marine organisms

Typically measuring ~88 centimeters (but with recordings found up to 104 centimeters), the venomous golden cow-nose rays migrate in groups of up to 10,000 as they make their way towards their summer feeding grounds in the Gulf of Mexico. 

  • Phylum: Arthropoda
  • Subphylum: Chelicerata 
  • Class: Arachnida 

This is the Diving Bell spider and is the only spider known to live its entire life under water. It breathes air but it does so by trapping air in a bubble and holding onto it with hairs on its abdomen and legs while underwater. This bubble (bell) permits gas exchange with the surrounding water; taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. The spider will spend most of its time in this bubble and very rarely needs to replenish the air thanks to the gas exchange. 

What are scientists up to in your national marine sanctuaries?

In Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, researchers are kicking off an expedition to explore the sanctuary’s deep-sea ecosystems!

Using a remotely operated vehicle, scientists from Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary will explore the sanctuary’s deep-water ecosystems. Photo: Charleston Lab

Located off the coast of Southern California, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary protects remarkable biodiversity, productive ecosystems, and sensitive species and habitats. But more than a quarter of this ocean treasure remains unmapped and little-explored. This month, a research expedition will change that.

Throughout April and May, a team of NOAA-led researchers will explore the sanctuary’s deep seafloor environment. Deep-sea environments like those in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary provide nurseries and habitat for commercially-important species such as lobster, squid, and sea urchins. Some deep coral reefs may also produce chemicals that could be key to the next generation of medicines. However, these habitats are under threat. The two-week cruise on board the NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada will shine a light on how these ecosystems are impacted by a variety of stresses facing them, such as ocean acidification.

When we burn fossil fuels like oil and gas, we release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. When the ocean absorbs this carbon dioxide, chemical reactions occur that reduce seawater pH and the amounts of available calcium carbonate minerals. This is known as ocean acidification. Calcium carbonate minerals are the building blocks for the skeletons and shells of many marine organisms, including deep-sea corals.

Lophelia pertusa (white coral at left and lower-right) is a deep-sea coral that is sensitive to ocean acidification. Photo: NOAA

2014 survey results indicate that corals in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are already experiencing effects from ocean acidification, and waters in this area are projected to become even more acidic. Corals support extensive fish and invertebrate populations, including commercially-fished species, so it is important to monitor the potentially harmful effects ocean acidification has on deep-sea corals. Using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the ocean acidification team will collect samples of Lophelia pertusa, a stony reef-building deep-sea coral found in the sanctuary. Researchers will also monitor water chemistry in and around reefs to help measure local effects of increased carbon dioxide emissions and to assess this ecosystem’s overall vulnerability to ocean acidification.

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Sergeant John Forge:

Sergeant John Forge (Service Number 63492-94758-JF) was a veteran non-commissioned officer and an infantryman in the UNSC Marine Corps. Although he excelled in tactics and combat, his repeated acts of insubordination caused him to receive three demotions, with infractions such as fighting with an officer, (which resulted in 2.4 years in jail time), and striking a superior officer. He sported an ace of spades playing card attached to his left shoulder pauldron, and also carried a combat knife he named “Lucy.”

Early Life:

Born on Earth on May 29, 2501, Forge’s life revolved around the military. His family lineage had been a part of the military for generations, dating as far back as World War II. He joined boot camp at the minimum age 16, where his superiors remarked there was “something special” about him. Forge and his wife fathered a daughter, Lucy Orion “Rion” Forge, around 2525. Although John’s marriage was strained even before the birth of his child, he and Rion would always remain on good terms.

Forge worked a stint as a military policeman on Mars and did some “grunt work” on Epsilon Eridani IV during the Insurrection. However, he hated policing and jumped at the chance to be assigned to Fort Marshall.

Forge was arrested twice during his service. His first arrest was for directly disobeying orders and disorderly conduct. Even though his actions saved four members of his squad, Forge spent a total of 2.4 years in prison, an infraction that removed any chance of moving through Officer Candidate School or even progressing beyond the rank of sergeant.

