marriage of the dauphin


Eyewitness Views: Making History in Eighteenth-Century Europe

From Paris to Venice to Rome, Europe’s most iconic cities have played host to magnificent ceremonies and dramatic events—and artists have been there to record them. During the eighteenth century, princes, popes, and ambassadors commissioned master painters such as Canaletto and Panini to record memorable moments, from the Venetian carnival to eruptions of Vesuvius, inspiring what became the golden age of view paintings.

Eyewitness Views: Making History in Eighteenth-Century Europe is on view at the Getty Museum through July 30, 2017.

The Scarlet Pimpernel: Sir Percy Blakeney [ENFP]

OFFICIAL TYPING by Charity / the Mod

Extroverted Intuition (Ne): Percy conceals his feelings behind a veil of indifference, superficiality, and mockery aimed at society’s preoccupation with shallow superficiality; he is quick to banter with others, engage them in “mindless” word games, and entertain them with hilarity, poetry, and pretentiousness. He pretends to indulge in trivialities while working behind the scenes to manipulate circumstances to his advantage. Since his disguises and methods of getting aristocrats out of Paris are never the same thing twice, he drives the French secret police mad trying to anticipate his next move or catch him in the act. His idealism leads him to fall in love with the idea of Marguerite, then reject her when disillusioned. Percy’s imagination and ability to focus on the big picture (saving as many lives as he can) is an asset in his work as the Pimpernel, but also a determent since it makes him unaware of his wife’s unhappiness, much less her true nature.

Introverted Feeling (Fi): When Marguerite expresses concern that they are “moving too fast” in their relationship, Percy retorts, “My heart dictates the pace.” He uses his prejudgment of Chauvelin, and his loathing of the man’s politics, to taunt, tease, and humiliate him, in order to get out his own feelings of contempt. Percy strongly identifies with the French aristocracy (as a British aristocrat) and strives to save them through whatever means possible. His reluctance to control the behavior of the members of his League leads him to make a near-fatal mistake (Fi’s belief that “no one should be forced to do anything they don’t want to do”). Percy reacts strongly on moral grounds when he hears Marguerite has betrayed someone to his death, and feels justified in treating her harshly as a result. When confronted with something he agrees with, rather than lie and defend his wife’s honor, he remains silent.

Extroverted Thinking (Te): Percy frequently loops out of his emotions, preferring to put aside his failing marriage in order to focus on an objective goal: getting the Dauphin out of France. His ability to come up with a plan without much forewarning helps keep him and his friends alive. He uses information always for a reason: to assist him in his goals. Percy organizes a large group of agents in France and England, comes up with rescue plans, and sets limitations and standards for the body as a whole. He undertakes a long-term façade and executes it with precision, taking advantage of each situation, always with an eye on the consequences. But he can be caustic, offensive, and even cruel to Marguerite, when he believes she has behaved immorally.

Introverted Sensing (Si): His entire façade is built around a man preoccupied with his own appearance, fussy about the details of his garments, and entertained by the mundane details of life, parties, and social expectations – but Percy is actively mocking all of these things. When it comes to recalling former situations, or amassing information about people that would help steer his intuition in the right direction, he fails – he believes the lies about Marguerite (attaching to someone else’s story or idea – Ne) rather than forming an impression over their shared interactions (Si). He underestimates Chauvelin. All his mistakes are because he cannot interact well with his sensory environment, in an uncontrolled setting (his failed escape attempt).

24th April 1558 saw Mary Queen of Scots marry the French Dauphin, François de Valois, at Notre Dame in Paris.

1548 the five-year-old Mary was sent to her grandmother Antoinette of Guise in France, where her Scottish entourage was considered appallingly barbarous and swiftly got rid of, and she was brought up as a Catholic Frenchwoman. French became her first language, she always called herself Marie Stuart and she loved dancing and hunting. She grew up delightfully charming, graceful and attractive, the French fell in love with her and Henry II of France resolved to marry her to his son and heir, the sickly dauphin Francis. A marriage treaty was signed with the Scots, which provided that Scotland and France should eventually be united under Mary and Francis as one kingdom. There were also secret agreements, which the youthful and inexperienced Mary signed, that would have made Scotland a mere adjunct of France.

