Galaxies would form first, and clusters would form as galaxies merge into groups, and groups into clusters in a bottom-up process.

The observations with Chandra show many examples of clusters being constructed by the merger of groups and sub-clusters of galaxies. This and other lines of evidence that galaxies are older than groups and clusters of galaxies strongly support the cold dark matter alternative. The leading candidates for cold dark matter are particles called WIMPs, for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. WIMPs are not predicted by the so-called Standard Model for elementary particles, but attempts to construct a unified theory of all elementary particles suggest that WIMPs might have been produced in great numbers when the universe was a fraction of a second old.

A typical WIMP is predicted to be at least 100 times as massive as a hydrogen atom. Possible creatures in the zoo of hypothetical WIMPs are neutralinos, gravitinos, and axinos. Other possibilities that have been discussed include sterile neutrinos and Kaluza-Klein excitations related to extra dimensions in the universe.

GRAVITATIONAL WAVE KICKS MONSTER BLACK HOLE OUT OF GALACTIC CORE

Astronomers have uncovered a supermassive black hole that has been propelled out of the center of a distant galaxy by what could be the awesome power of gravitational waves.

Though there have been several other suspected, similarly booted black holes elsewhere, none has been confirmed so far. Astronomers think this object, detected by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, is a very strong case. Weighing more than 1 billion Suns, the rogue black hole is the most massive black hole ever detected to have been kicked out of its central home.

Researchers estimate that it took the equivalent energy of 100 million supernovas exploding simultaneously to jettison the black hole. The most plausible explanation for this propulsive energy is that the monster object was given a kick by gravitational waves unleashed by the merger of two hefty black holes at the center of the host galaxy.

First predicted by Albert Einstein, gravitational waves are ripples in space that are created when two massive objects collide. The ripples are similar to the concentric circles produced when a hefty rock is thrown into a pond. Last year, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) helped astronomers prove that gravitational waves exist by detecting them emanating from the union of two stellar-mass black holes, which are several times more massive than the Sun.

Hubble’s observations of the wayward black hole surprised the research team. “When I first saw this, I thought we were seeing something very peculiar,” said team leader Marco Chiaberge of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and Johns Hopkins University, in Baltimore, Maryland. “When we combined observations from Hubble, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, it all pointed towards the same scenario. The amount of data we collected, from X-rays to ultraviolet to near-infrared light, is definitely larger than for any of the other candidate rogue black holes.”

Chiaberge’s paper will appear on March 30 in Astronomy & Astrophysics.

Hubble images taken in visible and near-infrared light provided the first clue that the galaxy was unusual. The images revealed a bright quasar, the energetic signature of a black hole, residing far from the galactic core. Black holes cannot be observed directly, but they are the energy source at the heart of quasars – intense, compact gushers of radiation that can outshine an entire galaxy. The quasar, named 3C 186, and its host galaxy reside 8 billion light-years away in a galaxy cluster. The team discovered the galaxy’s peculiar features while conducting a Hubble survey of distant galaxies unleashing powerful blasts of radiation in the throes of galaxy mergers.

“I was anticipating seeing a lot of merging galaxies, and I was expecting to see messy host galaxies around the quasars, but I wasn’t really expecting to see a quasar that was clearly offset from the core of a regularly shaped galaxy,” Chiaberge recalled. “Black holes reside in the center of galaxies, so it’s unusual to see a quasar not in the center.”

The team calculated the black hole’s distance from the core by comparing the distribution of starlight in the host galaxy with that of a normal elliptical galaxy from a computer model. The black hole had traveled more than 35,000 light-years from the center, which is more than the distance between the Sun and the center of the Milky Way.

Based on spectroscopic observations taken by Hubble and the Sloan survey, the researchers estimated the black hole’s mass and measured the speed of gas trapped near the behemoth object. Spectroscopy divides light into its component colors, which can be used to measure velocities in space. “To our surprise, we discovered that the gas around the black hole was flying away from the galaxy’s center at 4.7 million miles an hour,” said team member Justin Ely of STScI. This measurement is also a gauge of the black hole’s velocity, because the gas is gravitationally locked to the monster object.

The astronomers calculated that the black hole is moving so fast it would travel from Earth to the Moon in three minutes. That’s fast enough for the black hole to escape the galaxy in 20 million years and roam through the universe forever.

The Hubble image revealed an interesting clue that helped explain the black hole’s wayward location. The host galaxy has faint arc-shaped features called tidal tails, produced by a gravitational tug between two colliding galaxies. This evidence suggests a possible union between the 3C 186 system and another galaxy, each with central, massive black holes that may have eventually merged.

Based on this visible evidence, along with theoretical work, the researchers developed a scenario to describe how the behemoth black hole could be expelled from its central home. According to their theory, two galaxies merge, and their black holes settle into the center of the newly formed elliptical galaxy. As the black holes whirl around each other, gravity waves are flung out like water from a lawn sprinkler. The hefty objects move closer to each other over time as they radiate away gravitational energy. If the two black holes do not have the same mass and rotation rate, they emit gravitational waves more strongly along one direction. When the two black holes collide, they stop producing gravitational waves. The newly merged black hole then recoils in the opposite direction of the strongest gravitational waves and shoots off like a rocket.

The researchers are lucky to have caught this unique event because not every black-hole merger produces imbalanced gravitational waves that propel a black hole in the opposite direction. “This asymmetry depends on properties such as the mass and the relative orientation of the back holes’ rotation axes before the merger,” said team member Colin Norman of STScI and Johns Hopkins University. “That’s why these objects are so rare.”