His second arrest occurred around August 17, 2530. Forge’s then-five-year-old daughter, Rion, and her aunt Jillian were waiting for John in a bar when Lieutenant Prosser started making sexual advances on Jillian. When the lieutenant made a suggestive comment toward Rion, Jillian struck Prosser, prompting him to shove her against a wall. At this point John arrived and confronted the lieutenant. They engaged in a fist fight, with charges brought upon the sergeant. However, Rion proclaimed her father as a hero and all charges were dropped, where he was later reassigned to the UNSC Spirit of Fire by Admiral Preston Cole himself. Spirit of Fire’s commanding officer, Captain James Cutter, came to trust Forge so thoroughly that he granted the sergeant a degree of authority significantly exceeding that afforded by his rank.

Reclamation of Harvest:

In February 2531, Spirit of Fire was sent to assist the crippled Marathon-class heavy cruiser UNSC Prophecy in the Epsilon Indi system. Captain Cutter ordered the Prophecy’s navigation database and survivors to be recovered, sending Forge and multiple Marine fireteams on board the vessel while Spirit of Fire engaged several Covenant ships. Forge’s Pelican dropship was hit by enemy fire and crash landed on the Prophecy’s hull. Forge and Team Lima breached and boarded the Prophecy, whereupon they were attacked by Kig-Yar Rangers. Forge’s ankle was broken during the engagement. With the guidance of Serina, Spirit of Fire’s AI, he was able to find the a terminal to recover the ship’s black box and wipe its navigation core while the rest of Team Lima rescued the ship’s survivors. Serina warned Forge that the Prophecy’s AI may “act peculiar” due to high radiation levels.

Upon scanning his retina to gain access to the terminal, Forge was halted by the ship’s AI, FitzGibbon, who explained he could not allow him to enter due to the latter’s poor service record. Forge reminded the AI of the Cole Protocol, stating that he was aboard the vessel to ensure the protocol would not to be violated. FitzGibbon then reluctantly allowed Forge into the terminal room and enabled radiation repair routines. Forge purged the navigation database and returned to the Pelicans as FitzGibbon activated Prophecy’s self-destruct sequence, which soon scuttled the ship. After the Marines and Forge escaped with the survivors, they were taken to Spirit of Fire’s medical bay. When Forge asked how the survivors were doing, Serina told him that they would all soon die due to all of them suffering extensive radiation poisoning. Forge was angered by the AI’s indifference towards the survivors and comforted them in their final moments, believing that even if they would soon be dead, they were still people and so deserved better.

Forge was sent to the surface of Harvest on his first mission to scout out Covenant activity in the northern polar region of the planet. He drove through Quadrant 4 to find a battalion of Sangheili that an AV-14 Hornet squadron had spotted earlier. Reporting the Covenant activity to his superiors, as to how the aliens had found a a Forerunner structure buried within the ice, he returned to the overrun UNSC Alpha Base, and helped organize scattered Marine units along the way. Forge and his rag-tag assault force were able to retake Alpha Base a short-time later. Before the Relic was demolished by the Covenant, the Forerunner site is captured by Forge and Marine forces. Professor Ellen Anders was then sent to the planet’s surface to personally investigate the relic, and Forge reluctantly escorted her inside.[14] He was present when Anders activated a Forerunner holographic projection of a star map, and protected her when they were ambushed by a team of Sangheili warriors. Spirit of Fire then evacuated most of her ground troops, including Forge, and set course for Arcadia, a UNSC colony planet to which the star map had pointed.[12]

Arcadia:

After arriving at Arcadia, Forge was among the first UNSC troops to set foot in the besieged capital of Pirth City, where he aided the evacuation of civilians aboard three cargo vessels. When the civilian transports took off, Forge and his men abandoned the besieged city and fell back to the outskirts. There, he took part in the destruction of a nearby Covenant base, assisted by Spartan teams Red and Omega. He also participated in the battle to destroy a Covenant energy dome which was protecting an unfinished Type-29 Scarab. After a short battle, the UNSC forces succeeded in destroying the Scarab. While he and Anders were surveying the area, Arbiter Ripa ‘Moramee ambushed them. Forge was swiftly defeated and was about to be killed, until Anders stopped the Arbiter by agreeing to go with him without incident. After Spartan Red Team’s unsuccessful attempt to stop the Arbiter from escaping, they immediately retreated back to the Spirit of Fire. Spirit of Fire then made a slipspace jump in pursuit of 'Moramee’s retreating vessel.