Mary was fifteen and Francis fourteen when they were married with spectacular pageantry and magnificence in the cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, by the Cardinal Archbishop of Rouen, in the presence of Henry II, Queen Catherine de’ Medici, the princes and princesses of the blood and a glittering throng of cardinals and nobles. The Duke of Guise was master of ceremonies. Mary in a white dress with a long train borne by two young girls, a diamond necklace and a golden coronet studded with jewels, was described by the courtier Pierre de Brantôme as ‘a hundred times more beautiful than a goddess of heaven … her person alone was worth a kingdom.’ The wedding was followed by a procession past excited crowds in the Paris streets to a grand banquet in the Palais de Justice with dancing far into the night.

Mary became Queen of France when Henry II died the following year, but Francis died prematurely in 1560. Whether the marriage was ever consummated is uncertain. Mary’s mother also died in 1560 and it suited the French to send her back to Scotland and claim that she was the rightful queen of England as well. 

She would eventually meet political and romantic disaster in Scotland, enduring years of imprisonment in England where, too dangerous a threat to Elizabeth’s throne, she was executed in 1587, at the age of forty-six.

The picture is of Francis and Mary from the Book of Hours of Catherine de’ Medici  which was created in the early 1570, although would have been put together through many years beforehand, Catherine was an Italian noble who was Mary’s Mother in Law.


Queens of England + Mary I of England (1516-1558)

Mary was born in February 1516, the only surviving child of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. As a princess, she was well educated and by the age of nine could read and write Latin. Throughout her childhood, her father negotiated potential marriages with the Dauphin of France, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and Francis I. They were all broken off for various reasons.

Mary’s status was thrown into jeopardy when her father sought to divorce Catherine. By 1531, Catherine had been banished from court and Mary was forbidden to see her. In 1533 her parents’ marriage was declared legally void and Henry married Anne Boleyn. Mary was then deemed illegitimate and was styled “The Lady Mary” rather than Princess. Anne’s daughter, Elizabeth, took Mary’s place in the line of succession. Her household was dissolved and she was sent to join the household of her infant sister.

Mary refused to acknowledge Anne that was the queen or that Elizabeth was a princess, enraging her father. He kept her movements restricted and she was frequently ill, which the royal physician attributed to “poor treatment.” The relationship between Mary and Henry disintegrated to the point that they did not speak to each for three years. Despite both of them being ill, Henry still would not allow Mary to see her mother and she was inconsolable when Catherine died in 1536.

Anne Boleyn fell from favor in the same year of Catherine’s death and she was executed. Mary’s sister Elizabeth joined her in the downgraded status of “Lady” and was also removed from the line of succession. Henry soon married Jane Seymour who urged him to make peace with Mary. She was eventually bullied by her father into signing a document that would acknowledge him as head of the Church of England, acknowledge that her parents’ marriage was unlawful, and accept her illegitimacy. Reconciled on Henry’s terms, Mary was allowed to resume her place at court and was granted a household. In 1537, Jane gave birth to a son, Edward, and Mary was made godmother. When Jane died soon after the birth, Mary was the chief mourner at her funeral.

In 1539, Mary was courted by Duke Philip of Bavaria, but he was Lutheran and Mary a strict Catholic so the suit was unsuccessful. Her father married again in 1540 to Anne of Cleves but the marriage was annulled only months later. As a Catholic, she watched her father execute her old governess and godmother, the Margaret Pole, the Countess of Salisbury, on the pretext of a Catholic plot in 1541. After Henry’s fifth marriage to Catherine Howard failed and she was executed, Mary was invited to attend the royal Christmas festivities and serve as hostess since Henry was without a consort. It was her father’s last wife, Catherine Parr, that succeeded in convincing him to return both of his daughters to the line of succession after their brother with the Act of Succession 1544. However, Mary and her sister were both still legally illegitimate.

