Adélaïde Labille-Guiard(11 April 1749 – 24 April 1803), also known as Adélaïde Labille-Guiard des Vertus, was a French miniaturist and portrait painter.
Adélaïde Labille-Guiard was born in Paris, the youngest of eight children, to a bourgeoisfamily. Her father, the haberdasher Claude-Edme Labille, owned a shop named ‘A La Toilette’ situated in the Rue neuve des Petits Champs in the parish of Saint-Eustache. Jeanne Bécu, the future Madame du Barry, worked in this very shop around the age of eighteen, and would eventually become good friends with Labille-Guiard.
Her older sister, Félicité, whose date of birth is unknown, married the miniaturist Jean Antoine Gros, a notable painting collector, in 1764 in the Saint-Eustache parish of Paris. It is unknown whether Adélaïde kept in touch with Jean Antoine Gros, his second wife, the pastel artist Pierrette Madeleine Cecile Durant, or his son, the famous Napoleonic painter Antoine Jean Gros, following her sister’s death in 1768.
Though Labille-Guiard became a master at miniatures, pastels, and oil paintings, little is known about her training. Much of this lack of information is due to the practices of the time, which dictated that masters (who were predominantly male) should not take on female pupils, as society perceived that they would not be able to follow instruction alongside men.
During adolescence, Labille-Guiard studied miniature painting with the oil painter François-Elie Vincent, a family friend. Vincent’s connections made it possible for her early works to be exhibited at the Académie de Saint-Luc. During this apprenticeship, she would meet her future husband, Vincent’s son François-André Vincent.
After marrying Louis-Nicolas Guiard in 1769, she apprenticed with the pastel master Quentin de la Tour until de la Tour’s marriage in 1774. After the apprenticeship, she exhibited one of her pastels of a magistrate at the Académie de Saint-Luc. She would continue displaying her works at the Académie until it closed in 1776. After that, she would display her works at the Salon de la Correspondance.
At the age of twenty, Labille-Guiard married Nicolas Guiard, a clerk with the Receiver General of the Clergy of France. The marriage contract, signed 25 August 1769, acknowledged that Labille-Guiard was a professional painter at the Académie de Saint-Luc.
The couple separated in 1777, and by 27 July 1779, were officially separated. Both kept the property they had had prior to entering marriage, since separation of property already existed under the Old Regime. After Revolutionary legislation permitted, they divorced in 1793, but Labille-Guiard retained the name Guiard, and remains known to the art world as Labille-Guiard. Thereafter, she earned a living by teaching painting.
On 8 June 1799, Labille-Guiard remarried. She married the painter François-André Vincent, winner of the Prix de Rome in 1768 and a member of the Royal Academy.
The Académie de Saint-Luc and the Salons up to 1782
Labille-Guiard was admitted to the Académie de Saint-Luc in 1769 by François-Elie Vincent when she was twenty years old. Her admission piece, a miniature, has since disappeared, and no descriptions or records of its existence have survived to this day. Through the Académie de Saint-Luc, which was notable for its numerous female members—it had 130 women by 1777—Labille-Guiard was able to practice art professionally.
She first exhibited her art in 1774 at the Académie de Saint-Luc’s Salon. After that exhibition, Labille-Guiard’s works would often be compared against those of Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, one of Labille-Guiard’s contemporaries and a fellow member of the Académie de Saint-Luc.
This show was so successful that the Royal Academy took offense, and with the backing of the monarchy, issued an edict in March 1776 abolishing “guilds, brotherhoods, and communities of arts and crafts”. The Académie de Saint-Luc closed its doors in 1777.
At that point, Labille-Guiard began to learn oil painting from her childhood friend François-André Vincent so she could apply to the Royal Academy, which required her to present at least one oil painting for admission.
After the closure of the Académie de Saint-Luc, Pahin de la Blanchisserie established the permanent fair, Salon de la Correspondance, in 1779. For a small fee, artists outside the Royal Academy could exhibit their works. One year after its opening in 1781, Labille-Guiard chose to display some of her pastels, including her self-portrait in pastel and oil portraits of her husband and Guillame Voiriot, a teacher at the Royal Academy, which were well received by critics.
Labille-Guiard’s talent as an oil painter and pastellist was quickly noticed, and with the help of François-André Vincent, who referred several of his friends in the Royal Academy to her for portraits, including Joseph-Marie Vien, the professor Bachelier, his friend Suvée, and the aforementioned Voiriot, she achieved national recognition and was accepted as a member of the Royal Academy.
Acceptance into the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture
On 31 May 1783, Labille-Guiard was accepted as a member of the French Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture. Three other women, including Élisabeth-Louise Vigée-Lebrun, were admitted as members on the same day.
The paintings of Labille-Guiard and Vigée-Le Brun were often compared by critics, with Vigée-Le Brun usually receiving more favorable reviews. Labille-Guiard’s early masterpiece Self-portrait with two pupils, exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1785, was influenced by Vigée-Le Brun’s style. The artwork of Adélaïde Labille-Guiard is now considered of equal or greater value.
Patronage by the aunt of Louis XVI of France, the princess Marie Adélaïde, gained Labille-Guiard a government pension of 1,000 livres and commissions to paint Adélaïde, her sister Victoire-Louise, and Élisabeth, the king’s sister. The portrait of Adélaïde, exhibited in 1787, was Labille-Guiard’s largest and most ambitious work to that date. In 1788 she was commissioned by the king’s brother, the Count of Provence (later Louis XVIII of France), to paint him at the centre of a large historical work, Réception d'un chevalier de Saint-Lazare par Monsieur, Grand maître de l'ordre.