Shield world:

After Spartan Jerome-092 recommended destroying 'Moramee’s ship and killing Anders rather than let classified information fall into Covenant hands, Forge confronted the Spartan. The altercation resulted in a broken chair, a seal malfunction on a bulkhead and a stern interruption from Serina. From then on, Forge and Jerome always ate together in the mess hall.

Upon arriving at a mysterious planet, Forge was sent to the planet’s surface, where he and his forces encountered the Flood. It was soon discovered that the world was not a planet at all, but a Forerunner shield world. Immediately following this revelation, Forge was put in charge of the evacuation of the Spirit’s ground troops and the decontamination of Flood from the ship’s dorsal surface. By chance, he came upon the recently escaped Ellen Anders in the shield world’s interior and escorted her back to the Spirit of Fire.

Forge was then put in charge of the strike team that would deliver the Spirit’s Shaw-Fujikawa Translight Engine to the Apex Site; the SFTE had been rigged as a bomb to destroy the shield world and deny its armada of Forerunner dreadnoughts to the Covenant. Atop the Apex, he once again faced 'Moramee in battle, while the Spartans of Red Team eliminated the Arbiter’s comrades. Although Forge was nearly killed, he overcame his foe at the last minute by tricking the Arbiter to look him in the eye, and then stabbing him in the neck with his prized combat knife, “Lucy”. He then picked up the Arbiter’s energy sword and drove it through the Sangheili’s stomach, killing him. As Alice-130 rolled the Arbiter’s corpse off the platform, Jerome examined the engine, realizing that it had been damaged in the fight.

When it became clear that the damaged slipspace drive would have to be detonated manually, Forge realized that the Spartans would play a far greater role in the war than he ever could. He volunteered to take the FTL drive into the shield world’s artificial star. Forge gave the Spirit’s crew the time they needed to escape the hollow planet and then detonated the drive, sacrificing his own life, but dealing the Covenant a massive blow in the process.

Legacy:

Spirit of Fire was declared lost with all hands on February 10, 2534, though many bereaved family members refused to accept the official statement. On his deathbed, Forge’s father encouraged Rion to keep up the search for the truth regarding the ship’s disappearance. Rion spent the ensuing years seeking closure for her father’s disappearance, eventually becoming a scavenger. In January 2557, she followed a series of leads that pointed to the log buoy Spirit of Fire had dropped at Arcadia, which in turn took her to the remains of Shield World 0459. There she encountered what remained of the former caretaker of the facility, a fragmentary ancilla she later dubbed “Little Bit”, which provided her the trajectory Spirit of Fire had followed when escaping the shield world.

Explore the Museum’s Digital Special Collections for #ThrowbackThursday. English naturalist Philip Henry Gosse advocated studying living organisms in their natural habitats. He spent eight years observing marine communities on the British coastline, and also in aquariums that he constructed at home. Gosse is famous for coining the term “aquarium.” His handbook on how to make and maintain aquariums set off a Victorian craze for collecting and keeping live marine organisms at home. Gosse recommended the ancient wrasse as a species hardy enough for amateur aquariums. Its natural behavior is to lurk under rock ledges, as pictured here.

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Marine aliens by Adolf Schaller, from Terence Dickinson’s Extraterrestrials: A Field Guide For Earthlings. Convergence is a big theme here, environmental pressures dictating superficial similarities to terrestrial forms.