Henry died in 1547 and rule passed to Edward VI. His regency council attempted to establish Protestantism throughout the country but Mary remained faithful to Catholicism and defiantly celebrated traditional mass in her own chapel. She stayed on her estates for most of Edward’s demands and a reunion with both of her siblings at Christmas in 1550 ended in tears when he embarrassed her by publicly reproving her for ignoring his laws. Neither of them ever gave concessions to the other.

Edward died in 1533, and because he did not want Mary to succeed him and undo his religious reforms, he planned to exclude her from the line of succession. He ended up excluding both of his sisters from his will and instead named Lady Jane Grey as his successor. Knowing of his plans, Mary fled to her estates to find support from Catholic adherents and wrote to the Privy Council with orders for her proclamation as Edward’s successor. Mary and her supporters assembled a military force and the faction that supported Jane Grey collapsed. After nine days of being queen, Jane was deposed and eventually executed. Mary rode triumphantly into London in August 1553, accompanied by Elizabeth and a procession of over 800 nobles and gentlemen. She was crowned at Westminster Abbey in October, and became England’s first undisputed queen regnant.

In her first Parliament, Mary abolished her brother’s religious laws and had the marriage of her parents declared valid. Parliament later repealed the Protestant religious laws and returned the English church to Roman jurisdiction. This led to the revival of the Heresy Acts, and numerous Protestants were executed under it, a total of less than 300 people. These actions eventually led to her being called “Bloody Mary,” despite the fact that her father himself had executed tens of thousands of people during his reign.

In 1554, Mary wed Prince Philip of Spain, the only son of her cousin Charles V, and it was unpopular marriage with the English people. She desperately wanted an heir to keep the Protestant Elizabeth from succeeding her but she would only have two false pregnancies and no children. She was forced to accept that Elizabeth would be her lawful successor.

In January 1558, Mary’s reputation suffered a blow when she lost Calais, England’s last remaining possession on the European mainland after several months of conflict between Spain and France. Despite an ultimately ineffectual rule, Mary did begin policies of fiscal reform, naval expansion, and colonial expansion that would later be lauded as Elizabethan accomplishments.

She died in May 1558 during an influenza epidemic and her will stated that she wished to be buried next to her mother but she was interred in Westminster Abbey. Her sister would later be buried next to her. (x)

There is a holy card of St. John the Baptist, one of Antoinette’s patron saints, which she gave to her main femme de chambre, Thérèse Durieux and her sister Barbe Durieux, as a token of farewell. The sisters were members of the Archduchess Antoine’s entourage, who are mentioned in the letters of the Empress Maria Theresa to the Marquise d’Hennezel.  She was to leave the maids behind in Austria. The card was given to them on the occasion of Antoine’s marriage-by-proxy in April 1770 in Vienna in which she became the Dauphine of France. Her words to her maids are, in Latin and incorrect French:  

Auspice Deo / Soyez persuadée chere Durieu que je penserai toujours a vous et que ne n’oubliere jamais les peines que vous avez eu avec moi c’est dont vous assure / votre tres fidele / Antoine Archiduchesse

Auspice Deo literally translates “Under the auspices of God” which means not only having faith in God but to trustingly place one’s destiny in the hands of God. A rough translation of the rest of the message reads:  “Be persuaded, dear Durieu, that I will think always of you and the pains you have taken with me, may this assure you. Your very faithful, Archduchess Antoine.” One can only imagine the trouble the handmaid went through with her turbulent adolescent charge while preparing Antoine to leave her home forever and become a future Queen of France.

