mark the evangelist

3

 25 April – Blessed and Holy Solemnity of St Mark the Evangelist (1st century -martyred 25 April 68 at Alexandria, Egypt) Evangelist, Martyr, Missionary, Preacher, Teacher, friend and assistant to St Peter, St Paul, cousin of St Barnabas – also known as John Mark – Patronages: against impenitence, against insect bites, against scrofulous diseases, against struma, struma patients, attorneys, lawyers, barristers, captives, imprisoned people, glaziers, lions, notaries, prisoners, stained glass workers, Egypt, Ionian Islands, Arezzo-Cortona-Sansepolcro, Italy, diocese of, Arica, Chile, diocese of, Cortona, Italy, diocese of, Infanta, Philippines, prelature of, Venice, Florida, diocese of, 45 cities – Attributes:  lionm lion in the desert, bishop on a throne decorated with lions, man helping Venetian sailors, man holding a book with pax tibi Marce written on it, man holding a palm and book, man with a book or scroll accompanied by a winged lion, man with a halter around his neck, man writing or holding his gospel, rescuing Christian slaves from Saracens, winged lion.   Major shrine – Venice, Italy

.

St. Mark was an evangelist, or Gospel writer.    In fact, he was the pioneer in Gospel writing.    His is the shortest and the oldest of the Gospels.   Little is known of Mark except from the New Testament.    He was not one of the twelve apostles but was a member of the first Christian community. Mark had firsthand experience of the early Church and apostolic life.    He was a traveling companion and assistant of Paul and Barnabas on the first missionary journey.    Something happened to Mark on that journey, perhaps homesickness, so he returned to Jerusalem.    The incident caused a quarrel between Paul and Barnabas. Barnabas, Mark’s cousin, was sympathetic toward Mark but Paul would not hear of Mark accompanying them again.    Later Paul and Mark must have been reconciled, because when Paul wrote to Timothy during his final imprisonment, he asked for Mark’s help.

Like another Gospel writer Luke, Mark was not one of the 12 apostles.    We cannot be certain whether he knew Jesus personally.    Some scholars feel that the evangelist is speaking of himself (so he then did know Jesus) when describing the arrest of Jesus in Gethsemane:  “Now a young man followed him wearing nothing but a linen cloth about his body.    They seized him, but he left the cloth behind and ran off naked” (Mark 14:51-52).   Mark’s Gospel was a great contribution to the Church.   It included oral and written tradition concerning the words and deeds of Jesus.    Mark probably secured some of his material from St. Peter.   He shows Jesus as the suffering Son of God.    Mark knew that to accept the Risen Jesus meant to come to terms with the cross.    Jesus was glorified because he willingly allowed himself to suffer death for our salvation.    Mark writes that anyone who wishes to follow Jesus must accept the cross.

Mark wrote to proclaim the Good News to a community of both Jewish and Gentile Christians.   His Gospel is direct and simple to read.    He speaks to Christians about Jesus, who understands their difficulties and sufferings and will one day bring them to share with him eternal joy and glory.

Traditionally Mark is thought to have been founder and bishop of the church of Alexandria, Egypt, where he was martyred.

Over the years artists have given a symbol to each of the evangelists.    Mark’s symbol is a winged lion because his Gospel begins with the story of John the Baptist who, like a roaring lion, called people to repent.   The lion derives from Mark’s description of John the Baptist as a “voice of one crying out in the desert” (Mark 1:3), which artists compared to a roaring lion.    The wings come from the application of Ezekiel’s vision of four winged creatures to the evangelists.

A guide for the Persona highschool symbols:

SHIN MEGAMI TENSEI IF…:
SMT if…’s title and perhaps even the idea of the game taking place at a highschool derives from if…. (written with 4 dots, the game is written with 3 dots) a 1968 British drama film produced and directed by Lindsay Anderson.
It is a satire of English public school life and stars Malcolm McDowell. Otherwise there aren’t any similarities between the game and the movie.

MEGAMI IBUNROKU PERSONA:
The St. Hermelin school emblem features an ermine.
There is a legend that says that an ermine would rather die than making its white fur dirty in mud. “Malo mori quem foedari“ („Rather die than becoming dirty“) of the order of the Hermelin from Neaple derives from this legend.

The white fur of the ermine (representing purity and innocence) was also used worn by royals and was very valuable. Ermines or rather ermine furs are also used in heraldik.

Actually more interestingly it also features the Chi-Rho, ΧΡ, or ☧ a form of the christogram, which next to the cross and the ICHTHYS fish is one of the oldest symbols for Christ. It is an abbreviation of Χριστός (Christos) or ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ. Since this symbol looks like X and P it could also be interpreted as Pax Christi (Christ brings peace).
Emperor Constantine is said to have had a dream of being ordered to put a "heavenly divine symbol” on the shields of his soldiers. The description of the actual symbol chosen by Emperor Constantine closely resembles a Chi-Rho or a staurogram, a similar Christian symbol. That very day Constantine’s army fought the forces of Maxentius and won the Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312), outside Rome.
Very often you can also see the Alpha, Α or α and Omega, Ω or ω, the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet on depictions of the Chi-Rho just like in St. Hermelin’s depiction. This refers to: “I am the alpha and the omega” from the Revelation (verses 1:8, 21:6, and 22:13).