SOME DAY, WHEN I HAVE ENOUGH MONEY, I WILL BUY A NEW SCANNER

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Dr Warhol’s Periodic Table of Microbes, The Small Guide to Small Things

93.  Np. Neptunomonas

You can’t look at Neptunomonas and not think about King Neptune, SpongeBob SquarePants, and the great voicing done by John O’Hurley and Jeffrey Tambor. Well, maybe you can, but I can’t. From the name, you can tell that Neptunomonas is a marine organism, and at the moment there are 7 recognized species.

As you know by now, recurring themes in this Periodic Table are that 1) Microbes are tougher than you; 2) Microbes can live anywhere. Neptunomonas is no exception, as it was first discovered in a highly toxic superfund site in Puget Sound happily munching away amid creosote and coal tar contaminated soil and sediment. Creosote is a tarry preservative that gives old-fashioned fishing piers their characteristic scent, in addition to cut bait. More essential trivia is that the general manager of the creosote company went down on the Titanic, and that their treated timbers were used in building the Panama Canal.

The type species (Neptunomonas napthovorans) was first noted to consume naphthalene, the white crystalline solid better known as the stinky stuff in moth balls. Think about that, these microbes eat moth balls. Other species have been isolated in Antarctica (Neptunomonas antarctica), a dead ark clam in South Korea (Neptunomonas concharum) (OK, ark clams are cool because one species has hemoglobin and red blood, unlike other clams), and as a symbiotic microbe (Neptunomonas japonicus) of the tube worm Osedax japonicus that was living on or near the carcass of a dead sperm whale, all of which were unknown until 2006. The symbiotic microbes enable the worms to eat whale bones. And if that’s not strange enough, yet another species (Neptunomonas phycophila) is a triple symbiont, as it is a symbiont of an algal symbiont (Symbiodinium) of the sea anemone (Aiptasia tagetes).

Neptunomonas cells are Gram negative rods typically measuring around 0.7 to 0.9 microns wide by 2 to 3 microns long.

Get a Periodic Table of Microbes Poster at https://www.etsy.com/no-en/shop/WarholScience.

Follow on Twitter @WarholScience.

Copyright 2017 Warhol.

Years Ago
130,000 
Anatomically modern humans evolve. Seventy thousand years later, their descendents create cave paintings — early expressions of consciousness.

4 million In Africa, an early hominid, affectionately named “Lucy” by scientists, lives. The ice ages begin, and many large mammals go extinct.

65 million A massive asteroid hits the Yucatan Peninsula, and ammonites and non-avian dinosaurs go extinct. Birds and mammals are among the survivors.

130 million As the continents drift toward their present positions, the earliest flowers evolve, and dinosaurs dominate the landscape. In the sea, bony fish diversify.

225 million Dinosaurs and mammals evolve. Pangea has begun to break apart.

248 million Over 90% of marine life and 70% of terrestrial life go extinct during the Earth’s largest mass extinction. Ammonites are among the survivors.

250 million The supercontinent called Pangea forms. Conifer-like forests, reptiles, and synapsids (the ancestors of mammals) are common.

360 million Four-limbed vertebrates move onto the land as seed plants and large forests appear. The Earth’s oceans support vast reef systems.

420 million Land plants evolve, drastically changing Earth’s landscape and creating new habitats.

450 million Arthropods move onto the land. Their descendants evolve into scorpions, spiders, mites, and millipedes.

500 million Fish-like vertebrates evolve. Invertebrates, such as trilobites, crinoids, brachiopids, and cephalopods, are common in the oceans.

555 million Multi-cellular marine organisms are common. The diverse assortment of life includes bizarre-looking animals like Wiwaxia.

3.5 billion Unicellular life evolves. Photosynthetic bacteria begin to release oxygen into the atmosphere.

3.8 billion Replicating molecules (the precursors of DNA) form.

4.6 billion The Earth forms and is bombarded by meteorites and comets.

