Martin Luther King Jr. stands in front of a bus at the end of the Montgomery bus boycott. Montgomery, Alabama December 26, 1956. (Photo Credit: Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images)
Martin Luther King Jr is arrested by two white police officers in Montgomery Alabama on September 4, 1958. (Photo Credit: Bettman/Corbis)
Civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. sits in a jail cell at the Jefferson County Courthouse in Birmingham, Alabama. October 1967. (Photo Credit: Bettman/Corbis)
Dr. King (left) and Stokely Carmichael (right) walk together during the March Against Fear in Mississippi June, 1966. (Photo Credit: Flip Schulke/Corbis )
Martin Luther King, Jr. and his wife, Coretta, lead a five-day march to the Alabama State Capitol in Montgomery in 1965. (Photo Credit: Bettman/Corbis)
Martin Luther King leading march from Selma to Montgomery to protest lack of voting rights for African Americans. Beside King is John Lewis, Reverend Jesse Douglas, James Forman and Ralph Abernathy. March 1965. (Steve Schapiro/Corbis)
Rev. King waves to the crowd at the March on Washington, August 28,1963. (Photo Credit: Bettman/Corbis)
20-year-old Bernie Sanders organizing a protest against segregated university housing at his Alma mater, the University of Chicago in 1962
“We feel it is an intolerable situation when Negro and white students of the university cannot live together in university-owned apartments,” Sanders said at the protest. Sanders and 32 other students then entered the building and camped outside the president’s office, performing the first civil rights sit-in in Chicago history
Sanders is one of only two sitting United States Senators who was personally in attendance at Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech. The other was Senator Mitch McConnell.
On this day in 1960, 34 brave students from Virginia Union University staged a sit-in at a segregated lunch counter in Thalhimer’s Department Store (which stood at Broad and 6th Street), after a campus visit from Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. All thirty-four were subsequently arrested, in the first mass arrest of the civil rights movement of 1960, and became known across the country as the Richmond 34.
The 34 challenged their convictions and took their case all the way to the national Supreme Court, where the conviction was overturned in a legal victory for civil rights nationwide.
The names of the Richmond 34 are: Elizabeth Patricia Johnson, Joanna Hinton, Gloria C. Collins, Patricia A. Washington, Barbara A. Thornton, Lois B. White, Thalma Y. Hickman, Celia E. Jones, Carolyn Ann Horne, Marise L. Ellison, Virginia G. Simms, Frank George Pinkston, Charles Melvin Sherrod, Albert Van Graves Jr., Ford Tucker Johnson Jr., Leroy M. Bray Jr., Wendell T. Foster Jr., Anderson J. Franklin, Ronald B. Smith, Larry Pridgen, Woodrow B. Grant, Joseph E. Ellison, Gordon Coleman, Milton Johnson, Donald Vincent-Goode, Robert B. Dalton, Samuel F. Shaw, Randolph A. Tobias, Clarence A. Jones, Richard C. Jackson, George Wendall Harris Jr., John J. McCall, Leotis L. Pryor, and Raymond B. Randolph Jr.
Halle (Saale) in Sachsen-Anhalt, Eastern Germany. Its university is one of the oldest in Germany. The city is situated along the river Saale; Leipzig is only 35 km away. Halle’s early history is connected with harvesting of salt. The name reflects early Celtic settlement given that ‘halen’ is the Brythonic (Welsh/Breton) word for salt (cf. 'salann’ in Irish). The name of the river Saale also contains the Germanic root for salt. Salt-harvesting has taken place here at least since the Bronze Age (2300-600 BC). The town was first mentioned in AD 806. It became a part of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg in the 10th century and remained so until 1680, when Brandenburg-Prussia annexed it together with Magdeburg as the Duchy of Magdeburg, while it was also an important location for Martin Luther’s Reformation. According to historic documents, the city of Halle has been a member of the Hanseatic League at least since 1281.
I think America must see that riots do not develop out of thin air. Certain conditions continue to exist in our society which must be condemned as vigorously as we condemn riots. But in the final analysis, a riot is the language of the unheard. And what is it that America has failed to hear? It has failed to hear that the plight of the Negro poor has worsened over the last few years. It has failed to hear that the promises of freedom and justice have not been met. And it has failed to hear that large segments of white society are more concerned about tranquility and the status quo than about justice, equality, and humanity. And so in a real sense our nation’s summers of riots are caused by our nation’s winters of delay. And as long as America postpones justice, we stand in the position of having these recurrences of violence and riots over and over again. Social justice and progress are the absolute guarantors of riot prevention.
Martin Luther King Jr. (“The Other America” speech at Standford University)
The old children’s song about marching ants is a good explanation for why traffic engineers love them.
Ants – most are teeny creatures with brains smaller than pinheads – engineer traffic better than humans. Ants never run into stop-and-go-traffic or gridlock on the trail. In fact, the more ants of one species there are on the road, the faster they go, according to new research.
Researchers from two German universities, the Universities of Potsdam and the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, found a nest of black meadow ants (Formica pratensis) in the woods of Saxony. The nest had four trunk trails leading to foraging areas, some of them 60 feet long. They chose a small area and set up a camera that took time-lapse photography, and recorded the ants coming through the zone.