Marie-Antoinette, Daughter of the Caesars: Her Life, Her Times, Her Legacy - Elena Maria Vidal

moonlightcombustion  asked:

Hey could you please do a type contrast between ENFP and ISFP because I'm trying to figure out which I am. I think I might be ISFP because I'm pretty sure I have inferior Te because I'm quite impulsive and I don't usually think things through and I used to like to have things in control and to behave according to rules. I've always typed myself as ENFP before though or very initially I also thought I was INXP. I looked on ur type contrast page and couldn't see this one so I thought I'd ask!

Someone out there is laughing at me. My phone literally hit me with this ask 35 seconds after The Scarlet Pimpernel ended and I watched it with an ISFP.

Why does that matter, you might ask? Well, Percy is an ENFP and Marguerite is an ISFP. Go watch it. It’s worth it, I promise. It stars Anthony Andrews and Jane Seymour. The plot is about a British aristocrat (ENFP) who goes under the alias of “The Scarlet Pimpernel” to rescue people from the French Revolution and winds up falling in love with a French actress (ISFP), who is then manipulated by her ex-boyfriend (INFJ) into trying to find out the identity of the Pimpernel.

As a Ne-dom, Percy has a few excellent things going for him, and a few pitfalls.

One, he’s absolutely hilarious and can snark at the drop of the hat. He enjoys manifesting his feelings through barbs, insults, innuendos, and suchlike, often to express his contempt for the current state of French politics (”You should send your tailors to the guillotine!“ he quips, dissing French fashion; Chauvelin says, “We shall send our king instead, and exalt our tailors,” and Percy retorts with, “Alas, then tailors will rule the land and no one will make the clothes. So much for French fashion!”)

Two, he keeps the larger picture in focus at all times and manages to stay one step ahead of his adversary – this is Ne/Te, allowing him to innovate on the fly just enough to keep ahead of Chauvelin; he engages “plans” and easily sets them into motion, he delegates tasks to subordinates, and he argues rational reasons why they must remain a small group and incognito.

Three, he can revise his plans and abandon all former ones at the drop of a hat, which in the end saves his neck because he had a few minutes to scheme.

Four, he is largely concerned with philosophical abstractions – even though he is using them for mockery much of the time, the real focus of his jabs is the sensory world (he’s pretending to be “the most idiotic fop” in England, for the greater good, because he self-identifies with the French aristocracy - Fi) – fussing about clothing, mocking French fashion, and over-exaggerating his feminine traits to throw people off (emphasis on low Si).

Being so laid back and trusting his ability to get himself out of messes has its disadvantages – Percy almost gets himself killed because he permits one of his League to disobey his orders – his strong sense of Fi (“I am not your boss, and you must do what you believe is right”) is almost his undoing, and his lower Te prevents him from stepping in to lay down the rules, which would have been for everyone’s greater good. His Ne is naive and idealistic – he underestimates how dangerous Chauvelin is due to personal dislike (Fi), and underestimates how dangerous individual situations can be. His Ne’s “we’ll wait and see what happens, and I can revise it later if need be” isn’t always in his favor.

His low Si is also a pain when it comes to believing a piece of information about the woman he loves. Percy has such a poor connection to his own sensory impressions that he cannot contrast and compare what he’s told about her actions with the woman he knows (stronger Si required) and thus believes the ideas he hears (Ne) and retreats into himself, emotionally – he tries to hide “his contempt” but cannot really manage it (Fi).

Since there are two introverted feelers at the heart of this story, there’s a huge presence of misunderstandings, lack of communication, the inability to be frank with one’s feelings as things happen, and the inevitable frustration that comes from each person pulling away from the other to process their feelings, when it might resolve everything if they just… talked.

If Percy is the idealist, Marguerite is the realist who sees more than Percy because she pays attention with Se and interprets with Ni. Early on, strangely drawn to him despite his foppish behavior, she asks him, “Are you an actor too, playing in some strange charade?” She knows he’s lying to her, and to society, but cannot put her finger on why; she senses the shift in him when he believes something about her that isn’t true and says he “wears THE MASK (his fake self) in private now, as well as public.” This is her Fi/Ni loop, sensing Percy is not being authentic to his true self in others’ presence and intuiting his reason why – he must be hiding something because he doesn’t trust me.