You can also see a Star of David/Shield of David/Magen David, a hexagram, the compound of two equilateral triangles.
It can mean that humans get their lives from God (triangle on the downside) and return to God (triangle on the upside).
The twelve corners might represent the twelve tribes of Israel.
It might also represent the six days in which God created the world and the middle represents Sabbath.
Unlike the menorah, the Lion of Judah, the shofar and the lulav, the Star of David originally wasn’t an uniquely Jewish symbol and was also used for Talismans (it was inherited from medieval Arabic literature by Kabbalists where it was known as a Seal of Solomon.) The symbol was also used in Christian churches as a decorative motif many centuries before its first known use in a Jewish synagogue.
When the state Israel was founded on May, 14 1948 the Star of David became the emblem of the flag for Israel.

PERSONA 2:
The Seven Sisters High emblem is supposed to look like the Subaru logo however with seven stars instead of six.
Subaru is a name for the Pleiades (however since most people can only see six stars from the cluster there are only six stars on the Subaru logo. There is a legend about a Lost Pleiad.).
Sumaru from Sumaru City is also an old name for the constellation “Subaru”, “Pleiades,” or the “Seven Sisters. They are also known as the Mutsuraboshi (six sisters).

The Seven Sisters uniform is based on the adidas Firebird track suit. The black version with the typical three stripes of adidas does look a lot like the Seven Sisters uniform.

A small excursus for Tatsuya’s leo belt:

Since Tatsuya is a Leo his lion belt hints at him being a Leo.
Since the Tetramorph symbolism is very important in IS due to the Grand Cross you can also add that Mark’s symbol is a lion (since Tatsuya, Jun, Lisa and Eikichi form a Grand Cross with their fixed Zodiacs and with the special Grand Cross spell, Tatsuya would be associated with Mark).
Mark’s lion represents Christ’s royal dignity and Christ as a king.

The walking lion (rampant lion) is also used for PEUGEOT.
However it is way more common in heraldry. It traditionally symbolises bravery, valour, strength, and royalty (lion is the king of the beasts).
The lion is used for Bavaria for example where you can see Lion symbols very often or in Venice due to Venice’s associations with the evangelist Mark.

PERSONA 3:
Gekkoukan High’s emblem looks like the BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke) logo just mirrored and recolored.

PERSONA 4:
Yasogami High’s emblem looks like Mercedes-Benz logo just mirrored and with two additional circles:

PERSONA 5:
CITROËN perhaps/most likely? Asuming this is the school logo of course but we will see in the futrure.

A brief history of Christianity in the African continent

*this post doesn’t touch on how was used in Christianity western colonialism there will be other posts made for that*
[I have tried to make the reading more accessible for people than and also as short as possible]

Christianity emerged in the Levant* around mid-1st century AD. Christianity in Africa began in Egypt around the 1st century, the Coptic Orthodox Church are believed to be the oldest sect of Christianity in Egypt and one the oldest in the continent along with Ethiopian (Christianity in Ethiopia emerged around the 4th century and existed in the country before that)  and many Copts* still practice it today. According to tradition Mark the Evangelist founded the Coptic founded the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Egypt.                                                                                                                                                           The Kingdom of Nobatia which was established in the 3rd century was a Christian kingdom in what is now lower Nubia. Due to Islamization the Muslim population of Nobatia gradually started to rise but still remained Christian until the invasion of the Funj Sultanate of Sennar. The Kingdom of Makuria (what is now Southern Egypt and Northern Sudan) converted to Christianity near the end of the 6th century but after it was invaded by Muslim armies, the kingdom was cut off from other Christian kingdoms, states, christendom and eventually became a Muslim kingdom.With the addition of the Kingdom of Alwa, these three kingdoms are known as the Christian kingdoms of Nubia

The emergence of Christianity in North Africa’s Maghreb was around the 2nd century. Tertullian (who was born to a Roman father and an Amazigh mother – born in what is now Carthage, Tunisia)  is known as the founder of Western theology was on the prominent and influential figures of Christianity in North Africa. Even after his death, Christianity was spreading rapidly all over the Maghreb. 

Kingdom of Kongo (what is known northern Angola, Cabinda, southern republic of Congo and western Democratic Republic of Congo) became a Christian Kingdom in 1491 when King Nzinga converted to Christianity of his own free will. Despite of the conversion many Bakongo* still practiced their traditional religion, some alongside Christianity. Christianity also influenced traditional Kongo religion and neighbouring kingdoms and states around the Kongo kingdom. The Kongo Kingdom was the Christian only pre colonial kingdom and state in Central Africa


The Levant is a historical geographical term referring to an area in the eastern Mediterranean

Copts are ethno-religious group indigenous to Africa who live mostly in Egypt but also Libya and Sudan. 

Bakongo are a Bantu ethnic group who live in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Republic of Angola and the Republic of Congo and are descended from the former Kongo Kingdom

Books:

  • Christianity in the Land of the Pharaohs: The Coptic Orthodox Church by Jill Kamil
  • Coptic Civilization: Two Thousand Years of Christianity in Egypt edited by Gawdat Gabra
  • The Kingdom of Alwa by Mohi El-Din Abdalla Zarroug
  • The Spreading of Christianity in Nubia by Michalowski
  • Medieval Christian Nubia and the Islamic World by Jay Sapulding
  • Tanscontinental Links in the History of Non-Western Christianity by Klaus Koschorke
  • Art of Conversion: Christian Visual Culture in the Kingdom of Kongo by Cecile Fromont
  • The Development of an African Catholic Church in the Kingdom of Kongo, 1491–1750 by John Thornton
  • The Cambridge History of Christianity Volume 2: Constantine to c.600
  • The Disappearance of Christianity from North Africa in the Wake of the Rise of Islam by C. J. Speel
  • Church History: Christianity in Ethiopia by Dale H. Moore