These royal connections made Labille-Guiard politically suspect after the French Revolution of 1789. In 1793 she was ordered to destroy some of her royalist works, including the unfinished commission for the Count of Provence.
She was far from conservative, however. In the early 1790s she campaigned for the Academy to be reopened to women. At the Salon of 1791 she exhibited portraits of members of the National Assembly, including Maximilien Robespierre and Armand, duc d'Aiguillon.
In 1793 she and her first husband, from whom she separated in 1777, were divorced. In 1795 she obtained artist’s lodgingat the Louvre and a new pension of 2,000 livres. She continued to exhibit portraits at the Salon until 1800. On 8 June 1799, she married her teacher, François-André Vincent, after which she signed some of her paintings “Madame Vincent”. She died on 24 April 1803.
APRIL Book Club features are selected by Seattle authors and community members. This month’s pick comes from Tara Atkinson, the Managing Director and co-founder of APRIL and the author of Bedtime Stories (alice blue books) and Boyfriends, forthcoming from Instant Future. She tweets at @t_m_at.
For awhile I thought a lot about literature making someone feel less alone, after something David Foster Wallace said. It’s a concept that’s easy to imagine in large brushstrokes, but large brushstrokes are always crowding something out. The Last Days of California doesn’t leave anything out and that is what I like so much about it. The narrator, Jess, is traveling with her mom and dad and sister, to California, for the rapture, and she sort of believes the rapture might happen, but she still thinks about her phone and dating, still has conversations with her family about the small towns they drive through, still notices the counter at the Waffle House is sticky or thinks about how hotel towels are different from the towels at home. I’ve been in all-consuming situations and still thought idly about what I’d have for dinner and I’ve been trapped on a bus, bored, then suddenly thinking of a serious topic, just to forget all about it and start worrying about my shirt as soon as my stop came up. That texture of inner life, captured so well in The Last Days of California, feels so rare and real and complete and reassuring when I get to read it. And I did get to! In this book!
In August, the APRIL Book Club will meet Sunday, 8/9 at 4pm by the fountain in Cal Anderson Park.
Louise d’Orléans, Queen of Belgium (1812-1850), painted by Franz Xaver Winterhalter ca. 1841 Louise of Orléans (Louise Marie Thérèse Charlotte Isabelle; 3 April 1812 – 11 October 1850) was a Princess of Orléans and was Queen consort of the Belgians as the last wife of King Leopold I. She is an ancestor of the present King of Belgium, Italian Royal Pretender (Prince of Naples), the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and the present Prince Napoléon - head of the Imperial House of France.Louise and Leopold had four children, including Leopold II of Belgium and Empress Carlota of Mexico.
M A R A U D E R S | Mary April Macdonald (April 14th, 1961 - March 23th, 1979)
She was bold and radiant as the sun. No matter when Sirius needed someone, Mary would be there. No matter when James needed a hand with hitting on Lily, she would be the one around to tell the red haired to give it a chance. No matter when Remus was feeling low, she would go an play a prank until he would find strenght to laugh. No matter when Peter would trip, she would purposely fall along with him and laugh for hours. Because those were golden years, those were the good memories. She was more alive than anyone - and when she left, the clouds ate the sun.
We all recall the Anonymous piece posted on Mary Sue in April about Disney’s failure to release merchandise featuring females for Marvel, Star Wars and all “boy-centred” franchises.
While there have been some rumblings of adding more Black Widow “next year”, it’s time to put Phase Two in effect.
What’s Phase Two?
Phase Two is when we become more proactive. We don’t just whine about it on Twitter, Tumblr and other social media. Instead, we’re going to make positive complaints and other actions.
A positive complaint is telling a company how “if you made a product with Black Widow, Ahsoka Tano, America Chavez, etc., then, I would BUY it!” It’s a way of complaining about how they don’t currently make those products and they’re losing out on your money. This can also be done about Frozen and “princess” entities not being marketed towards boys. Everything should be for everyone.
We need to contact these companies by email, postal box, phone, fax, owl post, telepathy, dragon, etc. CONSTANTLY about how much we want these products. If a specific company is doing a good job or has a product you greatly enjoy, tell them so.
Look at Disney’s own rule for how their suppliers should use their brand: “Reflect a diversity of cultures and backgrounds in our entertainment experiences for kids and families”
How are they respecting diversity when the majority of Marvel products are male Caucasians? Even Star Wars have regressed in their product line. The Star Wars Digital Release Commemorative Collection has 24 action figures and only ONE! female which isn’t even Princess Leia.
It’s 200 pages, including smaller companies to contact. Licensees pay a lot of money and spend a lot of time to be able to make and sell Disney properties so they only want products that will make them a lot of money. We have to prove to them that providing products for all genders in all areas will make them a lot of money.
While we wait, go on Redbubble, welovefine, zazzle, CafePress, etc. and design and buy the merchandise they won’t bother manufacturing. Buy or combine forces with someone with a printer or 3D printer or t-shirt printing capabilities to make stuff that way.
Also, make your own kick-ass characters on screen, print, film, whatever you desire, just make it happen and share it with the world.