Her intuition isn’t quite strong enough to figure out that he’s the Pimpernel, until she sees a visual representation of the Pimpernel symbol and associates it with her husband (Se). She is willing to accept him as he is, though it frustrates her (Fi-dom, disinterested in changing another person; Percy expresses his open disapproval in a much more brutal tert-Te manner, intended to punish her for her perceived wrongdoing and in so doing, change her). She reacts to his coldness by pulling away. Marguerite is offended that he will say nothing in her defense when the accusations become public – society’s opinion matters to her less than that he doesn’t believe her, nor intend to forgive her; and instead of telling him it’s all a lie, she stops confiding in him altogether. Since she isn’t an extrovert, she’s far less confrontational and cutting than he is, when she’s upset (she never confronts him with aggression or demands answers for his strange behavior, but rather tries to appeal to his better Fi-nature).

She isn’t as good at innovating on the run as he is, because he’s an extrovert and has stronger Te, but her impression of who she is, who he is, and who Chauvelin is, is much more grounded and realistic than his (”You shouldn’t tease Chauvelin; he’s very important in the government” = he’s dangerous, Percy, and whatever game you are playing, you need to stay out of his way).

She aligned with the Revolution until it became something she disagreed with, and could no longer morally support, then her Fi slammed on the brakes and she ceased any involvement. She refuses to pretend to be anything she is not. Percy is more willing to compromise who he is, behind a facade; he puts aside his pride and loops out of his emotions as much as he can, in order to deal with what is in front of him (even as his marriage falls apart, Percy focuses on “getting the Dauphin out of France”).

So, in short:

Percy’s Ne is naive and idealistic and he relies on it a lot, reasoning he’ll deal with that problem when he gets there; he falls back on strong Te to get things done, but all the mistakes he makes are sensory-based (underestimating people and situations, making failed escape attempts, etc). His lack of a strong connection to a stable Fi (it’s under Ne’s influence) means he can dismiss his love for Margot, and show her nothing but contempt, disapproval, or a false side of his nature (Te and Ne).

Marguerite prefers to take things at face value (Se) unless something tugs at her subconscious awareness and informs her that this person is dishonest, hiding part of themselves, pulling away from her, or malicious in nature (Fi/Ni). SHE is the one who tells Percy that their romance is moving too fast (he responds, “My heart dictates the pace” – aw, such a romantic sap he is), and because personal integrity is so important to her, it pains her a great deal that he is being inauthentic to himself and to others (Fi) until she understands why.


On October 23 1295 the “Auld Alliance” treaty was signed between John Balliol, King of Scots, and Philippe IV of France.

The history of the old alliance between France and Scotland, better known as the “Auld Alliance”, is unique in the history of nations because there is no equivalence in terms of duration and intensty.

The formal part of this alliance is mainly linked to a succession of military treaties, renewed reign after reign (20 times between 1326 and 1558). The culmination was during the Hundred Years War and particularly with the Scots troops who disembarked at la Rochelle (up to 30 000 soldiers) in the period 1419-1429 and played a major role, beside the dauphin Charles and Joan of Arc, in the recovery of the French territory.

But in 1295, date of the oldest treaty recorded in Paris National Archives, the name was already “Auld Alliance”, and this shows that this alliance was far older. Some historians claim that it went back to the VIII th century with Charles Martel and Charlemagne. Legend suggests the Auld Alliance (or Vieille Alliance if you are French) originated in 809, when a Scots king named Achaius or Eochaid allegedly agreed to help Charlemagne fight the Saxons.

This alliance also had cultural and commercial aspects. The Scottish students went to French universities such as Paris, Orléans, Bourges, Montpellier, and the first Scottish universities, Saint Andrews and Aberdeen, were designed upon French university model.