Credit: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/

Happy Thanksgiving from all of us at NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries! It’s only with your support that we can successfully protect our nation’s precious marine ecosystems, and we are ever-thankful for you. 

We’re also thankful for the expansion of Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, which has granted protection to thousands more marine organisms and many critical habitats. This expansion marked a major conservation success for our ocean, and will help protect endangered species like this cuddly monk seal and green sea turtle for decades to come. 

To all of our friends, partners, and supporters, we wish you a Happy Thanksgiving, and a wonderful holiday season! 

(Photo: Mark Sullivan/NOAA) 

On Tashigi’s Future Role

So, I posted this before but it was choppy so here’s a more organized post. This was inspired by the recent Zou/WCI chapters, with the introduction of Swordsmen like Cracker, Amande, Pedro, and Smoothie.

As I said before, this is the way I see things as of right now:

  1. Swords are increasingly becoming part of the One Piece narrative/plot, especially with Wano nearing 
  2. Tashigi was established as this character who’s main focus is the reclamation of swords from bad people, all the way in Loguetown where her dream was explicitly stated 
  3. As noted in the panel above, Tashigi promised to 1) train harder, 2) travel the world, 3) retrieve all famed swords from criminals 4) vowed to risk her very life to accomplish this. Tashigi’s speciality is swords, but not just any swords, famed swords from bad people ( swords + bad people is a common combination nowadays: Amande, cracker, Smoothie, etc.) - which is why when meitos are mentioned, Tashigi comes into mind in the same way Robin is tied to poneglyphs and Nami to navigation
  4.  Tashigi is a rarity - a female swordsman (one with haki, too) – but slowly but surely these strong female swordsmen are entering the plot (and Oda loves pairing up females with females during fights lol). and Oda said Tashigi will soar. as I said before, swords are now becoming a main plot line. Tashigi is the most reoccurring non-SH alongside smoker, and her role has always been “clouded in mystery” - i.e mainly ambiguous. what is she gonna do? what purpose is she going to serve that will establish her in a unique manner (of course, being a marine captain, woman, and swordman with haki is something exceptional)

It’s annoying seeing Tashigi being treated like fodder (i.e Punk Hazard). But Oda does more than that: he singles her out during arcs, gives her development, and takes it away. He gives her exclusive focus in a cumulative pattern: In Loguetown she was introduced and immediately connected to Zoro, to whom she presented her dream to. In Alabasta Smoker put her in charge, and she was faced with a choice of capturing the SHs and letting Crocodile win, or helping the SHs. In Punk Hazard she sacrificed herself for her crew three times: against Vergo, nearly getting consumed by the gas before her crewmates physically took her to safety, and against Monet. She’s named after a bird that can’t fly. Oda said, “just because they can’t fly now doesn’t mean they never will”. Her name is thus metaphorical; meaning that Tashigi is bound to soar in time. Tashigi’s constant failures aren’t meant to be comedic, they’re meant to complexify her. The fact that a character like Tashigi has been developed and moulded into this deep character with many elements (flaws, dreams, fears, etc.) tells us that she’s important. She wasn’t introduced so early and reintroduced for nothing. What made Tashigi so intent on reclaiming swords from bad guys? What triggered this will? Why did she join the marines? Again, her past is a mystery but the things she says allude to an interesting and possibly chaotic past. There’s also her strange connection to Kuina and Zoro and possibly Wano. To reiterate;

he singles her out during arcs, gives her development, and takes it away

Most of the marines, save the big-shots, are nameless. When it came to Tashigi, Oda made sure to 1) present her dream right from the beginning, 2) establish a connection to the SHs, 3) present her persistent weaknesses 4) clearly illustrate her unique sense of justice that’s distinct from that of the marines as an organization, and 5) isolate her and give her special focus, ergo, Oda has made her into more than a plain antagonist or comedic relief: there’s complexity in the way he presents Tashigi. All the times she cried over her failures, for instance. That alone makes me sure Oda intends something for Tashigi.