An alternative explanation for the offset quasar, although unlikely, proposes that the bright object does not reside within the galaxy. Instead, the quasar is located behind the galaxy, but the Hubble image gives the illusion that it is at the same distance as the galaxy. If this were the case, the researchers should have detected a galaxy in the background hosting the quasar.

If the researchers’ interpretation is correct, the observations may provide strong evidence that supermassive black holes can actually merge. Astronomers have evidence of black-hole collisions for stellar-mass black holes, but the process regulating supermassive black holes is more complex and not completely understood.

The team hopes to use Hubble again, in combination with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and other facilities, to more accurately measure the speed of the black hole and its gas disk, which may yield more insight into the nature of this bizarre object.

Introduction!

Hi everyone! I’m Maya, the new mod. I’m lesbian, she/her pronouns. My personal is @themagicmicrobus I’ll be running the literature portion of the blog from now on. I’m going to be posting both my original work as well as recommendations from other queer writers. 

I’ve always really loved writing, poetry and fantasy mostly. I found that there was a massive black hole where there should be queer characters, and have set out to fix this. If you have any writing that you like by or about queer people, submit it to us! I’m always looking for new things to read.

I’m going to post an original piece weekly on Wednesdays, and do a weekly recommendation every Sunday.

~ Maya ♥︎

What is a black hole?

When a star runs out of nuclear fuel, it will collapse. If the core, or central region, of the star has a mass that is greater than three Suns, no known nuclear forces can prevent the core from forming a deep gravitational warp in space called a black hole.

A black hole does not have a surface in the usual sense of the word. There is simply a region, or boundary, in space around a black hole beyond which we cannot see.

This boundary is called the event horizon. Anything that passes beyond the event horizon is doomed to be crushed as it descends ever deeper into the gravitational well of the black hole. No visible light, nor X-rays, nor any other form of electromagnetic radiation, nor any particle, no matter how energetic, can escape. The radius of the event horizon (proportional to the mass) is very small, only 30 kilometers for a non-spinning black hole with the mass of 10 Suns.

Can astronomers see a black hole? Not directly. The only way to find one is to use circumstantial evidence. Observations must imply that a sufficiently large amount of matter is compressed into a sufficiently small region of space so that no other explanation is possible. For stellar black holes, this means observing the orbital acceleration of a star as it orbits its unseen companion in a double or binary star system.

Searching for black holes is tricky business. One way to locate them has been to study X-ray binary systems. These systems consist of a visible star in close orbit around an invisible companion star which may be a neutron star or black hole. The companion star pulls gas away from the visible star.

As this gas forms a flattened disk, it swirls toward the companion. Friction caused by collisions between the particles in the gas heats them to extreme temperatures and they produce X-rays that flicker or vary in intensity within a second.

Many bright X-ray binary sources have been discovered in our galaxy and nearby galaxies. In about ten of these systems, the rapid orbital velocity of the visible star indicates that the unseen companion is a black hole. The X-rays in these objects are produced by particles very close to the event horizon. In less than a second after they give off their X-rays, they disappear beyond the event horizon.

However, not all the matter in the disk around a black hole is doomed to fall into the black hole. In many black hole systems, some of the gas escapes as a hot wind that is blown away from the disk at high speeds. Even more dramatic are the high-energy jets that radio and X-ray observations show exploding away from some stellar black holes. These jets can move at nearly the speed of light in tight beams and travel several light years before slowing down and fading away.

Do black holes grow when matter falls into them? Yes, the mass of the black hole increases by an amount equal to the amount of mass it captures. The radius of the event horizon also increases by about 3 kilometers for every solar mass that it swallows. A black hole in the center of a galaxy, where stars are densely packed, may grow to the mass of a billion Suns and become what is known as a supermassive black hole.

Act 7, to my understanding

- Rings are thrown in volcano. This kickstarts the production of the new Genesis Frog.

- With the conditions for the new universe met by Echidna, the new tadpole begins to take root in the kid’s original Skaia, as shrunk, held, and then released by Jade. It travels to the center of the hole that John carved out when he extracted The Tumor, which was stopping the kid’s genesis frog from taking root. The Frog emerges, fully grown, and creates a complete new universe.

- Alt Calliope, meanwhile, destroys the Cherub’s Green Sun, and uses it’s power to create a massive, massive black hole, to destroy the old universe into the void, along with herself.

- Vriska, during the fight, deploys Caliborn’s juju, and opens it up. This creates a stable time loop that releases the kids, when they were captured by Caliborn, allowing their beings not to be tied to this universe. This switches the door they are standing in front of to the door to the new universe.

- John opens the door- through his touching the handle, everyone from their session was transported to the new Universe. Yes, everyone. Your favs are fine. (Gamzee might be there too).

- Once in the new Universe, Jade deploys Roxy’s Earth, which was the culmination of their plan- to terraform and live on that with their friends and the carapaces.

- When Lord English attacks the Juju, the door opens- on the other side. Lord English is now trapped inside.

- Using the power of the Green Sun, Alt Calliope destroys the old universe. She and everything else is gone. However, Caliborn destroying the clock means he is unkillable- and the juju is indestructible. So in the old universe, sealed in his own juju, exists Lord English. Forever quarantined to the unknowing void, floating through space.

- The last thing we see, when the kids enter, is an unprototyped kernelsprite, which signifies the circular nature of Homestuck- the “new game plus” if you will. That SBURB will return, somehow, to this new universe, and it will all begin again, eventually.

and that’s my thoughts on the matter thanks to @purplebloodedmajesty for setting this out and talking to me abt it

EDIT: please also refer to bilious-slick’s post that presents a slightly different ending but abt the same