By the XVIth century and through general letters of naturality, granted by kings of France and kings of Scots, French and Scots living abroad had dual nationality.

Scotland was at that time one of the major commercial partners of France, especially regarding the Bordeaux wine called “Claret”, and had a low tax status.

Nowadays France is a major commercial partner for Scotland especially concerning Scotch Whisky.

Over the centuries and still today, France and Scotland have enjoyed strong connections, recently demonstrated by numerous French and Scottish twined towns. My own home town of Loanhead is twinned with Dalum, a town in Denmark, but not many will know that it is also twinned with Harnes in northern France, which also has a strong mining tradition.

Some quotes about the Auld Alliance.

After the Battle of Baugé during the 100 year war in which the Earl of Buchan led a Scots-French army to victory Pope Martin V passed comment by reiterating a common medieval saying, that “Verily, the Scots are well-known as an antidote to the English.”

In 1525, the French Regent Louise de Savoie, Duchesse d’Angouleme, wrote a letter to the Estates of Scotland expressing “the ancient and inviolable love, alliance, federation and affinity, which has been from the earliest times, and is now, between the House of France and that of Scotland.”

And in 1472, Alain Chartier, Chancellor of Bayeux, hoping to unite the countries through the marriage of the dauphin to the daughter of James I, gave the following speech: “We have tested the faith of the Scots in adverse times - a faithful nation, a people most worthy of friendship and renown, tried in manhood, whom we cannot honour enough or praise worthily. Nor is the league between us written in parchment of sheepskin, but rather in the flesh and skin of men, traced not in ink but in blood shed in many places.”

Just over half a 500 years later, in a speech given in Edinburgh in 1942, Charles de Gaulle, leader of the free French, referred to what he believed was ‘the oldest alliance in the world’: “In every combat where for five centuries the destiny of France was at stake, there were always men of Scotland to fight side by side with men of France, and what Frenchmen feel is that no people has ever been more generous than yours with its friendship.” Now, in a world riven by those who would see such unity destroyed and people driven by hatred, it is perhaps most important to remember the spirit of such long lasting friendships. For in these things, people bring out the best in each other.“

On this day in history, 2 June 1420, wedding of Henry V and Catherine of Valois at Troyes Cathedral, France. Catherine was the yongest daughter and 11th child of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria, and the younger sister by 14 years of Richard II second queen, Isabelle. The marriage was first proposed in 1408 when Catherine was 8. Talks and battles continued for a decade, but in 1419 Catherine was granted the unusual opportunity of meeting her future husband when she traveled with her mother and Duke John the Fearless of Burgundy to randezvouz with Henry at Meulan. As stated in the chronicle a king could do nothing less than fall in love at first sight and the “flame of love” blazed in his “martial heart”. The political talks however collapsed and Henry went back to making war in Normandy.On the 20th of May 1420 in Troyes, France in Charles name, Isabeau agreed that on his marriage to Catherine, Henry and not her son, the Dauphin, would become Charles’s heir, and that the french crown would duly pass to their offspring. Upon which Henry kissed Catherine’s hand “joyfully” and on 2 June “the King of the English married Lady Catherine and he willed that the ceremony should be carried out entirely according to the custom of the France”. Henry gave 200 nobles to the church of St.John, and the bride and groom were feasted before being ceremonially put to bed. As Henry was in a hurry to get back to his war he didn’t make a tournament to mark the occasion.

Pictured: Marriage of Henry V of England to Catherine of Valois British Library, Miniature of the marriage of Henry V and Catharine de Valois: Jean Chartier, Chronique de Charles VII, France (Calais), 1490, and England, before 1494,


The title of “Dauphine of France,” was given to the wife of the heir-apparent to the French Throne.

The following are Dauphines of France married to members of the House of Bourbon:

Duchess Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria - Became Dauphine upon her marriage to Louis “Le Grand Dauphin”, eldest son and heir of Louis XIV, on March 7th, 1680. She never became Queen, dying on April 20th, 1690.