Overall, Oda is conveniently introducing swords as this significant plot device (the way devil fruits are) and it’s the perfect thing for Tashigi - the perfect thing to bring her forward, perfect thing to reaffirm her dream, perfect thing to give her character development and tie her more intimately to the plot (esp with wano nearing). swords are a mystery. swordsmen are a mystery; Tashigi, Zoro, Mihawk, Cavendish, Cracker, Amande, Wano, Kuina, etc.

demonicgateway-deactivated20170  asked:

You answered about the UK Teuthologist but what about USA? I'm practically in the same boat as your UK follower, so I was wondering if you knew any in America. Absolutely love your blog btw!! Keep up the good work!!

So before I start, I think it’s important for me to say the following:  You shouldn’t try to get a job with any of these scientists ONLY because you think cephalopods are cool.  Cephalopods are obviously extremely cool, and for most of us that’s what sparked our interest in the first place, but the main drive to do science is deeper than that. Marine biologists are trying to answer very specific questions about the physiology, camouflage, symbiosis, immune systems, behavior, etc. about these animals.  Being successful as a squid biologist requires three main interests.

1) Interest in cephalopods (which I’m pretty sure most followers of this blog have in spades)

2) Interest in the questions this scientist is asking (e.g.  How do squid immune cells recognize specific bacterial species?(Me)  How does the microbial community of the female squid’s accessory nidamental gland protect squid eggs? (Andrea)  How do cuttlefish perceive their world, and then decide what the best camouflage pattern is for the situation? (Roger Hanlon)  Do bacteria colonize animals differently in zero gravity? (Jamie Foster)

3) Interest in the techniques used to answer these questions.  (e.g. Confocal microscopy/Protein purification/ Western Blotting (Me), Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)/Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) /Culturing of environmental isolates/ bacterial growth assays (Andrea), Behavior studies/ Computational processing of camouflage pattern/ fieldwork (Roger)

Working with cephalopods is VERY COMPETITIVE, so you need to make sure you’re building your resume as early as possible.  Get research experience any way you can and educate yourself using peer reviewed literature when you’re at the academic level that you can start to understand it.

So now on to the list of scientists, in no particular order (all underlined names are links to more info about them)

Roger Hanlon (Woods Hole, Massachusetts, MBL) Literally wrote the book on cephalopod behavior. He works on camouflage and how cuttlefish perceive their environment, how they choose what camouflage pattern to use, and also works on the skin structures that contribute to camouflage. There’s an internship program through the MBL that his lab participates in but it’s very competitive.

Margaret McFall-Ngai (Hawaii, University of Hawaii) Margaret is the mother of the squid/vibrio symbiosis. A member of the national academy of sciences, Margaret has been extremely influential in the study of symbiosis. Working for her will be very competitive. She’s a great role model as a powerful woman in science.   Her lab, along with Ned Ruby’s lab, work on many aspects of the squid/vibrio symbiosis.  Many (if not all) of the squid/vibrio community have come through her or Ned’s labs.  Here’s a piece on her from nature blogs written by Ed Yong 

Spencer Nyholm (Connecticut, UConn) Andrea and I work for Spencer, so you’ve probably seen our posts and have an idea of what we do, but I study how squid immune cells recognize specific bacterial species and Andrea studies how the microbial community of the female squid’s accessory nidamental gland can protect squid eggs.

Bethany Rader (Illinois, Southern Illinois University) Bethany is fantastic! She’s super friendly and excitable and just started her lab at SIU. She is one of our collaborators and previously did a post-doc in our lab. She’s working on the same thing I am, the role of the immune system in the squid/Vibrio symbiosis. 

Bill Gilly (California, Stanford) Works on many aspects of Humboldt squid biology.

Josh Rosenthal (Puerto Rico, University of Puerto Rico) Works on RNA editing in squid and octopus.  I’ve heard he’s a really friendly guy but haven’t met him personally (yet).