Princess Marie Adelaide of Savoy - Was the wife of Louis, “Le Petit Dauphin”. She would become Dauphine on April 14th, 1711, after the death of her husband’s father “Le Grand Dauphin.” She would never be Queen, dying of measles on February 12th, 1712.

Infanta Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain - She was the first wife of Louis Ferdinand, eldest son of Louis XV, and became Dauphine upon their marriage on February 23rd, 1745. She never became Queen, as she died the following year, on July 22nd, 1746, a few days after giving birth to a short lived laughter.

Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony - Was the second wife of Louis Ferdinand, marrying him and becoming Dauphine on February 9th, 1747. She outlived her husband, who died before he could become King on December 20th, 1765.

Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria - The wife of Louis Auguste, she became Dauphine upon their marriage on May 16th, 1770. She became Queen on May 10th, 1774, when her husband’s grandfather died, and he took the throne as Louis XVI.

Princess Marie Therese Charlotte of France - She was married to her cousin, Louis Antoine, and became Dauphine on September 16th, 1824, when his father took the throne as Charles X. I. She would briefly be Queen on August 2nd, 1830, during the 20 minute interval between the time Charles X abdicated and her husband signed the same document.

anonymous asked:

What would of happened if Mary stuart and Francis II of france had a son/other children who would unite Scotland and France. Would they have successfully conquered England?

I must say that I am not sure that the union of King Francis II of France and Mary Queen of Scots could produce any children. It seems that Francis didn’t even hit puberty by the time of his death, which effectively means that Mary is unlikely to have been pregnant during their short marriage.

Francis and Mary’s marriage might have never been consummated, but we cannot know that for certain. According to contemporary sources, there was a bedding ceremony, but nobody knows what happened behind closed doors. This situation reminds me of Catherine of Aragon’s marriage to Prince Arthur, because in this case we will never know whether they slept together or not.

Francis was abnormally short, and he also stuttered while Mary was an excellent conversationalist and was eloquent. His health was very fragile while hers thrived. In addition, he was very inexperienced at 14-16, which didn’t make it easier for him to perform his husbandly duties. Definitely charmed by his wife, the young king might have tried to take Mary’s maidenhead, but, most likely, he failed. I think that they were engaged in some sort of connubial activity, but I doubt that they had full intercourse.

In Retha Warnicke writes about Mary Queen of Scots in Mary’s biography:

“In the early hours of the morning at the Hôtel of Guise, the royal family bedded down the bride and groom, as custom dictated. Scholars have assumed that the chronically ill and physically immature 14-year old dauphin was incapable of consummating the marriage and had probably not done so at his death in December 1560 when he was still 16. Even so, as Mary and her relatives deemed divine intervention necessary for conception, they could petition God to bless this union and make it fruitful. During their short marriage, two interesting but contradictory rumors, both of which lack confirmation, circulated concerning their marital relationship: some diplomats claimed she would never be able to bear children while others surmised that she had a miscarriage.”

Francis died young, at 16, and his health was deteriorating rapidly during the last months of their marriage. Even if we assume that they were intimate and he was able to take her virtue, they might have needed more time so that Mary could conceive. If Francis’ health was really as awful as some historical sources claim, they might have never had children.

However, I tend to think that Francis’ death at young age curtailed the couple’s chances to have children. Maybe if he was older than 16 at the time of his death, he would have reached puberty and Mary could have been pregnant at least once; then she might have had at least one child with him.

In the television series “Reign”, Francis is certainly not like an actual historical character – King Francis II of France. It is said that Francis’ health was fragile in childhood, but he is a healthy young man who had several mistresses throughout the series and who was quite happily married to Mary for some time. He doesn’t even resemble the historical Francis II of France, which surely makes it more appealing and fascinating for the show’s fans. That’s why you shouldn’t think that if Mary and Francis were intimate many times in “Reign”, they also were sexually active in real history.