Charlie Chubb (California, UC Irvine) Charlie is one of the genuinely nicest guys I have ever had the opportunity to work with.  He collaborates with Roger Hanlon, working on “ understanding the processes by which the visible world is constructed by the brain”.  He’s a brilliant scientist and a wonderful guy. His work is all computer based though so there are no physical squid in his lab.

Aran Mooney (Woods Hole, Massachusetts, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) Aran works on many different animals, but squid and cuttlefish are among them.  His synopsis on his website is as follows “Our research is in the sensory biology of animals, primarily marine organisms.  Specifically I am interested in how these animals detect the world around them, what they detect (i.e., what’s important to the organism), and how these animals then relate to their environment (e.g., predator detection, prey localization, habitat identification, and conspecific communication).”

Cheryl Whistler (New Hampshire, University of New Hampshire) Squid/Vibrio symbiosis.  I believe also how microbes have evolved to better colonize animals in beneficial symbiosis.

Jamie Foster (Florida, University of Florida) Working on host/microbe interactions in the squid/vibrio system.  Along with other things, she’s studying the effect of gravity on microbial colonization.   She also works on stromatolites.

Jean Boal (Pennsylvania, Millersville University)  Since Jean is at  Millersville she may not take grad students (I know when I was an undergrad she was not accepting grad students).  She works on cephalopod behavior.

Sheila Castellanoz-Martinez (Mexico) Immune system of cephalopods, specifically octopus.  She’s currently a Post-doc, but may have a lab soon, I really have no idea, I just read a lot of her papers J

Shelley Adamo (Canada, Dalhousie Univeristy) Currently working on insect innate immunity/behaviour but has worked on cuttlefish in the past and may work on cuttlefish in the future.

Maria Castillo (New Mexico, New Mexico State University) Role of the immune system in the squid/vibrio symbiosis

Michele Nishiguchi (New Mexico, New Mexico State University) Evolution and marine symbiosis in the squid/vibrio system

For more information, Tonmo is a great resource for all things cephalopod. They have information about everything from having a cephalopod as a pet to working with cephalopods. Here’s the board on education and employment.

Good luck! Feel free to ask us any more questions!

How do deep sea creatures survive where nutrients are scarce?

‘Marine snow’ is basically organic matter, things like particles of dead algae, plants, and animals, drifting down into the depths and acting as food for deep-sea animals. Largely thanks to that, abundant life forms exist in the darkness, adapting to a harsh reality where only the weird and wonderful can survive. 

Explore more of the deep ocean in the TED-Ed Lesson The otherworldly creatures in the ocean’s deepest depths - Lidia Lins

Animation by Viviane Leezer

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Night Raid

Marine Raiders with 1st Marine Raider Battalion, U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Special Operations Command, transition out of the water during a simulated underwater assault force night-raid in Los Angeles, California, Sept. 3, 2015. Training such as this is conducted to meet Special Operations Forces dive requirements and to enhance the understanding, planning and operational considerations when working in a joint operational environment with both special operations and conventional Marine Corps forces. 1st Marine Raider Battalion is organized, trained and equipped to deploy for worldwide missions as directed by MARSOC in support of their regionally-aligned Theater Special Operations Command. (U.S. Marine Corps Photos by Sgt. Scott A. Achtemeier/Released)

im just remembering the unit we had on deep sea organisms in marine biology and keep thinking how absolutely horrendous and ugly a deep sea dragon would be

would be basically translucent. either has GINORMOUS eyes like squid or itsy bitsy useless ones. uses bioluminescence (fun fact: red bioluminescensce is the rarest, as red has the shortest wavelengths and is basically useless for long distance communication. most deep sea fish can’t see red. which is why some deep sea predators have red “search lights” under their eyes to spot prey that can’t see ‘em coming). is really flat or blob like because high pressure. rarely moves, it’s an ambush predator. can sit still for months until food drifts bye. can’t swim fast, but can strike very quickly. super efficient energy conserving ability.

dont forget the gnarly teeth, flexible and extendable stomach, and random tentacle appendages

pictures of gross and nasty deep sea fish below

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