Francis II was King Consort of Scotland as a result of his marriage to Mary from 1558 until his death. So if Mary and Francis’s marriage hadn’t been childless, their son – if they had a son – would have inherited the crowns of France and Scotland. However, I wouldn’t be bold enough to say that this child could conquer England because we cannot be sure that he would have lived to adulthood and because I cannot believe that England under Queen Elizabeth I could have been conquered by anyone.


The title of “Dauphine of France,” was given to the wife of the heir-apparent to the French Throne.

The following are Dauphines of France married to members of the House of Valois:

Joanna of Bourbon - Became the first Dauphine when her husband, Charles, received the title of Dauphin, the first heir-apparent to the throne to do so on August 22nd, 1350. She would become Queen on April 8th, 1364, when her husband took the throne as Charles V.

Margaret of Burgundy - Was the wife of Louis of Guyenne, one of the sons of Charles VI. She became Dauphine when she married him on August 31st, 1412. She ended up outliving her husband, who died on December 18th, 1415, and thus she was never Queen.

Jacqueline of Holland - She was married to John of Touraine, a son of Charles VI. She became Dauphine when her husband’s older brother died and he became Dauphin, on December 18th, 1415. John would pre-decease her on April 4th, 1417, meaning she never became Queen.

Margaret Stewart of Scotland - Was the first wife of Louis, eldest son of Charles VII, and because Dauphine upon their marriage on June 24th, 1436. She would die unexpectedly on August 16th, 1445, at the young age of 20, before her husband became King, so she was never Queen.

Charlotte of Savoy - The second wife of Charles VII’s eldest son Louis, she became Dauphine when they were married on February 14th, 1451. Her husband became King as Louis XI upon his father’s death on July 22nd, 1461, and she became his Queen.

Catherine de’ Medici - The wife of Henry, second son of Francis I, she became Dauphine when her husband’s older brother died on August 10th, 1536. She became Queen on March 31st, 1547, when her husband took the throne as Henry II.

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots - Already Queen of Scotland in her own right, she became Dauphine when she married Francis, eldest son of Henry II, on April 24th, 1558. She became Queen of France when her husband took the throne as Francis II on July 10th, 1559.


On February 23rd, 1745, Louis, the Dauphin of France, married his first wife, Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain.

The marriage got off to a rocky start, but the Dauphin soon fell very much in love with his wife. Their happiness, sadly, did not last very long. The next year, the new Dauphine gave birth to a daughter, christened Marie Therese and known by the title of Madame Royale.

Maria Teresa Rafaela died three days after the birth, devastating her husband. He had to be physically dragged away from her deathbed by his father, Louis XV.

He was remarried the next year to Maria Josepha of Saxony, and had several children with her, including three future Kings of France. (Louis XVI, Louis XVIII, and Charles X). His daughter by Maria Theresa Rafaela, Marie Therese, died the year after her father’s remarriage.

I will say I think she has a deeper affection, a longer-lasting affection, for Francis. I’ve always looked at the show as, because other girls will be married too, at some point, and when you’re married in the sixteenth century, it can mean a lot of different things. What it usually means is your marriage is forever, but because your marriage is forever, there are plenty of different versions of a marriage, and when you look back at characters, you don’t know if they loved each other deeply, but they grew estranged because of their obligations, or if they loved each other deeply and were able to stay together, or they never loved each other at all but lived their true relationship life with someone else. But I believe that Mary and Francis deeply love one another.

‘Reign’ Showrunner Laurie McCarthy on Mary and Francis relationship.

(Source: E!)

Why I support Bash, and no longer love Frary like I did

*Remember this is my opinion. I’m looking at this as objectively as possible*

Things are kind of crazy in the Reign fandom at the moment. The Mash shippers are sad, and the Frary shippers are ecstatic. Shots are being fired left and right.

Here’s my opinion on the matter, and I will put it under a cut so I don’t clog your dash. But take a read, because I would love the hear opinions on both sides.

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